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reigned over the whole region.

The Carnatic merit of his own, to keep alive the idea of the services is a country not much inferior in extent to England. by which his vast landed pensions were obtained. My Figure to yourself, Mr Speaker, the land in whose re- merits, whatever they are, are original and personal; presentative chair you sit; figure to yourself the form his are derivative. It is his ancestor, the original penand fashion of your sweet and cheerful country from sioner, that has laid up this inexhaustible fund of Thames to Trent, north and south, and from the Irish merit, which makes his Grace so very delicate and exto the German sea east and west, emptied and em-ceptious about the merit of all other grantees of the bowelled (may God avert the omen of our crimes !) by crown. Had he permitted me to remain in quiet, I 80 accomplished a desolation !

should have said, 'tis his estate ; that's enough. It

is his by law; what have I to do with it or its his[The Difference Between Mr Burke and the tory? He would naturally have said on his side, 'tis Duke of Bedford.]

this man's fortune. He is as good now as my an

cestor was two hundred and fifty years ago. I am [The Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Lauderdale attacked

a young man with very old pensions; he is an old Mr Burke and his pension in their place in the House of Lords,

man with very young pensions—that's all. and Burke replied in his . Letters to a Noble Lord,' one of the most sarcastic and most able of all his productions.]

Why will his Grace, by attacking me, force me re

luctantly to compare my little merit with that which I was not, like his Grace of Bedford, swaddled, and obtained from the crown those prodigies of profuse rocked, and dandled into a legislator-Nitor in adver- donation by which he tramples on the mediocrity of sum is the motto for a man like me. I possessed not humble and laborious individuals !

Since one of the qualities, nor cultivated one of the arts, the new grantees have war made on them by the old, that recommend men to the favour and protection of and that the word of the sovereign is not to be taken, the great. I was not made for a minion or a tool. As let us turn our eyes to history, in which great men little did I follow the trade of winning the hearts by have always a pleasure in contemplating the heroic imposing on the understandings of the people. At origin of their house. every step of my progress in life (for in every step was The first peer of the name, the first purchaser of the I traversed and opposed), and at every turnpike I grants, was a Mr Russel, a person of an ancient genmet I was obliged to show my passport, and again and tleman's family, raised by being a minion of Henry again to prove my sole title to the honour of being VIII. As there generally is some resemblance of chauseful to my country, by a proof that I was not wholly racter to create these relations, the favourite was in unacquainted with its laws, and the whole system of all likelihood much such another as his master. The its interests both abroad and at home. Otherwise, no first of these immoderate grants was not taken from rank, no toleration even for me. I had no arts but the ancient demesne of the crown, but from the recent manly arts. On them I have stood, and, please God, confiscation of the ancient nobility of the land. The in spite of the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Lau- | lion having sucked the blood of his prey, threw the derdale, to the last gasp will I stand.

offal carcass to the jackal in waiting. Having tasted I know not how it has happened, but it really seems once the food of confiscation, the favourites became that, whilst his Grace was meditating his well-con- fierce and ravenous. This worthy favourite's first grant sidered censure upon me, he fell into a sort of sleep. was from the lay nobility. The second, infinitely imHomer nods, and the Duke of Bedford may dream; proving on the enormity of the first, was from the and as dreams (even his golden dreams) are apt to be plunder of the church. In truth, his Grace is someill-pieced and incongruously put together, his Grace what excusable for his dislike to a grant like mine, preserved his idea of reproach to me, but took the sub- not only in its quantity, but in its kind so different ject-matter from the crown-grants to his own family. from his own. This is the stuff of which his dreams are made.' In Mine was from a mild and benevolent sovereign; that way of putting things together, his Grace is per- his from Henry VIII. Mine had not its fund in the fectly in the right. The grants to the house of Russel murder of any innocent person of illustrious rank, or were so enormous, as not only to outrage economy, but in the pillage of any body of unoffending men; his even to stagger credibility: 'The Duke of Bedford is grants were from the aggregate and consolidated funds the leviathan among all the creatures of the crown. of judgments iniquitously legal, and from possessions He tumbles about his unwieldy bulk; he plays and voluntarily surrendered - the lawful proprietors with frolics in the ocean of the royal bounty. Huge as he the gibbet at their door. is, and whilst 'he lies floating many a rood,' he is still The merit of the grantee whom he derives from, a creature. His ribs, his fins, his whalebone, his was that of being a prompt and greedy instrument of blubber, the very spiracles through which he spouts a a levelling tyrant, who oppressed all descriptions of torrent of brine against his origin, and covers me all his people, but who fell with particular fury on every

