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do what my duty requires.". This the Romanists were obliged to dewas the beginning of that disturb- sist also from attempts of this sort ance; what followed may be learned to deceive so wise a prince. Under from the acts which are published his protection the gospel made a in the following volumes.

happy progress, and was widely In this same year, Philip Melanc- propagated. His example also powthon was invited by prince Frede- erfülly influenced many others, who, rick, to teach the Greek language; knowing that he was a most wise without doubt, that I might have a and discerning prince, were perhelper in my theological labours; suaded that he would never consent and what God wrought by this in- to cherish and defend heresy or hestrument, not in literature only, retical men: which thing brought but in theology, his works sufficient- great detriment to the papacy. ly testify, however Satan and all In this same year, a disputation his adhérents may rage.

was held at Leipsick, to which, EoThe following year, A. D. 1519, in kius challenged Carlstad and mythe month of February, Maximilian self; but I was unable by any letdeceased, and Frederick became by ters, to obtain a safe-conduct from right the viceroy of the empire. The duke George, so that I attended not tempest, now for a while, ceased to as a disputant, but as a spectator; rage, and by degrees a contempt for I entered Leipsick under the for excommunication, or the papal protection of the publick faith which thunder crept upon me; for when had been given to CARLSTAD. But Eckius and Caracciolus brought the what prevented my obtaining a safe. pope's bull from Rome, by which conduct, I never learned, for I had Luther was condemned, the elector no reason to believe that duke was at that time at Cologne, where George was peculiarly inimical to he had gone to receive the newly me. Eckius came to me at the inn, elected emperor Charles, together and said, he understood that I dewith the other princes of the em clined disputing. I answered, how pire. He was much displeased with could I dispute, since I was unable these emissaries of Rome, and with to obtain a safe conduct from duke great constancy and boldness re- George. He said, “ If I cannot disproached them for daring to excite pute with you I will not with Carldisturbances within his government STAD; for I have come hither to disand that of his brother John; and pute with you ; what if I should obtreated them roughly, that they tain a safe-conduct for you? will departed from him with confusion you dispute with me ?” Procure it, and disgrace.

said I, and it shall be done. He This prince, endued with an ex- went away, and in a short time, a traordinary sagacity, understood safe-conduct was delivered to me, well the arts of Rome, and well and permission to dispute. ECKIUS knew how to treat them, for he pos- pursued this course, because he persessed an exquisite discernment, ceived, that in this disputation, he and penetrated into the designs of could acquire great honour and faRome, far beyond all that they fear-vour with the pope, since I had deed or hoped. Therefore, after this nied that he was head of the church they made no farther attempts on by divine right. Here there apthe elector, and were rather now peared to be a fine field open before disposed to flatter and cajole him; him, not only of flattering the pope for in this very year the golden rose, and meriting his favour, but of overas they call it, was sent to him by whelming me with hatred and envy. Leo X.; but the prince despised And through the whole disputation the honour intended for him, and he aimed at these objects; but he even turned it into ridicule; so that was neither able to establish his

own positions, nor to refute mine. we could not be justified and saved At dinner, duke George addressing by works, but by the faith of Jesus Eckius and me, said, " whether he Christ; and although I had pubis pope by human or divine right, lickly contended that the pope was he is pope ;” which, unless he had not the head of the church by divine been somewhat moved by the argu. right, yet the consequence of this I ments which I used, he never would did not see, namely, that the pope have spoken. However, his publick must necessarily be of the devil. approbation was given to Eckius For that which is not of God is of alone. And here see, in my case, necessity of the devil. But I was how difficult it is, for men im 80 swallowed up by the example mersed in errors, to emerge and and title of the Holy CHURCH, and struggle into the light; especially by long custom, that I conceded when error is strengthened by the human right to the pope ; which, example of the whole world, and by however, if it rest not on divine inveterate custom; for, according authority, is a diabolical lie; for to the proverb, "it is difficult to re we obey parents and magistrates, linquish old customs, for custom is not because they command it, but a second nature." And how true is because it is the will of God. Hence that saying of Augustine, “if cus- I can more easily bear with those tom be not resisted it will become who are devoted to the papacy, esnecessity.” At that time I had read pecially if they are persons who the scriptures much in publick and have not had the opportunity of private, and had been for seven reading the scriptures and other years a teacher of others; so that I books, since I myself, after I had had almost the whole contents of for many years most diligently the Bible in my memory, and had, read the scriptures, still adhered moreover, drunk in some begin. tenaciously to the pope. nings of the true knowledge and (The remainder in our next.) faith of Christ, so as to know that

JMiscellaneous

PAILOSOPHY SUBSERVIENT TO RELI ideas upon moral and religious subGION.

jects. Nor has this advantage been

entirely lost; notwithstanding the Essay II.

