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aim of places; it is a waste of time to commit these to memory. Dr. Grey,

ative of the world to the present time, and if we are enabled to
recolect the precise order in which a series of events succeed each

, we possess a kind of clue to their minute details, as well as Liam

to those connecting transactions of minor importance, which fill up on in the interstices of the historical scale. The object iu forming such

a system of chronology should be to select leading events at
Telative distances; this should be regulated by the degree of interest
scted by each individual era of history; thus it might be sufficient
to record very early events, at the distance of one hundred years,
th multiply them at more interesting periods. Hexameter
Terses are employed as a general medium for memorial lines, from
be facility which the varied uniformity of that metre allows to
the composer, and the advantage which the faculty of recollection
derne, from being habituated to the same measured cadence. In.
Orming them, no attention need be paid to the niceties of
quality, or even to the numbers of feet; provided they will READ,
Ji ben these chronological verses are fixed in the memory, it
will be perfectly easy to remember any other historical event by
observing its relative position to those recorded dates. In each

pe there should only be a certain number of memorial lines, comIII, a prising a defined period of time, whether two or more centuries, word is

Toute or less, according to the ratio at which the interest of that
particuar period has induced us to record the dates. To each

, that is, to each series of memorial lines, what may be called

e acrostic sentence might be attached, consisting of any words of color

that could be strung together into sense, or even intelligible non

berse: there would he as many words in this sentence as lines in the t: it has pe; of each of these words, the first syllable should resemble, a fact or in sound, the first syllable of each memorial line in suc

one who has repeated verses by heart, must be date of the advantage of having the leading syllable prompted in ise pou exch line

. The acrostic, by binding together certain series of meThich the morial lines, will be found to supply the place of a prompter; and rtain the to give a considerable degree of accuracy to the knowledge attained

by the medium of techvical verses. The geographical memorial

composed on the principle of abbreviated words, and ocHec nasionally initial letters only are employed to denote the names of

a 1746, apologizes for their not being sufficiently modernised, and
get they are for the ninth time palmed upon the public in 1812,
avel are about as valuable as a catalogue of past snow-storins.
The method of denoting the latitude and longitude by techni-
al words, is extremely ingenious and apposite; but in this edition
bhey are almost all incorrect. To the beginning of the name of
be place is subjoined a technical ending, consisting in general of

! 4

er, thei

e; after


I lesios

ariety of

DEEN. Every

istory i

piredo e effects

lines are


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che prise mctly ear regular the che



two syllables, the first of which relates to the latitude, and the second to the longitude. Thus Lisbon, whose latitude is 38° N. 1. and go w. long. would be written Lis-tei-ou. But if the latitude of Lisbon had been nearer to 38 than to 39°, the syllable ex-1 pressing it would have commenced with a vowel, and the word would have been written Lis-ik-ou; again if the longitude of Lisbon bad approached nearer to 10 than to go, the same substitution would be made, and the word written Lis-ik-n. By observjog this rule we are enabled to denote the longitude and latitude of any place within thirty minutes, and by taking the mean, that is, by conventionally adding fifteen minutes, we gain it within fifteen. In the ancient geography the selection and arrangement are injudicious throughout; we have not space to offer an extended comment upon the execution of this part of the work; it will be sufficient to point out the manner in which the system, as applied to geography, may be modified and directed with the inost beneficial effect. It cannot be difficult to compose memorial lines for ancient, sacred, and modern geography, upon the principle which we have already explained. The infinity of elementary books upon the subject will simplify the task, and leave nothing but the very easy process of composition.

These memorial lines should be committed to memory with constant reference to maps, so that the inspection of the map will at once suggest and prompt the lines belonging to it; and, vice versa, the recital of the lines suggest to the imagination the map with which they have been associated. In the selection of plans, of which we may wish to know the precise longitude and !atitude, it is necessary to attend strictly to the principle which we have pointed out in our remarks upon chronology, viz. to select places which bear a relative distance to each other upon each map, and when these are perfectly fạniiliar to us, we shall with ease be enabled to recollect the position, and almost the latitude and longitude of any place upon the surface of the globe, by ascertaining its relative position to those places which will be thus deeply imprinted on the memory and imagination..

The application of this art to astronomy, which is the subject of the fourth section, is precisely similar to that employed in chro. nology. In the fifth section it is applied to coins, weights, and measures.

There is great ingenuity shewn in this section; and though it is confined chiefly to ancient coins, weights, and measures, with a useless minuteness of detail, and many inaccuracies, yet it demonistrates satisfactorily the advantage of enploying letters for figures ; it also points out the manner in which the system may be applied to modern arithmetic, and to the value of modern coins, weights, and


d the 3° N.

e er

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historical, chronological, and geographical knowledge.
figures in the fearful estimate of funded debt, no minuteness of
which, by being translated into letters and embodied in hexameter
the financial details of the two sets of resolutions, moved upon
that occasion, might be comprised in about five and thirty lines,
Or if it was not thought necessary to remember the fractional parts
they might be comprehended in ten or fifteen lines. By employing
acrostic sentences to bind together the natural divisions of the
subject there would be no possibility of mistake, and the lines
when once committed to memory would be easily retained by

measures, which it is extremely desirable to retain with accuracy, elati

without the necessity and waste of time by constant reference. The
coucluding section explains the possible application of this art to

miscellaneous subjects. To this edition of Dr. Grey's Memoria Word

Technica is subjoined Lowe's Mnemonics. Dr. Watts in his

Essay on the Improvement of the Mind, says, that Mr. Lowe has absti

improved Dr. Grey's scheme,' but it is evident that he was very

imperfectly acquainted with that scheme. In short we are of opide of

nion that he has deteriorated the plan pursued by Dr. Grey, whilst

he can lay no sort of claim to originality, teen.

