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in the garrison at Elvas had been suppressed, after a good deal of bloodshed-The English newspapers call for the presence of Don Pedro of Brazil in Portugal, as essential to the stability of the constitution which he has given to the Portuguese.
Russia is still prosecuting, or rather preparing for, military operations against the Persians. It is stated that a Russian force, of about eleven thousand infantry and cavalry, was assembling on the river Aras, or Araxes; and that the Persian troops un. der Abbas Mirza, were at Tabriez or Tauris. In the mean time General Yermoloff, who commenced the war, has been displaced, and another commander with civil pow. ers appointed in his room; and it is conjectured that peace will be made with the Persians under the mediation of Britain.
TURKEY.—The Sultan it appears is determined to adopt no medium measures with the Greeks. He says the Greeks are his subjects, and he will listen to no terms but those of unconditional submission. He is straining every nerve to prosecute the war, and if he prosecutes it to his own destruction, as seems not improbable, we shall not mourn over his fall.
GREECE.-We have been at some loss to make up our minds on the actual state of the Grecian cause. We have so often been deceived by false accounts, and by partial though brilliant successes of the Greeks, that we are slow to credit even what appears to be authentick. We have never believed that Greece would submit to the Turks; but what sufferings may yet await her children we know not. In this view we both hope and fear for her. The favourable circumstances are these-Lord Cochrane has been received by the Greeks with enthusiasm; his declaration that he would not serve them unless they would abandon their civil contests, has caused a union of the parties, by their representatives at Patras. His Lordship’s proclamation is animated, and seems to indicate confidence in the success of their cause, and even the hope that Greece will yet conquer the country of her invaders; but this we know may be no more than a military artifice. The Acropolis of Athens, however, is certainly maintained; and the besieging Turks, although far from being entirely defeated, as was some time since confidently stated, and we fully believed, have no doubt been repulsed with considerable loss. Lord Cochrane, in his proclamation, says, “the fate of the Acropolis is no longer doubtful." His Lordship is gone, or going, on a secret naval expedition, from which, considering bis enterprise and valour, much may be hoped. The Greeks are in spirits, and are receiving supplies of food and clothing from their friends in America and Europe. These are the favourable circumstances. On the other side, the Turkish army before Athens is, we fear, superior to the Greeks in the field, although Lord Cochrane says, " the besiegers in their turn are besieged." That city is still, we apprehend, in imminent danger of the fate of Missolonghi. The Sultan too, as already said, is making the most vigorous efforts, both by land and sea, to subdue the whole country. Meanwhile we hear no more of what Russia, and Britain, and France, intend, or are likely to do, in consequence of the Sultan's refusing their mediation. On the whole, the destiny of Greece is in the womb of time, and our hope for her is in God, and in the reanimated valour of her sons.
ASIA. It appears that a pretty serious rebellion has broken out in China, which the empe. ror finds it not easy to subdue. Much the same occurrence has also recently taken place in the southern part of the Burman empire. Sir Archibald Campbell, with the troops employed in the Burmese war, has returned to India. The rebellious natives in the Island of Java, are still in force, and the Dutch troops find themselves driven to the neighbourhood of the capital, and it seems questionable whether they will long be able to sustain themselves even there. On the first of March the rebels had advanced to within 30 or 40 miles of Samarang. Troops were in patiently looked for from Holland.
AFRICA. The slave trade is still carried on by Spain and Portugal to a great extent. In a sin. gle Spanish vessel, lately captured by a British ship of war, and carried in to Sierra Leone, were found between four and five hundred slaves. The
enterprising traveller Major Laing, is believed to have lost his life in the vicinity of Timbuctoo. Not long since, a letter from his father-in-law in Tunis, announced a rumour of his death, but expressed an ardent hope that it would prove unfounded. The intelligence of his death, however, is considered unquestionable in Britain. The accounts in substance are, that he had reacbed Timbuctoo in safety, and was there well received; but that a wandering tribe of barbarians in the neighbourhood of that place, manifested hostility to him and his escort. These he attempted to elude by disguise, but he and his com. panions were all detected and slain.-It is feared that all his valuable papers have peFished with him.
