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duty and enjoyment, and of the just and ultimate sweet or majestic in the simple aspect of nature—that subordination of the former to the latter.' This was indestructible love of flowers and odours, and dews a vocation of high mark and responsibility, and on and clear waters--and soft airs and sounds, and bright the whole the critic discharged his duty with honour skies, and woodland solitudes, and noonlight bowers, and success. As a nioral writer he was unimpeach- which are the material elements of poetry--and that able. The principles of his criticism are generally fine sense of their undefinable relation to mental emosound and elevated. In some instances he was harsh tion, which is its essence and vivifying soul-and and unjust. His reviews of Southey, Wordsworth, which, in the midst of Shakspeare's most busy and Lamb, and Montgomery, are indefensible, inasmuch atrocious scenes, falls like gleams of sunshine on rocks as the writer seems intent on finding fault rather and ruins-contrasting with all that is rugged and rethan in discovering beauties, and to be more piqued pulsive, and reminding us of the existence of purer with occasional deviation from established and con- and brighter elements—which he alone has poured out ventional rules, than gratified with originality of from the richness of his own mind without effort or thought and indications of true genius. No excuse restraint, and contrived to intermingle with the play can be offered for the pertness and flippancy of ex- of all the passions, and the vulgar course of this pression in which many of these critiques abound, world's affairs, without deserting for an instant the and their author has himself expressed his regret proper business of the scene, or appearing to pause or for the undue severity into which he was betrayed. digress from love of ornament or need of repose ; he

There is some ground, therefore, for charging upon alone, who, when the subject requires it, always the Edinburgh Review, in its earlier career, an ab- keen, and worldly, and practical, and who yet, withsence of proper respect and enthusiasm for the works out changing his band, or stopping his course, scatters of living genius. Where no prejudice or prepos- around him as he goes all sounds and shapes of session of the kind intervened, Jeffrey was an ad- sweetness, and conjures up landscapes of immortal mirable critic. His dissertations on the works of fragrance and freshness, and peoples them with spirits Cowper, Crabbe, Byron, Scott, and Campbell, and of glorious aspect and attractive grace, and is a thouon the earlier and greater lights of our poetry, as

sand times more full of imagery and splendour than well as those on moral science, national manners,

those who, for the sake of such qualities, have shrunk and views of actual life, are expressed with great back from the delineation of character or passion, and eloquence and originality, and in a fine spirit of declined the discussion of human duties and cares. humanity. His powers of perception and analysis More full of wisdom, and ridicule, and sagacity, than are quick, subtle, and penetrating, and withal com

all the moralists and satirists in existence, he is more prehensive; while his brilliant imagination invested wild, airy, and inventive, and more pathetic and fansubjects that in ordinary hands would have been tastic, than all the poets of all regions and ages of the dry and uninviting, with strong interest and attrac-world; and has all those elements so happily mixed tion. He seldom gave full scope to his feelings and up in him, and bears his high faculties so temperately, sympathies, but they occasionally broke forth with that the most severe reader cannot complain of him inimitable effect, and kindled up the pages of his for want of strength or of reason, nor the most sensicriticism. At times, indeed, his language is poeti in him is in unmeasured abundance and unequalled

tive for defect of ornament or ingenuity. Everything cal in a high degree. The following glowing tribute to the universal genius of Shakspeare is worthy of perfection; but everything so balanced and kept in the subject :