Fer with the spray-everything of him and about thing that was great and noble. Mine has been in him is from the throne.

endeavouring to screen every man, in every class, from Is it for him to question the dispensation of the oppression, and particularly in defending the high and royal favour?

eminent, who in the bad times of confiscating princes, I really am at a loss to draw any sort of parallel confiscating chief governors, or confiscating demabetween the public merits of his Grace, by which he gogues, are the most exposed to jealousy, avarice, and justifies the grants he holds, and these services of envy. mine, on the favourable construction of which I have The merit of the original grantee of his Grace's obtained what his Grace so much disapproves. In pensions was in giving his hand to the work, and private life, I have not at all the honour of acquaint- partaking the spoil with a prince, who plundered a ance with the noble duke. But I ought to presume, part of the national church of his time and country. and it costs me nothing to do so, that he abundantly Mine was in defending the whole of the national deserves the esteem and love of all who live with him. church of my own time and my own country, and the But as to public service, why, truly, it would not be whole of the national churches of all countries, from more ridiculous for me to compare myself in rank, in the principles and the examples which lead to ecclefurtune, in splendid descent, in youth, strength, or siastical pillage, thence to a contempt of all prescripfigure, with the Duke of Bedford, than to make a tive titles, thence to the pillage of all property, and parallel between his services and my attempts to be thence to universal desolation. useful to my country. It would not be gross adula- The merit of the origin of his Grace's fortune was tion, but uncivil irony, to say that he has any public in being a favourite and chief adviser to a prince who

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jeft no liberty to his native country. My endeavour elaborated, and more highly polished, than any of his was to obtain liberty for the municipal country in previous communications. They attacked all the which I was born, and for all descriptions and denomi. public characters of the day connected with the nations in it. Mine was to support, with unrelaxing government, they retailed much private scandal and vigilance, every right, every privilege, every franchise, personal history, and did not spare even royalty itin this my adopted, my dearer and more comprehen self. The compression, point, and brillianer of their sive country; and not only to preserve those rights in language, their unrivalled sarcasm, boldness, and this chief seat of empire, but in every nation, in every tremendous invective, at once arrested the attention land, in every climate, language, and religion in the of the public. Every effort that could be devised vast domain that still is under the protection, and the by the government, or prompted by private indiglarger that was once under the protection, of the nation, was made to discover their author, but in British crown.

vain. It is not in the nature of things,' he writes His founder's merits were by arts in which he served to his publisher, ‘that you or anybody else should his master and made his fortune, to bring poverty, know me, unless I make myself known: all arts or wretchedness, and depopulation on his country. Mine inquiries or rewards would be ineffectual.' In anwere under à benevolent prince, in promoting the other place he remarks, *I am the sole depository commerce, manufactures, and agriculture of his king of my secret, and it shall die with me.' The even dom; in which his majesty shows an eminent exam- has verified the prediction : he had drawn around ple, who even in his amusements is a patriot, and in himself so impenetrable a veil of secrecy, that all hours of leisure an improver of his native boil.

the efforts of inquirers, political and literary, failed

in dispelling the original darkness. The letters [Character of Howard the Philanthropist.]