AMERICA. PERU.—The Bolivian constitution is set aside in Peru. A revolution took place at Lima on the 26th of January. At that time a division of troops of 4,000 men, left there by general Bolivar, rose upon their officers, made them prisoners, and sent
seventeen of those of the highest rank, under a strong guard, to Bogota, to be delivered up to general Santander. This revolution is represented as very popular throughout Peru and Bolivia ; and a new Congress was expected to convene at Lima on the first of May, for the purpose of making a new constitution.
COLOMBIA.—This' republick is in a state of great agitation. On the 10th of April the executive power summoned the Congress of the republick to meet at Tunja
. The decree recites as motives for the measure, the agitations of the republick, the violence of parties, the general distrust and alarm, the reaction or late revolution in Peru, and the derangement of the finances. We admit that some of the late measures of Bolivar seem to wear a frowning aspect on his character; but we trust and believe that he will be able to give such explanations as will at least prove, that if he has erred, he has still been honest. We still hope, with the editor of a Bogota paper, that “he will maintain pure and immaculate his own glory and that of bis country.”
Mexico.—The Mexican Congress has passed a law excluding native Spaniards from employment in any branch of the publick service, till Spain shall have recognised the independence of Mexico; and the legislature of the State of Mexico has forbidden all Spaniards in that State, to wear or use arms of any description, without special license from the governor. This measure is said to be very popular. Commotions, however, still exist in various parts of this extensive republick. The publick autho rities do not seem to be entirely friendly to our own country. The treaties concluded with us, and ratified at Washington, have not been ratified by them.
BRAZIL.--The Emperor Don Pedro, in his speech at the opening of the Brazilian Congress, announces his determination to prosecute the war with Buenos Ayres, and we suspect he will do it to his own destruction. His forces, both by land and sen, have lately suffered greatly, and his resources are nearly exhausted. however, that he is expecting a reinforcement of Irish troops. But he is not only at war with Buenos Ayres: he is in controversy, on commercial subjects, with Britain, France, and the United States. Of these powers he is detaining vesse is with the most valuable cargoes, under idle pretences; and treating the officers and crews of some of them in the most unjustifiable manner. Still he talks to his Congress of organizing systems of finance, establishing an efficient judiciary, and of his friendly relations with other powers. He speaks slightingly of his difference with our government. He denounces all who do not adopt his sentiments as "covert monsters," and is confident that the members of the Congress think as he does. We really believe he would better go back to Portugal.
Buenos Aires.-It now appears that the troops of this Republick have gained decisive advantages in the Banda Oriental, which it seems to us will before long completely establish its independence. The little fleet of this state, (in all respects inferior in the number of its vessels, guns and men to that of Brazil,) has achieved wonders. Its commander, admiral Brown, is certainly an officer of uncommon valour, enterprise and skill. He lately maintained an action of two days and two nights continuance, against the whole Brazilian fleet in the La Plata, although two of his best vessels were aground ; and he appears ultimately to have suffered less than the Bra. zilians. He burned one of his grounded vessels after she had fired 3,200 shot, and returned to port in the presence of his enemies, with his other ships.
UNITED STATES.—The soil and seasons of our country are usually favourable to an abundant produce of all the necessaries of life ; but the promise of a most plentiful harvest was, perhaps, never more flattering than at the present hour. The hay harvest, which was last year uncommonly deficient, superabounds as much the present season; and although'in some places the winter grain has suffered by the fly, yet take the country at large, the prospect of a most profuse in-gathering still remains. The Indian corn likewise promises an abundant crop. The season hitherto has been pecu; liarly favourable to vegetation, and to the health of our citizens. “O that man would praise the Lord for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men." We hope it will appear, that our countrymen will have manifested their sense of gra; titude to God for his goodness, and their desire to free oar country from the sin and the reproach of slavery, by liberal contributions, on our national jubilee, to the funds of the African Colonization Society.
If those of our subscribers who are in arrears for the Christian Advocate for two years, or more, will transmit what is due by an early mail, in bank notes of par value in places where they reside, they will, we assure them, afford us a very important accommodation–The letters ought to be post paid.