subordination as not to jostle or disturb or take the

place of another. The most exquisite poetical conMany persons are very sensible of the effect of fine ceptions, images, and descriptions, are given with such poetry upon their feelings, who do not well know how brevity, and introduced with such skill, as merely to to refer these feelings to their causes; and it is always adorn without loading the sense they accompany. 2 delightful thing to be made to see clearly the sources Although his sails are purple, and perfumed, and his from which our delight has proceeded, and to trace prow of beaten gold, they waft him on his voyage, not the mingled stream that has flowed upon our hearts less, but more rapidly and directly, than if they had to the remoter fountains from which it has been ga- been composed of baser materials. All his excellenthered ; and when this is done with warmth as wellces, like those of Nature herself, are thrown out toas precision, and embodied in an eloquent description gether; and instead of interfering with, support and of the beauty which is explained, it forms one of the recommend each other. His flowers are not tied up most attractive, and not the least instructive, of lite in garlands, nor his fruits crushed into baskets, but rary exercises. In all works of merit, however, and spring living from the soil, in all the dew and freshespecially in all works of original genius, there are a ness of youth ; while the graceful foliage in which thousand retiring and less obtrusive graces, which they lurk, and the ample branches, the rough and riescape hasty and superficial observers, and only give gorous stem, and the wide-spreading roots on which out their beauties to fond and patient contemplation; they depend, are present along with them, and share, a thousand slight and harmonising touches, the merit in their places, the equal care of their Creator. and the effect of which are equally imperceptible to vulgar eyes; and a thousand indications of the con- Of the invention of the steam-engine he remarks tinual presence of that poetical spirit which can only with a rich felicity of illustration --- It has become a be recognised by those who are in some ineasure under thing stupendous alike for its force and its flexibiits influence, and have prepared themselves to receive lity-for the prodigious power which it can exert, it, by worshipping incekly at the shrines which it in- and the ease, and precision, and ductility with which habits.

it can be varied, distributed, and applied. The In the exposition of these there is room enough for trunk of an elephant, that can pick up a pin or originality, and more room than Mr Hazlitt has yet rend an oak, is as nothing to it. It can engrave a filled. In many points, however, he has acquitted seal, and crush masses of obdurate metal before ithimself excellently; particularly in the development draw out, without breaking, a thread as fine as gosof the principal characters with which Shak-peare has samer, and lift up a ship of war like a bauble in the peopled the fancies of all English readers—but princi- air. It can embroider muslin and forge anchors, pally, we think, in the delicate sensibility with which cut steel into ribbons, and impel loaded vessels he has traced, and the natural eloquence with which against the fury of the winds and waves.' he has pointed out, that familiarity with beautiful How just, also, and how finely expressed, is the forms and images-that eternal recurrence to what is following refutation of a vulgar error that evon

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Byron condescended to sanction, namely, that genius rence on that judicial seat which has derived inis a source of peculiar unhappiness to its possessors: creased celebrity from his demeanour-a youth of — Men of truly great powers of mind have gene- enterprise--a manhood of brilliant success - and rally been cheerful, social, and indulgent; while a “honour, love, obedience, troops of friends," entendency to sentimental whining or fierce intole- circling his later years-mark him out for venerarance may be ranked among the surest symptoms of tion to every son of that country whose name he

I little souls and inferior intellects. In the whole list has exalted throughout Europe. We need not speak of our English poets we can only remember Shen- here of those graces of mind and of character that stone and Savage-two certainly of the lowest-who have thrown fascination over his society, and made i were querulous and discontented. Cowley, indeed, his friendship a privilege.'* used to call himself melancholy; but he was not in The Critical and Historical Essays contributed to 1 earnest, and at any, rate was full of conceits and the Edinburgh Review, by T. B. MACAULAY, three affectations, and has nothing to make us proud of volumes, 1843, have enjoyed great popularity, and him. Shakspeare, the greatest of them all, was materially aided the Review, both as to immediate evidently of a free and joyous temperament; and so success and permanent value. The reading and was Chaucer, their common master. The same dis- erudition of the author are immense. In questi s position appears to have predominated in Fletcher, of classical learning and criticism-in English poetry, Jonson, and their great contemporaries. The genius philosophy, and history-in all the minutiæ of bioof Milton partook something of the austerity of the graphy and literary anecdote-in the principles and party to which he belonged, and of the controversies details of government–in the revolutions of parties in which he was involved; but even when fallen on and opinions—in the progress of science and philoevil days and evil tongues, his spirit seems to have sophy-in all these he seems equally versant and retained its serenity as well as its dignity; and in equally felicitous as a critic. Perhaps he is most his private life, as well as in his poetry, the majesty striking and original in his historical articles, which of a high character is tempered with great sweet present complete pictures of the times of which he ness, genial indulgences, and practical wisdom. In treats, adorned with portraits of the principal actors, the succeeding age our poets were but too gay; and and copious illustrations of contemporary events though we forbear to speak of living authors, we and characters in other countries. His reviews of know enough of them to say with confidence, that Hallam's Constitutional History, and the memoirs of to be miserable or to be hated is not now, any more Lord Clive, Warren Hastings, Sir Robert Walpole, than heretofore, the common lot of those who excel.' Sir William Temple, Sir Walter Raleigh, &c. contain

Innumerable observations of this kind, remark- a series of brilliant and copious historical retrospects able for ease and grace, and for original reflection, unequalled in our literature. His eloquent papers may be found scattered through Lord Jeffrey's cri- on Lord Bacon, Sir Thomas Browne, Horace Waltiques. His political remarks and views of public pole's Letters, Boswell's Johnson, Addison's Me. events are equally discriminating, but of course will moirs, and other philosophical and literary subjects, be judged of according to the opinions of the reader. are also of first-rate excellence. Whatever topic he None will be found at variance with national honour takes up he fairly exhausts—nothing is left to the or morality, which are paramount to all mere party imagination, and the most ample curiosity is gratiquestions. As a literary critic, we may advert to fied. Mr Macaulay is a party politician-a strong the singular taste and judgment which Lord Jeffrey admirer of the old Whigs, and well-disposed towards exercised in making selections from the works he the Roundheads and Covenanters. At times he apreviewed, and interweaving them, as it were, with pears to identify himself too closely with those polithe text of his criticism. Whatever was picturesque, ticians of a former age, and to write as with a strong solemn, pathetic, or sublime, caught his eye, and was personal antipathy against their opponents. His thus introduced to new and vastly-extended circle judgments are occasionally harsh and uncharitable, of readers, besides furnishing matter for various even when founded on undoubted facts. In arrang collections of extracts and innumerable school exer- ing his materials for effect, he is a consummate cises.

master. Some of his scenes and parallels are Francis Jeffrey is a native of Edinburgh, the son managed with the highest artistical art, and his of a respectable writer or attorney. After completing language, like his conceptions, is picturesque. lo his education at Oxford, and passing through the style Mr Macaulay is stately and rhetorical-pernecessary legal studies, he was admitted a member of haps too florid and gorgeous, at least in his earlier the Scottish bar in the year 1794. His eloquence and essays—but it is sustained with wonderful power intrepidity as an advocate were not less conspicuous and energy. In this particular, as well as in other than his literary talents, and in 1829 he was, by the mental characteristics, the reviewer bears some reunanimous suffrages of his legal brethren, elected semblance to Gibbon. His knowledge is as universal, Dean of the Faculty of Advocates. On the forma- his imagination as rich and creative, and his power tion of Earl Grey's ministry in 1830, Mr Jeffrey was of condensation as remarkable. Both have made nominated to the first office under the crown in sacrifices in taste, candour, and generosity, for purScotland (Lord Advocate), and sat for some time in poses of immediate effect; but the living author is parliament. In 1834 he was elevated to the dignity unquestionably far superior to his great prototype in of the bench, the duties of which he has discharged the soundness of his philosophy and the purity of with such undeviating attention, uprightness, and his aspirations and principles. ability, that no Scottish judge was ever perhaps more popular, more trusted, or more beloved. It has been his enviable lot, if not to attain all the

WILLIAM HOWITT, &c. prizes of ambition for which men strive, at least to

WILLIAM HOWITT, a popular miscellaneous writer, unite in himself those qualities which, in many, has written some delightful works illustrative of the would have secured them all. A place in the front calendar of nature.' His Book of the Seasons, 1832, rank of literature in the most literary age—the presents us with the picturesque and poetic features highest honour of his profession spontaneously con- l of the months, and all the objects and appearances ferred by the members of a bar strong in talent and which each presents in the garden, the field, and the learning-eloquence among the first of our orators, and wisdom among the wisest, and universal reve

* North British Review for 1844.

The nurse,

waters. An enthusiastic lover of his subject, Mr ment in the management of our colonies. Mr Howitt is remarkable for the fulness and variety of Howitt afterwards published The Boys' Country his pictorial sketches, the richness and purity of his Book, and Visits to Remarkable Places, the latter fancy, and the occasional force and eloquence of his (to which a second series has been added) descripstyle. 'If I could but arouse in other minds,' he tive of old halls, battle-fields, and the scenes of says, that ardent and ever-growing love of the striking passages in English history and poetry. beautiful works of God in the creation, which I feel Mr and Mrs Howitt now removed to Germany, and in myself—if I could but make it in others what it after three years' residence in that country, the has been to me

former published a work on the Social and Rural

Life of Germany, which the natives admitted to be The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul

the best account of that country ever written by a Of all my moral being

foreigner. Our industrious author has also tran

slated a work written expressly for him, The Studentif I could open to any the mental eye which can Life of Germany. The attention of Mr and Mrs never be again closed, but which finds more and Howitt having been drawn to the Swedish language more clearly revealed before it beauty, wisdom, and and literature, they studied it with avidity; and Mrs peace in the splendours of the heavens, in the Howitt has translated a series of tales by Frederika majesty of seas and mountains, in the freshness of Bremer, which are characterised by great truth of winds, the ever-changing lights and shadows of fair feeling and description, and by a complete knowlandscapes, the solitude of heaths, the radiant face ledge of human nature. These Swedish tales have of bright lakes, and the solemn depths of woods, been exceedingly popular, and now circulate extenthen indeed should I rejoice. Oh that I could but sively both in England and America. touch a thousand bosoms with that melancholy which often visits mine, when I behold little children endeavouring to extract amusement from the very

JOHN CLAUDIUS LOUDON, &c. dust, and straws, and pebbles of squalid alleys, shut out from the free and glorious countenance of na- John CLAUDIUS LOUDON (1783-1843) stands at ture, and think how differently the children of the the head of all the writers of his day upon subjects peasantry are passing the golden hours of child- connected with horticulture, and of the whole class hood; wandering with bare heads and unshod feet, of industrious compilers. He was a native of Camperhaps, but singing a “childish wordless melody” | buslang, in Lanarkshire, and pursuing in youth the through vernal lanes, or prying into a thousand bent of his natural faculties, entered life as a landsylvan leafy nooks, by the liquid music of running scape-gardener, to which profession he subsequently waters, amidst the fragrant heath, or on the flowery added the duties of a farmer. Finally, he settled in lap of the meadow, occupied with winged wonders | London as a writer on his favourite subjects. His without end. Oh that I could but baptize every works were numerous and useful, and they form in heart with the sympathetic feeling of what the city- their entire mass a wonderful monument of human pent child is condemned to lose; how blank, and industry. His chief productions are an Encyclopædia poor, and joyless must be the images which fill of Gardening, 1822; The Greenhouse Companion ; an its infant bosom to that of the country one, whose Encyclopædia of Agriculture, 1825; an Encyclopadia mind

of Plants, 1829; an Encyclopædia of Cottage, Vila,

and Farm Architecture, 1832; and Arboretum BritanWill be a mansion for all lovely forms,

nicum, 8 volumes, 1838. The four encyclopædias are His memory be a dwelling-place

large volumes, each exhausting its particular subFor all sweet sounds and harmonies !

ject, and containing numerous pictorial illustrations I feel, however, an animating assurance that nature in wood. The 'Arboretum’ is even a more remarkwill exert a perpetually-increasing influence, not able production than any of these, consisting of four only as a most fertile source of pure and substantial volumes of close letter-press, and four of pictorial pleasures -- pleasures which, unlike many others, illustrations, and presenting such a mass of inforproduce, instead of satiety, desire-but also as a mation, as might apparently have been the work of great moral agent: and what effects 1 anticipate half a lifetime to any ordinary man. These vast from this growing taste may be readily inferred, tasks Mr Loudon was enabled to undertake and when I avow it as one of the most fearless articles carry to completion by virtue of the unusual energy of my creed, that it is scarcely possible for a man in of his nature, notwithstanding considerable draw. whom its power is once firmly established to become backs from disease, and the failure, latterly, of some utterly debased in sentiinent or abandoned in prin- of his physical powers. In 1830 he married a lady ciple. His soul may be said to be brought into of amiable character and literary talent, who entered habitual union with the Author of Nature

with great spirit into his favourite pursuits. The

separate publications of Mrs Loudon on subjects Haunted for ever by the Eternal Mind. connected with botany, and for the general instruc

tion of the young, are deservedly high in public Mr Howitt belongs to the Society of Friends, estimation. It is painful to consider that the just though he has ceased to wear their peculiar costume. reward of a life of extraordinary application and He is a native of Derbyshire, and was for several public usefulness, was reft from Mr Loudon by the years in business at Nottingham. A work, the na- consequences of the comparative non-success of the ture of which is indicated by its name, the History Arboretum,' which placed him considerably in debt. of Priestcraft (1834), so recommended him to the This misfortune preyed upon his mind, and induced Dissenters and reformers of that town, that he was the fatal pulmonary disease of which he died. made one of their aldermen. Disliking the bustle Essays on Natural History, by CHARLES WATER. of public life, Mr Howitt retired from Nottingham, ton, Esq. of Walton Hall, is an excellent contribuand resided for three years at Esher, in Surrey. tion made to natural history by a disinterested lover There he composed his Rural Life in England, a of the country ; and Gleanings in Natural History, popular and delightful work. In 1838 appeared his by EDWARD JESSE, Esq. surveyor of her majesty's Colonisation and Christianity, which led to the forma parks and palaces, two volumes, 1838, is a collection tion of the British India Society, and to improve- of well-authenticated facts, related with the view of portraying the character of animals, and endeavour- Bentham was a native of London, son of a wealthy ing to excite more kindly feelings towards them. solicitor, and was born on the 6th of February 1749. Some Scottish works of this kind are also deserving He was entered of Queen's college, Oxford, whez of commendation--as Rhind's Studies in Natural only twelve years and a quarter old, and was eren History; M‘Diarmid's Sketches from Nature; Mil- then known by the name of the philosopher.' He LER's Scenes and Legends, or Traditions of Cromarty; took his Master's degree in 1766, and afterwards Duncan's Sacred Philosophy of the Seasons, &c. A studying the law in Lincoln's Inn, was called to the love of nature and observation of her various works bar in 1772. He had a strong dislike to the legal are displayed in these local sketches, which all help profession, and never pleaded in public. His first to augment the general stock of our knowledge as literary performance was an examination of a pas. well as our enjoyment.

sage in Blackstone's Commentaries, and was enThe Thames and its Tributaries, two volumes, 1840, titled A Fragment on Government, 1776. The work by CHARLES MACKAY, is a pleasing description of was prompted, as he afterwards stated, by 'a passion the scenes on the banks of the Thames, which are for improvement in those shapes in which the lot hallowed by the recollections of history, romance, of mankind is meliorated by it. His zeal was inand poetry. The same author has published (1841) creased by a pamphlet which had been issued by Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions. Priestley. In the phrase " the greatest happiness

ROBERT MUDIE (1777-1842), an indefatigable of the greatest number,” I then saw delineated,' says writer, self-educated, was a native of Forfarshire, Bentham, 'for the first time, a plain as well as a and for some time connected with the London press. true standard for whatever is right or wrong, use He wrote and compiled altogether about ninety ful, useless, or mischievous in human conduct, volumes, including Babylon the Great, a Picture of whether in the field of morals or of politics.' The Men and Things in London ; Modern Athens, a sketch phrase is a good one, whether invented by Priestley of Edinburgh society; The British Naturalist; The or Bentham ; but it still leaves the means by which Feathered Tribes of Great Britain ; A Popular Guide happiness is to be extended as undecided as ever, to the Observation of Nature ; two series of four to be determined by the judgment and opinions of volumes each, entitled The Heavens, the Earth, the men. To insure it, Bentham considered it neces. Sea, and the Air; and Spring, Summer, Autumn, and sary to reconstruct the laws and government-to Winter; and next, Man: Physical, Moral, Social, and have annual parliaments and universal suffrage, Intellectual ; The World Described, &c. He furnished secret voting, and a return to the ancient practice the letter-press to Gilbert's Modern Atlas, the of paying wages to parliamentary representatives. • Natural History' to the British Cyclopædia, and in all his political writings this doctrine of utility, numerous other contributions to periodical works. so understood, is the leading and pervading prinMudie was a nervous and able writer, deficient in ciple. In 1778 he published a pamphlet on The taste in works of light literature and satire, but an Hard Labour Bill, recommending an improvement acute and philosophical observer of nature, and in the mode of criminal punishment; Letters en peculiarly happy in his geographical dissertations Usury, 1787 ; Introduction to the Principles of Morals and works on natural history. His imagination and Politics, 1789; Discourses on Civil and Peral could lighten up the driest details; but it was often Legislation, 1802 ; A Theory of Punishments and Pie too excursive and unbridled. His works were also wards, 1811; A Treatise on Judicial Evidence, 1813; ! hastily produced, 'to provide for the day that was Paper Relative to Codification and Public Instruction, passing over him;' but considering these disadvan. 1817; The Book of Fallacies, 1824, &c. By the tages, his intellectual energy and acquirements were death of his father in 1792, Bentham succeeded to wonderful.