were published at intervals from 1769 to 1772, when

they were collected by Woodfall and revised by their I cannot name this gentleman without remarking, author (who was equally unknown to his publisher), that his labours and writings have done much to open and printed in two volumes. They have since gone the eyes and hearts of all mankind. He has visited through innumerable editions; but the best is that all. Europe -- not to survey the sumptuousness of published in 1812 by Woodfall's son, which includes palaces, or the stateliness of temples; not to make the letters by the same writer under other signaaccurate measurements of the remains of ancient tures, with his private notes to his publisher, and grandeur, nor to form a scale of the curiosities of mo- fac-similes of his handwriting. dern art ; nor to collect medals, or collate manu- The principles of Junius are moderate, compared i scripts, but to dive into the depths of dungeons, to with his personalities. Some sound constitutional plunge into the infection of hospitals, to survey the maxims are conveyed in his letters, but his style mansions of sorrow and pain; to take the gauge and has undoubtedly been his passport to fame. His dimensions of misery, depression, and contempt; to illustrations and metaphors are also sometimes unremember the forgotten, to attend to the neglected, to commonly felicitous. The personal malevolence of visit the forsaken, and compare and collate the dis- his attacks it is impossible to justify. They evince tresses of all men in all countries. His plan is ori- a settled deliberate malignity, which could not proginal : it is as full of genius as of humanity. It was ceed from a man of a good or noble nature, and cona voyage of discovery; a circumnavigation of charity. tain allusions to obscure individuals in the public Already, the benefit of his labour is felt more or less offices, which seem to have arisen less from patriotism in every country: I hope he will anticipate his final than from individual hatred and envy. When the reward by seeing all its effects fully realised in his controversy as to the authorship of these memorable

philippics had almost died away, a book appeared in 1816, bearing the title of ‘Junius Identified with a Celebrated Living Character.' The living character

was the late Sir Philip Francis, and certainly a mass On the 21st of January 1769 appeared the first of strong circumstantial evidence has been presented of a series of political letters, bearing the signature in his favour. The external evidence,' says Mr of Junius, which have since taken their place among Macaulay,* .is, we think, such as would support a the standard works of the English language. Great verdict in a civil, nay, in a criminal proceeding. The excitement prevailed in the nation at the time. The handwriting of Junius is the very peculiar handwritcontest with the American colonies, the imposition ing of Francis, slightly disguised. As to the position, of new taxes, the difficulty of forming a steady and pursuits, and connexions of Junius, the following permanent administration, and the great ability and are the most important facts which can be considered eloquence of the opposition, had tended to spread a as clearly proved :First, that he was acquainted feeling of dissatisfaction throughout the country. with the technical forms of the secretary of state's The publication of the North Briton, a periodical office; secondly, that he was intimately acquainted edited by John Wilkes, and conducted with reckless with the business of the war office; thirdly, that he, violence and asperity, added fuel to the flame, and during the year 1770, attended debates in the House the prime minister, Lord North, said justly, that of Lords, and took notes of speeches, particularly of

the press overflowed the land with its black gall, the speeches of Lord Chatham; fourthly, that be and poisoned the minds of the people. Without any bitterly resented the appointment of Mr Chamier to wish to express political opinions, we may say that the place of deputy-secretary at war; fifthly, that the government was not equal to the emergency, he was bound by some strong tie to the first Lord and indeed it would have required a cabinet of the Holland. Now, Francis passed some years in the highest powers and most energetic wisdom to have secretary of state's office. He was subsequently triumphed over the opposition of men like Chatham chief clerk of the war office. He repeatedly menand Burke, and writers like Junius. The most tioned that he had himself, in 1770, heard speeches popular newspaper of that day was the Public of Lord Chatham ; and some of these speeches were Advertiser, published by Woodfall, a man of educa- actually printed from his notes. He resigned his tion and respectability. In this journal the writer clerkship at the war office from resentment at the known as Junius had contributed under various appointment of Mr Chamier. It was by Lord Hoisignatures for about two years. The letters by which he is now distinguished were more carefully

* Edinburgh Review for 1841.