LECTURES ON THE SHORTER CATE formed to the image of his Son, that
CHISM OF THE WESTMINSTER AS he might be the first born among SEMBLY OF DIVINES ADDRESSED many brethren: Moreover, whom TO YOUTH
he did predestinate, them he also
called; and whom he called, them LECTURE XXII.
he also justified; and whom he jus
tified, them he also glorified.” We are to begin the present lec Let us now consider the next in. ture with considering the answer to teresting answer in the catechism the 31st question of our catechism, “ Justification is an act of God's which is thus expressed—“They free grace, wherein he pardoneth that are effectually called, do in this all our sins, and accepteth us as life partake of justification, adop- righteous in his sight; only for the tion, sanctification; and the several righteousness of Christ imputed to benefits which, in this life, do either us, and received by faith alone." accompany or flow from them.” In this answer is contained the sum This answer is to be considered and substance of the gospel. It chiefly as introductory to several explains God's method of forgiving answers which follow it. To enter sinners and receiving them into his far into any of the subjects of these favour, as it is revealed in the gosanswers would, you perceive, be pel; and which, but for that reve. only to anticipate what a proper lation, we could never have known. discussion of those topics will de. Here the great problem is solved, mand, when they come in order be- which perplexed and confounded all fore us. All that I shall, therefore, the heathen moralists and philosoremark farther, on the answer now phers, namely, how God can pardon in our view is, that it should serve sin in consistency with his own to impress on our minds this impor- 'honour and glory. Here it is shown, tant truth, -that all the blessings that God can be just, and yet the and benefits of redemption are in- justifier of him that believeth in Je. dissolubly connected,' or linked sus. What wretched folly as well as together; and that they are all in- wickedness is it, for any who call sured to every individual, who is themselves Christians, to deny this effectually called by the grace of doctrine; to ungospelize the gosGod, to that vital union with Christ pel; to throw themselves back into which was described in the last lec- all the darkness of heathenism; to ture. Hear the words of infallible have no ground to hope for pardon, truth-"For whom he did foreknow, but that which is common to them he also did predestinate to be con- and to those who are denominated Vol. V..Ch. Adv.
virtuous pagans. It was well said shown, in a most accurate and saby Luther, that the doctrine of jus- tisfactory manner, what are the tífication before God, by the imput- several senses of this word, both in ed righteousness of Christ alone, is the Old Testament and the Newthe doctrine of a standing or a falling for it frequently occurs in both. church-meaning, that the church And he has most unequivocally which maintains this doctrine, in proved that its forensic or juridical its purity and fulness, will prosper; signification, is not only its primary and that no other can or will. and general sense, but its invariable
You will recollect, my dear youth, meaning, whenever it is used to dethat when we discussed the nature note a sinner's acquittal before his of our Redeemer's priestly office, I God. A single reinark may make showed you, at some length, the this evident. It is opposed to conweakness and fallacy of the objec- demnation—as in that passage " It tions which the enemies of gospel is God who justifieth, who is he that truth bring against the doctrine of condemneth?” Now, as condemimputation ; both as it relates to the nation does never imply the making imputation of the sins of his people of a person guilty, but the sentence to their Surety Saviour, and the im- pronounced on him for being so, in putation of his perfect righteousness like manner, its contrasted term to them. Our attention, at this time, justification, cannot mean the maktherefore, need not be arrested oring of a person righteous, but the interrupted, by removing those ob- declaration that he is righteous. To jections. We may go on without justify a person, then, is not to make delay in the presentation and illus- him righteous, but to declare him to tration of this precious and funda- be so, upon the ground of law and mental truth of the gospel, just as the trial of a competent judge. It it is given to us in the sacred Scrip- is in regeneration and sanctificatures, and expressed in the answer tion, that men are made-as far as before us.