property in London, and to farms in Essex, yielding A record of English customs is preserved in from £500 to £600 a-year. He lived frugally, but Brand's Popular Antiquities, published, with addi- with elegance, in one of his London houses-kept tions, by Sir HENRY Ellis, in two volumes quarto, young men as secretaries—corresponded and wrote in 1808; and in 1842 in two cheap portable volumes. daily—and by a life of temperance and industry, The work relates to the customs at country wakes, with great self-complacency, and the society of a sheep-shearings, and other rural practices, and is few devoted friends, the eccentric philosopher atan admirable delineation of olden life and manners. tained to the age of eighty-four. His various proThe Every-day Book, Table Book, and Year Book, ductions have been collected and edited by Dr John by William HONE, published in 1833, in four large Bowring and Mr John Hill Burton, advocate, and volumes, with above five hundred woodcut illus- published in 11 volumes. In his latter works Bentrations, form another calendar of popular English tham adopted a peculiar uncouth style or nomenamusements, sports, pastimes, ceremonies, manners, clature, which deters ordinary readers, and indeed customs, and events incident to every day in the has rendered his works almost a dead letter. For. year. Mr Southey has said of these works—'I may tunately, however, part of them were arranged and take the opportunity of recommending the Every- translated into French by M. Dumont. Another day Book and Table Book to those who are in disciple, Mr Mill, made known his principles at terested in the preservation of our national and local home; Sir Samuel Romilly criticised them in the customs : by these very curious publications their Edinburgh Review, and Sir James Mackintosh in compiler has rendered good service in an important the ethical dissertation which he wrote for the Endepartment of literature.'

cyclopædia Britannica. In the science of legislation
Bentham evinced a profound capacity and extensive
knowledge : the error imputed to his speculations is

that of not sufficiently "weighing the various cir. A singular but eminent writer on jurisprudence cumstances which require his rules to be modified and morals, Mr JEREMY BENTHAM, was an author in different countries and times, in order to render throughout the whole of this period, down to the them either more useful, more easily introduced, year 1834. He lived in intercourse with the leading more generally respected, or more certainly exenien of several generations and of various countries, cuted. As an ethical philosopher, he carried his and was unceasingly active in the propagation of his doctrine of utility to an extent which would be opinions. Those opinions were as much canvassed practically dangerous, if it were possible to make as the doctrines of the political economists. Mr | the bulk of n.ankind act upon a speculative theory.


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only on subjects connected with his favourite studies.

He died, much regretted by his friends, at his seat, A series of works, showing remarkable powers of Gatcomb Park, in Gloucestershire, on the 11th of thought, united to great earnestness in the cause of September 1823. evangelical religion, has proceeded from the pen

The Elements of Political Economy, by MR JAMES of Isaac TAYLOR, who is, we believe, a gentleman Mill, the historian of India, 1821, were designed of fortune living in retirement. The first and most by the author as a school-book of the science. DR popular is the Natural History of Enthusiasm, 1829, WHATELY (afterwards Archbishop of Dublin) pubin which the author endeavours to show that the lished two introductory lectures, which, as professor subject of his essay is a new development of the of political economy, he had delivered to the unipowers of Christianity, and only bad when allied to versity of Oxford in 1831. This eminent

person malign passions. It has been followed by Saturday is also author of a highly valued work, Elements of Evening, the Physical Theory of Another Life, &c. Logic, which has attained an extensive utility among The reasoning powers of this author are consider young students ; Thoughts on Secondary Punishments, able, but the ordinary reader feels that he too often and other works, all displaying marks of a powermisexpends them on subjects which do not admit of ful intellect. A good elementary work, Conversadefinite conclusions.

tions on Political Economy, by Mrs MARCET, was

published in 1827. The Rev. DR CHALMERS has POLITICAL ECONOMISTS.