land that he was first introduced into the public Of the literary excellences of Junius, his sarcasm, service. Now, here are five marks, all of which compressed energy, and brilliart illustration, a few ought to be found in Junius. They are all five specimens may be quoted. His finest metaphor (as found in Francis. We do not believe that more just in sentiment as beautiful in expression) is conthan two of them can be found in any other person tained in the conclusion to the forty-second letter :whatever. If this argument does not settle the • The ministry, it seems, are labouring to draw a question, there is an end of all reasoning on circum- line of distinction between the honour of the crown stantial evidence.' The same acute writer considers and the rights of the people. This new idea has yet the internal evidence to be equally clear as to the only been started in discourse; for, in effect, both

claims of Francis. Already, however, the impression objects have been equally sacrificed. I neither uni made on the public mind by the evidence for this derstand the distinction, nor what use the ministry

gentleman seems to have passed away, and atten- propose to make of it. The king's honour is that tion has recently been directed to another indi- of his people. Their real honour and real interest vidual, who was only one of ten or more persons are the same. I am not contending for a vain puncsuspected at the time of the publication. This is tilio. A clear unblemished character comprehends Lord George Sackville, latterly Viscount Sackville, not only the integrity that will not offer, but the an able but unpopular soldier, cashiered from the spirit that will not submit, to an injury ; and whether army in consequence of neglect of duty at the battle it belongs to an individual or to a community, it is the of Minden, but who afterwards regained the favour foundation of peace, of independence, and of safety. of the government, and acted as secretary at war Private credit is wealth ; public honour is security. throughout the whole period of the American con- The feather that adorns the royal bird supports his test. A work by Mr Coventry in 1825, and a flight. Strip him of his plumage, and you fix him volume by Mr Jaques in 1842, have been devoted to the earth.' to an endeavour to fix the authorship of Junius upon Thus also he remarks—In the shipwreck of the Lord George, and it is surprising how many and state, trifles float and are preserved; while everyhow powerful are the arguments which have been thing solid and valuable sinks to the bottom, and is adduced by these writers. It seems by no means lost for ever.' unlikely that a haughty and disappointed man, who Of the supposed enmity of George III. to Wilkes, conceived himself to have suffered unjustly, should and the injudicious prosecution of that demagogue, pour forth his bitter feelings in this form ; but, again, Junius happily remarks- He said more than moif Lord George Sackville was really Junius, how derate men would justify, but not enough to entitle strange to consider that the vituperator of the king, him to the honour of your majesty's personal resentLord Mansfield, and others, should in a few short ment. The rays of royal indignation, collected upon years have been acting along with them in the go. him, served only to illuminate, and could not convernment! Here, certainly, there is room to pause, sume. Animated by the favour of the people on and either to suspend judgment altogether, or to lean the one side, and heated by persecution on the other, to the conclusion for Francis which has been fa- his views and sentiments changed with his situation. voured by such high authority.