in this life they are ever madeOur first object must be to obtain inherently holy. In justification, a clear understanding of the word they are legally discharged from justification itself. You will, then, the guilt of all their sins. Rebe careful to observe that this is generation and sanctification are what is called a juridical term- graces wrought within us-justifithat is, it is a word used in, and bor- cation is something that takes place rowed from, courts of justice among without us, and is not our act at all, men. When a person who has been but the act of God. These things, arraigned, or brought to the bar, is, therefore, are never to be conupon trial or inquiry, pronounced founded. by the judge to be righteous, and in " It is God that justifieth,” saith open court acquitted and discharg. the apostle. Witsius, in the place ed-such a person is said to be before cited, has excellently shown, justified. Much pains have been that it is God, essentially considertaken by those who are, from various ed in the person of the Father, who reasons, opposed to the gospel doc- is especially the justifier of his peotrine of justification, to show that ple, in respect of judiciary power the word does not always in Scrip- and authority. Bui he also shows, ture carry with it the import of a that our Lord Jesus Christ is likejudicial sentence of acquittal. Wit- wise said to justify, in respect to the sias, in his Economy of the Cove- dispensation or exercise of that nants, under the article justification, power. And that the Holy Spirit an article which will richly reward is said to justify, as making applithe pains of any of you who will cation of the blood or righteousness read it carefully-Witsius has there of Christ, by which we are justified.
Justification, in the answer before persons can be accepted, or any us, is called "an act of God's free blessing of the covenant be confergrace." It is called an act, because, red upon us. like the sentence or decision of a In pardon, it is the guilt of sin judge, it is done and completed at which is removed—that guilt by once; and not carried on gradually which the subject of it is exposed to like a work of time. It is called an eternal wrath as its just reward, for act of God's free grace, because “the wages of sin is death.” Nor this grace is the sole moving cause can the guilt of sin ever return upin our justification.-Thus it is said
on a pardoned and justified believin the very words of inspiration– er. The obligation to punishment “Being justified freely by his grace, being removed, or once taken off, through the reden ption that is in Je can never again recur, according to sus Christ.” If it be asked, how it the economy of grace, because there is an act of free grace, by which we is no condemnation to them that are are justified, since it is through the in Christ Jesus, and whom he loveth redemption that is in Christ ? the he loveth unto the end. In justifianswer is this—The redemption that cation, all past and present guilt is is in Christ, is the channel through pardoned, and the assurance is which justifying grace freely flows given, that new acts of pardon shall unto us. It was infinite grace that be granted after every future transprovided a Saviour; pure grace that gression. But be careful to underled the soul to, and gave it an inte stand this distinctly. The meaning rest in, the Saviour; and therefore, is, that God will always bring the an act of free grace is clearly per- justified believer to deep repentance formed when the sinner is declared and humiliation, for his known of. to be justified in virtue of his righ- fences, and also to the derelicteousness. To the Saviour himself it tion of his sin; and then will grant is indeed an act of strict justice, that him a fresh act of pardon. To my his people should be justified, since apprehension it is perfectly preposhe has paid the full price of it. But terous to speak of sins being parto his people who receive the bene- doned before they are committed. fits of his redemption, it is grace But it is a glorious gospel truth, from the foundation to the top stone. that when God has once pardoned a Justice is indeed satisfied, in all the sinner through Jesus Christ, he extent of its demands; but it is by brings him into a state in which he the provision of God, the work of will never fail to humble him and the Saviour, and the application of bring him to true repentance for his Spirit. From these sources alone every future sin, and then grant all the benefits received in justifica- him pardon for it. And you will tion flow forth to the believer, and accordingly, be very particular in he therefore is plainly the recipient noticing and remembering, that in of the purest grace.
a passage already quoted, the aposIn justification there are two tle explicitly declares—"Whom he parts distinctly noticed, in the an- justified, them he also glorified"swer before us-1. The pardon of The apostle does here unequivoall our sins. 2. The acceptance of cally assert, that all who have ever us as righteous in the sight of God. been in a justified state, will be gloThe first of these is necessary and rified— This leads to the consideraantecedent to the second. By the tion of the 20 thing in justification, pardon of sin God absolves the sin- which is, our being accepted as ner from the condemnation of the righteous in the sight of God. law, on account of Christ's satis Among men, indeed, a criminal faction for sin. For till the sen- may be pardoned, and yet it may tence of the broken law be absolved not be the fact that he is considered by pardon, it is impossible that our as righteous in the eye of the law: