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of the facts to memory, at the rate of one, two, or three, per day, according to his age and capacity ; taking care, at the end of each section, to make him repeat the whole of what he has before learnt.

In connection with this labour, he may be usefully employed in answering, in writing, the Questions and Problems on the Globes, the answers to which are to be found in the Tutor's Key, and in answering the Problems on the Maps given in the Royal Atlas. If also he read over a part of the Vocabulary each day, comparing the words with the places on any Maps, it may be affirmed, that half an hour'employed in this manner every day, will render any youth familiar with Geography in the course of a few months. ..

As further facilities to the student, and to render the study of Geography still more practical and efficacious, the author has contrived other important and necessary auxiliaries, all of which deserve the attention and adoption of intelligent tutors.

These are GEOGRAPHICAL AND ASTRONOMICAL COPY-BOOKS; or, SKELETON MAPS, Royal and Demy, to be filled up by the Students; in two Parts, the first containing the outlines of Countries; - and the second, the projections of the lines of Latitude and Longitude; and ATLASSES corresponding with the Copy-Books, on Royal and Demy paper; the Royal being also provided with an Intro. duction on the Construction of Maps, and a set of Problems on Maps, by means of which all the Questions may be accurately answered that are usually solved by means of Globes

Answers are to be found to all Questions in this Geography in a separate Work, called the Tutor's Key: which Work likewise contains Answers to the Questions on the Universal Preceptor, to Barrow's and Adair's Questions, and to the Questions in twelve other Works; or the Key to this Geography and the other Works may be had separately, at Nine Pence each.

This Edition has been embellished with Views of all the capital cities in the world, and with representations of Costume, after the manner of the Author's work on British Geography,

London, June, 1821.

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OF THE UNIVERSE, THE SOLAR SYSTEM, AND

THE EARTH AS A PLANET. 1. The Universe, so far as human observation has extended, consists of infinite or boundless space, comprehending a multitude of fixed luminous bodies, of the nature, bulk, and purpose, of the Sun; all of which, excepting our Sun, are at such immense distances from the Earth, that they appear, to our eyes, as shining points, or stars, only.

Observation. The idea of boundless or infinite space is acquired by considering the impossibility of any supposed bound; there being no assignable extent, in any direction, to which a farther and still farther extent may not be added without end. This infinite space, so far as the eyes and telescopes of men have discovered, contains myriads of suns, or stars, shining by their own light, many of which are millions of millions of miles distant from each other.

2. These Suns, or fixed Stars, as seen through good telescopes, are found to be innumerable; but not more than a thousand can be seen with the naked eye on a clear night. The brightest are supposed to be those that are nearest ; but Sirius, the brightest of the Stars, is at least thirty-two millions of millions of miles distant.

Obs. 1. The fixed stars are so wonderfully numerous, that the famous astronomer Herschel calculates that, in a portion of the Milky Way, he saw 116,000 Stars. The positions of 60,000 have been exactly recorded. There are 20, of the largest size, called Stars of the first magnitude ; 65 of the second magnitude; 205 of the third, 485 of the fourth, 648 of the fifth, and about 1500 of the sixth, magnitude; being all that can ever be seen by the naked eye, from all sides of the earth. The others can be seen with a telescope only.

Obs. 2. For the convenience of finding and referring to the Stars, the Babylonian astronomers fancifully arranged them in certain figures, as Bears, Lions, Horses, Dogs, Rams, Bulls, &c. called Constellations. Of these there are 82, and

they are depicted on the Celestial Globe. · The most remark: able, to the naked eye or telescope, are Orion, containing his Sword and luminous Belt; Taurus, containing the Pleiades; and Ursa Major, containing the Pointers to the Polar Star : all visible in our winter evenings. The Milky Way is a light gleam of distant and innumerable Stars, stretching from the northern to the southern side of the Heavens. The brightest of the Stars is Sirius, or the Dog Star. The chief Stars in the Constellations are further distinguished by the letters of the Greek Alphabet, according to their brightness.

3. Our Sun, (and probably the Stars, in like manner,) is attended by distinct globes, which revolve, at various distances, around his body, in periods varying with their distances; and, at the same time, they turn round on their own axes; creating a succession of seasons by the motion around the Sun, and a succession of night and day by rotation on the axis.

4. These globes, having the Sun for their common centre, are called Planets; and the whole is called the Solar System. This system, so far as we yet know, consists of seven globes, named, as they succeed each other in distance, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus or Herschel.

Obs. The Planets are known from the Stars by their steady light and their motion; and Jupiter, Venus, and Mars, are apparently larger than the Stars. Like the Earth, however, they have no light but what they derive from the Sun. Venus, 28 seen through a telescope, is like the new or half moon.

5. The Sun, the common centre of the Planets, is 877,547 miles in diameter, and is the source of light, heat, and life. It turns round on its axis in 25 days and 10 hours. The fixed Stars, in general, have probably the same nature, and the same uses to their respective systems of Planets.

Obs. It would require a million of globes, of the size of our

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