Hardly serious at first, he is now an enthusiast. Philip Francis was the son of the Rev. Philip The coldest bodies warm with opposition, the hardest Francis, translator of Horace. He was born in sparkle in collision. There is a holy mistaken zeal Dublin in 1740, and at the early age of sixteen was in politics as well as religion. By persuading others, placed by Lord Holland in the secretary of state's we convince ourselves. The passions are engaged, office. By the patronage of Pitt (Lord Chatham), and create a maternal affection in the mind, which he was made secretary to General Bligh in 1758, and forces us to love the cause for which we suffer.' was present at the capture of Cherburgh; in 1760 The letter to the king is the most dignified of the he accompanied Lord Kinnoul as secretary on his letters of Junius ; those to the Dukes of Grafton embassy to Lisbon; and in 1763 he was appointed and Bedford the most severe. The latter afford the to a considerable situation in the war office, which most favourable specimens of the force, epigram, and he held till 1772. Next year he was made a member merciless sarcasm of his best style. The Duke of of the council appointed for the government of Ben- Grafton was descended from Charles II., and this gal, from whence he returned in 1781, after being per- afforded the satirist scope for invective:--- The chapetually at war with the governor-general, Warren racter of the reputed ancestors of some men has Hastings, and being wounded by him in a duel. He made it impossible for their descendants to be vicious afterwards sat in parliament, supporting Whig prin- in the extreme, without being degenerate. Those of ciples, and was one of the 'Friends of the People' your Grace, for instance, left no distressing examples in association with Fox, Tierney, and Grey. He of virtue, even to their legitimate posterity; and you died in 1818. It must be acknowledged that the may look back with pleasure to an illustrious pedispeeches and letters of Sir Philip evince much of gree, in which heraldry has not left a single good the talent found in Junius, though they are less quality upon record to insult or upbraid you. You rhetorical in style; while the history and dispositions have better proofs of your descent, my lord, than the of the man-his strong resentments, his arrogance, register of a marriage, or any troublesome inherihis interest in the public questions of the day, tance of reputation. There are some hereditary evinced by his numerous pamphlets, even in ad-strokes of character by which a family may be as vanced age, and the whole complexion of his party clearly distinguished as by the blackest features of and political sentiments, are what we should expect the human face. Charles I. lived and died a hypoof Woodfall's celebrated correspondent. High and crite; Charles II. was a hypocrite of another sort, commanding qualities he undoubtedly possessed ; nor and should have died upon the same scaffold. At was he without genuine patriotic feelings, and a the distance of a century, we see their different chadesire to labour earnestly for the public weal. His racters happily revived and blended in your Grace. error lay in mistaking his private enmities for pub- Sullen and severe without religion, profligate withlic virtue, and nursing his resentments till they at- out gaiety, you live like Charles II., without being tained a dark and unsocial malignity. His temper an aniable companion; and, for aught I know, may was irritable and gloomy, and often led him to form die as his father did, without the reputation of a mistaken and uncharitable estimates of men and martyr.' measures.

In the same strain of elaborate and refined sar

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casm the Duke of Belford is addressed : My lord, to consult the propriety of a bad character. Eren you are so little accustomed to receive any marks of now they tell you that life is no more than a dra. respect or esteem from the public, that if in the fol- matic scene, in which the hero should preserve bis lowing lines a compliment or expression of applause consistency to the last; and that, as you lived with.. should escape me, I fear you would consider it as a out virtue, you should die without repentance.' mockery of your established character, and perhaps These are certainly brilliant pieces of composian insult to your understanding. You have nice tion. The tone and spirit in which they are confeelings, my lord, if we may judge from your resent-ceived are harsh and reprehensible—in some parts ments. Cautious, therefore, of giving offence where almost fiendish—but they are the emanations of a you have so little deserved it, I shall leave the illus- powerful and cultivated genius, that, under better tration of your virtues to other hands. Your friends moral discipline, might have done lasting honour to have a privilege to play upon the easiness of your literature and virtue. The acknowledged productemper, or probably they are better acquainted with tions of Sir Philip Francis have equal animation, but your good qualities than I am. You have done good less studied brevity and force of style. The soaring by stealth. The rest is upon record. You have ardour of youth had flown ; his hopes were crushed; still left ample room for speculation when pane- he was not writing under the mask of a fearless and gyric is exhausted.'

impenetrable secrecy. Yet in 1812, in a letter to After having reproached the duke for corruption Earl Grey on the subject of the blockade of Norway, and imbecility, the splendid tirade of Junius con- we find such vigorous sentences as the following: cludes in a strain of unmeasured yet lofty invec- Though a nation may be bought and sold, deceived tive :- Let us consider you, then, as arrived at the or betrayed, oppressed or beggared, and in every summit of worldly greatness; let us suppose that other sense undone, all is not lost, as long as a sense all your plans of avarice and ambition are accom- of national honour survives the general ruin. Even plished, and your most sanguine wishes gratified in an individual cannot be crushed by events or over: the fear as well as the hatred of the people. Can age whelmed by adversity, if, in the wreck and ruin of itself forget that you are now in the last act of life? his fortune, the character of the man remains unCan gray hairs make folly venerable? and is there blemished. That force is elastic, and, with the help no period to be reserved for meditation and retire of resolution, will raise him again out of any depth ment? For shame, my lord! Let it not be recorded of calamity. But if the injured sufferer, whether of you that the latest moments of your life were it be a great or a little community, a number dedicated to the same unworthy pursuits, the same of individuals or single person, be content to subbusy agitations, in which your youth and manhood mit in silence, and to endure without resentment were exhausted. Consider that, though you cannot -if no complaints shall be uttered, no murmur shall disgrace your former life, you are violating the cha- be heard, deploratum est—there must be something racter of age, and exposing the impotent imbecility, celestial in the spirit that rises from that descent. after you have lost the vigour, of the passions. In March 1798, I had your voluntary and entire