There is a notice given in this edition, that the publisher would be happy to treat with any gentleman able to correct and modernize

tais work against a future edition. For any practical purpose icient

meteen twentieths of the original lines must be omitted in a future eogra edition; we therefore do not consider it worth while to enter effect.

sto any verbal or typographical criticism upon the present. It acred,

s much inferior, in execution, to the one printed by the same lready

editor in 1806, and, as we before observed, is, with some slight

, a literal copy of the one published in 1746. In the
present edition it is proposed to employ a double set of consonants

a represent the numerals, in which g, r, and m shall be introduced, th cons

though they are already mortgaged by Dr. Grey, g to the value will at

of 100, r to that of a fraction, m to that of a million. If we
met with 'm'in many techņical words, how would it be possible to

ascertain whether it signified a million, according to Dr. Grey, or lans, of

cypher, according to the proposed extensiou by the present itude, it

We have already pointed out the manner in which this system
may be extended and improved in reference to the attainment of

We will
ion in commercial and financial details. There is no extension of

expression in the economizing tone of public audits, verse

, may not be remembered with accuracy; for example, the pich of Mr. Huskissou's pampblet upon the bullion question, and

ect wai cess of

e versa,

p with


ve hare t places

nap, and enabled

itude of

relative d on the


ubject of


in chro. hts, and

ugh it is


demonfigures; applied hts, and easures,

occasional recurrence.


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• By dividing a series of technical words into a certain number of syllables, or by writing them with marked subdivisions, and by deciding to apply the first syllable in each series of words to one part of a subject, the second to another, &c. we think much accurate information might be gained with very little exertion of the memory; for example, if we were anxious to recollect in general terms,

1906, 1. The official value of imports from

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Europe, Africa, and Americom } 24,000,000

and the e

7 I would


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2. Ditto from China

3. The official value of exports of

foreign and colonial merchandize 9,000,000
4. The official value of exports of
British produce and manufactures

25,000,000 The word au-do-s, ou-du would express the estimate for the year

6 24 6 9 25 1806. We must remark that, though pronounced as four syllables, it is divided into five parts, the first denoting the year,

the second the official value of imports from Europe, Africa, and America, and so on; of course millions must be understood. It is necessary in such a case, that the sums to be expressed should be of one common denomination; thus, from 1806 to 1812, inclusive, the official value of exports and imports might be expressed in seven words, to remember which would surely require no extraordinary effort of memory.

We trust that we have succeeded in explaining the two systems of Feinaigle and Grey; it is not possible to draw a parallel between them, but we think they might be partially combined to produce a better effect than could result from the individual adoption of either: by employing invariably the alphabet and technical lines, according to Dr. Grey's method, when figures are to be remembered, and committing these lines to memory by associating

them with the hieroglyphics or TOT01, (for there is conciliation in a Greek term,) this combination will supersede the necessity of acrostio sentences, and is, indeed, far preferable to them. No one, who has not made the experiment, can appreciate the facility and exactness with which memorial lines can be retained and referred to by this method, and, as we have demonstrated in the former part of this article, without danger of confusion; in fact the multiplication of trains of ideas, however different, with our habitual objects of association, whether those objects are ideal pictures upon a wall or the rooms and furniture of a house, will strengthen our power of recollection, as increased weight is known to strengthen an arch constructed upon sound mathematical principles.

We have no doubt that the misapplication of these systems will

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again render them ridiculous and consign them to a temporary delivion. Dr. Beattie in his Elements of Moral Science expresses his scepticism of the possible advantages of any art of memory, bering remarked, that those who possessed them were never distinguished for readiness of recollection or multiplicity of attainbents ; but our readers may be assured that there always have been persons who have applied them with considerable effect, but who bite never had the indiscretion to confess the nature of that assistnie, of which the effects were debited to the score of their Batural abilities.

If our limits had permitted we might have been disposed to enquire how far it would be possible to interweave any part of these stems with the present plan of public classical education; but frunately we have no space for the discussion. We are well size that the classical ear of our young students would startle at the south and unpoetical metre of a technical line; yet if there be a who have some arrears of information to bring up, and who are not very conversant with the principles of law, political economy, &c. to these persons, if any abbreviated method could be suggested of mastering their multifarious details, the effect, if

to our expectations, might form, we should think, a sufficient apology for the apparent degradation of the means. We do not recommend the experiment to those who find their unassisted powers fully adequate to their purpose. If Briareus had been a Stoeing manufacturer, he would probably have despised the aid of frame-work, which, however, is no despicable auxiliary to the two-handed artizan.


Arf. IX. Comedies of Aristophanes, viz. The Clouds, Plutus, the Frogs, the Birds. Translated into English, with

Notes. London. 1812. WHILE the tragic writers of Greece have been cherished by

us with an eagerness bordering on enthusiasm, the only perfect remains of that celebrated country in the opposite walk of comedy, have been consigned to comparative neglect and obscurity. Tragedy, indeed, as speaking a more general language than comedy, and uttering much the same kind of sentiments, whether by the mouth of a Medea, or a Lady Macbeth, might naturally be expected to be more popular than her sister muse, whose allusions must necessarily be more local and confined; yet it still appears unaccountable, that a people, possessed with so decided a taste for humour, as the English, and keenly susceptible of personal satire,


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