multiplication of languages, and the (Continued from p. 65.) changes which they have undergone. The use of language, as the me. During their diversified changes, dium for conveying to successive words, expressing moral and religenerations a great variety of moral gious conceptions, continued to conceptions, deserves to be parti form a part of them; and would cularly noticed. Language was therefore be the occasion of suggiven to our first parents by divine gesting these conceptions to the inspiration; and was especially fit. mind, whilst engaged in learning ted to be an instrument of thought them. We may, then, consider and communication on religious language itself as a medium, by subjects. Whilst this language re- which moral conceptions are commained substantially unchanged, it municated through successive gewould be the

source of important nerations. instruction. The mere process of We have reason to believe, that learning its words and phrases, many opinions prevalent among pacould not fail to intimate various gan nations, are the remains of a

primitive revelation handed down tion, that they are not ordinarily by tradition; and preserved with employed as the means of saving greater or less purity among differ- illumination and sanctification. ent nations. The researches of the Man, from his limited knowledge learned have proved, that many of and power, is compelled to form his their notions and rites were origi- purposes according to events as nally derived from divine revela. they transpire; and to employ, for tion and divine institutions. the accomplishment of his purposes,

What would be the precise con- the means that are brought to his dition of mankind, if left, from the knowledge by unforeseen circumbeginning, to the exercise of their stances. But the case is very dif. native powers and resources, with- ferent with God, who knows the out any supernatural instruction, end from the beginning, and whose it is perhaps impossible to deter- resources are infinite. Whatever mine.' But so far as we can judge, purposes are accomplished by any it would seem, that if capable of ex- of his works, we may be assured isting at all, they would be in a they were known and designed condition far more ignorant and de- from the beginning. He does not, graded, than that of any nation of like man, avail himself of unforebarbarians that ever lived upon seen events, and accidental circumearth. The impossibility of making stances. To him there is nothing any considerable intellectual im- fortuitous or contingent. All his provement without the use of lan- designs are eternal and unchangeguage; and the difficulty of invent- able; both in regard to ends, and ing language without this improve- the means of their accomplishment. ment; seem to show the necessity The constitution of the world, of divine teaching for the cultiva- and the arrangements of Divine tion of the human understanding, Providence, may be viewed as an if not for the continuance of the hu- elementary school of instruction, to man race.

prepare our minds for understand. The written word of God is the ing divine truth as revealed in scriponly full and adequate source of in- ture. The constitution and order struction, in regard to those sub- of nature were designed by the alljects which man, as an accountable wise Creator to furnish similitudes and immortal being, is most inte- and analogies; to originate conceprested in knowing. So much is the tions and judgments, which would human mind blinded and perverted admit of an easy transfer to spiby the deceitfulness of sin, by the ritual and divine things. corrupt castoms and maxims of the Thus the relations of society, the world, and by the subtle devices of arrangements of civil government, Satan; that although God has fur- and, in general, the fundamental nished sufficient means of informa laws of the present state of things, tion to all men, to render them ac were designed and adapted to faci. countable for their conduct, and in- litate our conceptions in relation to excusable in not acknowledging and spiritual and eternal things. When worshiping him as the only true therefore, natural things are emGod; yet all men have not that ployed in scripture to illustrate knowledge of God and of his will those that are spiritual, we are not which is necessary to salvation. to imagine that this application was Whatever important purposes the suggested by the accidental simiwisdom of God may accomplish, by larity of some circumstances bethose common notices of his will tween them. We are rather to bewhich he has given, in some mea- lieve, that natural things were consure, to all men; we know from stituted with the express design of scripture and universal observa- answering this, as well as the other

purposes of infinite wisdom. Thus ence, have no other support than an the wisdom of God is conspicuous: unfounded analogy. Ideas are atthe material world is subservient to tached to words in their secondary the intellectual; natural things are and figurative application, which subservient to spiritual ; and tem can only belong to them in that poral to those that are eternal. which is primary and literal. And

These remarks account in the sometimes, through want of proper most satisfactory manner for the attention, words are transferred fact, that the greater part of our from the movements of matter to language, in reference to intellec- the operations of mind, and from tual subjects, is derived from the natural to spiritual things ; although objects of our external senses; and in the latter applications they can that the greater part of our lan- have no distinct meaning whatever. guage, in reference to spiritual and As the constitution of nature is divine things, is derived from natu- adapted to prepare our minds for ral things. From the natural pro- understanding moral and religious cess in which our information is ob- subjects, in like manner, the scriptained, the fact could not be other tures of the Old Testament are wise. Man, as he is at present con- adapted to prepare our minds for stituted, acquires his knowledge by understanding the more full revelaslow and almost insensible grada- tion of divine truth contained in the tions, according to the various occa New. The rites and institutions sions which are presented for calle appointed before the coming of Jeing into operation the powers of his sus Christ, were, to those who lived understanding. Our attention is during that period, types and shafirst directed to material and natu- dows of good things to come; to us, ral things; and the language em- they serve the purpose of suggestployed in relation to them, is after- ing and establishing many imporwards transferred, by analogy, to tant principles, in relation to the those of an intellectual and moral sublime truths of Christianity. nature, as soon as they become the Hence we may see the wisdom subjects of examination and reflec- and goodness of God in providing tion.