Your friends will ask, perhaps, “ Whither shall concurrence in the following, as well as many other this unhappy old man retire? Can he remain in abandoned propositions—when we drank pure

wine the metropolis, where his life has been so often together-when you were young, and I was not threatened, and his palace so often attacked? If superannuated—when we left the cold infusions of he returns to Woburn, scorn and mockery await prudence to fine ladies and gentle politicians-when him: he must create a solitude round his estate, if true wisdom was not degraded by the name of mohe would avoid the face of reproach and derision. deration—when we cared but little by what majoAt Plymouth his destruction would be more than rities the nation was betrayed, or how many felons probable; at Exeter inevitable. No honest English- were acquitted by their peers—and when we were man will ever forget his attachment, nor any honest not afraid of being intoxicated by the elevation of a Scotchman forgive his treachery, to Lord Bute. At spirit too highly rectified. In England and Scotevery town he enters, he must change his liveries land, the general disposition of the people may be and name. Whichever way he flies, the hue and fairly judged of by the means which are said to be cry of the country pursues him.

necessary to counteract it-an immense standing În another kingdom, indeed, the blessings of his army, barracks in every part of the country, the administration have been more sensibly felt

, his bill of rights suspended, and, in effect, a military virtues better understood ; or, at worst, they will not despotism. The following vigorous and Junius-like for him alone forget their hospitality.” As well passage is from a speech made by Francis in answer might Verres have returned to Sicily. You have to the remark of Lord Chancellor Thurlow, namely, twice escaped, my lord; beware of a third experi- that it would have been well for the country, ment. The indignation of a whole people plun- General Clavering, Colonel Monson, and Mr Francis

, dered, insulted, and oppressed, as they have been, had been drowned in their passage to India. Sir will not always be disappointed.

Philip observed :-*His second reason for obtaining It is in vain, therefore, to shift the scene; you can a seat in parliament, was to have an opportunity of no more fly from your enemies than from yourself. explaining his own conduct if it should be quesPersecuted abroad, you look into your own heart tioned, or defending it if it should be attacked. The for consolation, and find nothing but reproaches and last and not least urgent reason was, that he might despair. But, my lord, you may quit the field of be ready to defend the character of his colleagues

, business, though not the field of danger; and though not against specific charges, which he was sure would you cannot be safe, you may cease to be ridiculous. never be produced, but against the language of Í fear you have listened too long to the advice of calumny, which endeavoured to asperse without those pernicious friends with whose interests you daring to accuse. It was well known that a gross have sordidly united your own, and for whom you and public insult had been offered to the memory of have sacrificed everything that ought to be dear to General Clavering and Colonel Monson, by a person a man of honour. They are still base enough to en- of high rank in this country. He was happy when courage the follies of your age, as they once did the he heard that his name was included in it with vices of your youth. As little acquainted with the theirs. So highly did he respect the character of rules of decorum as with the laws of morality, they those men, that he deemed it an honour to share in will not suffer you to profit by experience, nor even the injustice it had suffered. It was in compliance