on various occasions supported the views of MalThere have been in this period several writers on thus, particularly in his work On Political Economy the subject of political economy, a science which in Connexion with the Moral Prospects of Society, treats of the formation, the distribution, and the 1832. He maintains that no human skill or labour consumption of wealth ; which teaches us the causes could make the produce of the soil increase at the which promote or prevent its increase, and their rate at which population would increase, and influence on the happiness or misery of society.' therefore he urges the expediency of a restraint Adam Smith laid the foundations of this science ; upon marriage, successfully inculcated upon the and as our commerce and population went on in- people as the very essence of morality and religion creasing, thereby augmenting the power of the de- by every pastor and instructor in the kingdom. mocratical part of our constitution, and the number Few clergymen would venture on such a task! of those who take an interest in the affairs of govern- Another zealous commentator is MR J. RAMSAY ment, political economy became a more important M‘CULLOCH, author of Elements of Political Economy, and popular study. One of its greatest names is and of various contributions to the Edinburgh Rethat of the Rev. T. R. Malthus, an English clergy- view, which have spread more widely a knowledge man, and Fellow of Jesus college, Cambridge. Mr of the subject. Mr M‘Culloch has also edited an Malthus was born of a good family in 1766, at his edition of Adam Smith, and compiled several useful father's estate in Surrey. In 1798 appeared his and able statistical works. celebrated work, an Essay on the Principle of Popu- The opponents of Malthus and the economists, lation as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society. though not numerous, have been determined and The principle here laid down is, that population active. Cobbett never ceased for years to inveigh has a tendency to increase faster than the means of against them. MR GODWIN came forward in 1821 subsistence. * Population not only rises to the level with an Inquiry Concerning the Power of Increase in of the present supply of food, but if you go on every the Numbers of Mankind, a treatise very unworthy year increasing the quantity of food, population goes the author of Caleb Williams. In 1830 MICHAEL on increasing at the same time, and so fast, that THOMAS SADLER published The Law of Populathe food is commonly still too small for the people.' tion : a Treatise in Disproof of the Superfecundity of After the publication of this work, Mr Malthus went Human Beings, and Developing the Real Principle of abroad with Dr Clarke and some other friends ; and their Increase. A third volunie to this work was in in the course of a tour through Sweden, Norway, preparation by the author when he died. Mr Finland, and part of Russia, he collected facts in Sadler (1780-1835) was a mercantile man, partner illustration of his theory. These he embodied in a in an establishment at Leeds. In 1829 he became second and greatly improved edition of his work, representative in parliament for the borough of which was published in 1803. The most important Newark, and distinguished himself by his speeches of his other works are, An Inquiry into the Nature against the removal of the Catholic disabilities and and Progress of Rent, 1815; and Principles of Poli- the Reform Bill. He also wrote a work on the tical Economy, 1820. Several pamphlets on the condition of Ireland. Mr Sadler was an ardent corn laws, the currency, and the poor laws, pro- benevolent man, an impracticable politician, and a ceeded from his pen.

Mr Malthus was in 1805 florid speaker. His literary pursuits and oratorical appointed professor of modern history and political talents were honourable and graceful additions to economy in Ilailey bury college, and he held the his character as a man of business, but in knowsituation till his death in 1836.

ledge and argument he was greatly inferior to MalMR David RICARDO (1772-1823) was author of thus and Ricardo. An Essay on the Distribution of several original and powerful treatises connected Wealth, and the Sources of "axation, 1831, by the with political economy. His first was on the High Rev. RICHARD Jones, is chiefly confined to the Price of Bullion, 1809; and he published succes- consideration of rent, as to which the author differs sively Proposuls for an Economical and Secure Cur- from Ricardo. Me Nassau WILLIAM SENIOR, prorency, 1816; and Principles of Political Economy and fessor of political economy in the university of Taxation, 1817. The latter work is considered Oxford in 1831, published Two Lectures on Populathe most important treatise on that science, with tion, and has also written pamphlets on the poor laws, the single exception of Smith's Wealth of Nations. the commutation of tithes, &c. He is the ablest of Mr Ricardo afterwards wrote pamphlets on the all the opponents of Malthus. Funding System, and on Protection to Agriculture. He ha amassed great wealth as a stockbroker,

REVIEWS AND MAGAZINES and retiring from business, he entered into parlia- In no department, more than in this, has the ment as representative for the small borough of character of our literature made a greater advance Portarlington. He seldom spoke in the house, and ! during the last age. The reviews enumerated in

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