those means of instruction which It deserves however to be par are best suited, or rather which are ticularly considered, that this pro- alone suited, to the nature and facess of the mind furnishes the occa- culties of the human mind. On a sion, through want of due attention, superficial view of the subject, we of numerous errors in metaphysical are apt to conclude that it would be and moral science. Language is preferable if divine truth had been transferred from the qualities of mat- presented in a systematical formter to the operations of the mind, and in the manner of modern treatises from human to divine things, without of science; and not obscurely intithat variation of meaning, which mated by symbolical representathe different nature of the subject tions, and blended with numerous indispensably requires. We are in historical details. This conclusion, constant danger of falling into error, however, is precipitate and errofrom the ideas suggested by the li- neous. It proceeds from inattention teral and primary signification of to the natural progress of the mind words. Close attention to the pe- in acquiring knowledge. Modern culiar nature of the subject, and systems of divinity may be easily great caution in the use of language, intelligible, and very useful to those are necessary to guard us against whose minds are already furnished mistakes from this source. A num- with a great variety of information, ber of plausible errors, in various derived from the scriptures and from parts of intellectual and moral sci- . numerous other sources. But withVol. V, -Ch. Adv.

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out this previous information, they stitution, imputation and vicarious could be of no immediate use. The satisfaction, perfectly familiar to natural progress of the mind is from the minds of men, God was pleased particular facts to general princi- to ordain animal sacrifices, in which ples. We are incapable of compre- they were distinctly exhibited; and hending general truths stated in the thus he prepared the world for unform of abstract propositions, unless derstanding and receiving the docwe have it in our power to illustrate trine of redemption, by the vicarious and exemplify them by a recurrence obedience and death of the Lord to particular facts.

Jesus Christ. The institutions and historical The peculiar doctrines of Chrisdetails of the Old Testament sug. tianity must, of necessity, be learngest and illustrate truth by plain ed exclusively from the scriptures, facts; they furnish language and The constitution of pature gives us originate conceptions, which enable no direct information respecting the mankind to comprehend the great purposes of divine mercy towards doctrines of revealed religion.- the heirs of salvation, who like These remarks are exemplified by others, are by nature in a state of the sacrifices offered under the for- condemnation, depravity and helpmer dispensations of the church. lessness; nor of the justification of Sacrifices were appointed by divine believers through the meritorious wisdom, to prefigure and illustrate obedience andatoning sacrifice of the the redemption of sinners by the vi- Lord Jesus; nor of the sanctification carious sufferings of the Son of God; of their natures by the efficacious to direct the faith of believers to his influences of the Holy Spirit. These, death as the expiation of their sins; and other truths essentially related and to furnish intelligible language, to them, are made known only by by which the church in every age supernatural divine revelation; and might be able to understand the to this source we must trace, immetrue nature and design of that grand diately or ultimately, all the knowand mysterious event. To ascer ledge which ever existed in the tain, therefore, the true import of world respecting them. the death of Christ, it is our busi One of the most important appliness to have recourse directly to cations of analogical reasoning, is those primeval institutions, which to invalidate the objections of infiwere divinely appointed for the ex. delity against the doctrines of Chrispress purpose of prefiguring and tianity. “When objections,” says explaining it; making that varia- Dr. Reid, “ are made against the tion in our conceptions, which the truths of religion, which may be difference between the type and the made with equal strength against antitype, the shadow and the sub- what we know to be true in the stance, indispensably requires. course of nature, such objections

The ordinary course of events, can have no weight.” No logical constantly submitted to our obser. axiom can be of more unquestionvation, is sufficient to prepare our able authority. Its application may minds for understanding the rela-, be illustrated by one or two examtion of God to us, as our lawgiver ples. Those who deny the future and judge; the rewarder of obedi. punishment of the wicked, allege ence, and the avenger of sin. But this doctrine to be inconsistent with the usual procedure of human af. the perfections of God, especially

fairs furnishes few, if any, justifia- his justice and benevolence. But : ble instances of the judicial substi- this objection is completely obvi

tution of the innocent in the place ated by the fact, that misery is in

of the guilty. To supply this de- separably connected with transgres- fect, and to render the idea of sub sion, so far as our observation es

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