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with the forms of the house, and not to shelter him- With still many generous exceptions, the body of self, or out of tenderness to the party, that he for- the country is lost in apathy and indifference—somebore to name him. He meant to describe him so times strutting on stilts--for the most part grovelexactly that he could not be mistaken. He declared, ling on its belly-no life-blood in the heart-and in his place in a great assembly, and in the course instead of reason or reflection, a caput mortuum for of a grave deliberation, “that it would have been a head-piece; of all revolutions this one is the happy for this country if General Clavering, Colonel worst, because it makes any other impossible.'* Monson, and Mr Francis, had been drowned in their Among the lighter sketches of Francis may be passage to India." If this poor and spiteful invec- taken the following brief characters of Fox and tive had been uttered by a man of no consequence Pitt :--They know nothing of Mr Fox who think or repute—by any light, trifling, inconsiderate person that he was what is commonly called well educuted. -by a lord of the bed-chamber, for example-or I know that it was directly or very nearly the reany of the other silken barons of modern days, he verse. His mind educated itself, not by early study should have heard it with indifference; but when it or instruction, but by active listening and rapid was seriously urged, and deliberately insisted on, apprehension. He said so in the House of Comby a grave lord of parliament, by a judge, by a man mons when he and Mr Burke parted. His powerful of ability and eminence in his profession, whose understanding grew like a forest oak, not by cultipersonal disposition was serious, who carried gravity vation, but by neglect. Mr Pitt was a plant of an to sternness, and sternness to ferocity, it could not inferior order, though marvellous in its kind-a be received with indifference, or answered without smooth bark, with the deciduons pomp and decoraresentment. Such a man would be thought to have tion of a rich foliage, and blossoms and flowers inquired before he pronounced. From his mouth a which drop off of themselves, and leave the tree reproach was a sentence, an invective was a judg. naked at last to be judged by its fruits. He, indeed, ment. The accidents of life, and not any original | as I suspect, had been educated more than enough, distinction that he knew of, had placed him too until there was nothing natural and spontaneous left high, and himself at too great a distance from him, in him. He was too polished and accurate in the to admit of any other answer than a public defiance minor embellishments of his art to be a great artist for General Clavering, for Colonel Monson, and for in anything. He could have painted the boat, and himself. This was not a party question, nor should the fish, and the broken nets, but not the two fisherit be left to so feeble an advocate as he was to sup- men. He knew his audience, and, with or without port it. The friends and fellow-soldiers of General eloquence, how to summon the generous passions to Clavering and Colonel Monson would assist him in his applause. The human eye soon grows weary defending their memory.

He demanded and expected the support of every man of honour in that

* The character of Francis is seen in the following admirhouse and in the kingdom. What character was

able observation, which is at once acute and profound :safe, if slander was permitted to attack the reputa- With a callous heart there can be no genius in the imagination of two of the most honourable and virtuous tion or wisdom in the mind; and therefore the prayer with men that ever were employed, or ever perished in equal truth and sublimity says—" Incline our hearts unto the service of their country. He knew that the wisdom.” Resolute thoughts find words for themselves, and authority of this man was not without weight; but make their own vehicle. Impression and expression are relahe had an infinitely higher authority to oppose to tive ideas. He who feels deeply will express strongly. The it. He had the happiness of hearing the merits of language of slight sensations is naturally feeble and superficial. General Clavering and Colonel Monson acknow. -Reflections on the Abundance of paper. 1810.– Francis ex

celled in pointed and pithy expression. After his return to ledged and applauded, in terms to which he was

parliament in 1784, he gave great offence to Mr Pitt, by exnot at liberty to do more than to allude--they were

claiming, after he had pronounced an animated eulogy on Lord rapid and expressive. He must not venture to

Chatham, But he is dead, and has left nothing in this world repent, lest he should do them injustice, or violate that resembles him ! In a speech delivered at a political meetthe forms of respect, where essentially he owed and ing in 1817, he said, “We live in times that call for wisdom in felt the most; but he was sufficiently understood. contemplation and virtue in action ; but in which virtue and The generous sensations that animate the royal wisdom will not do without resolution. When the propertymind were easily distinguished from those which tax was imposed, he exclaimed, that the ministers were now rankled in the heart of that person who was sup- coming to the life-blood of the country, and the more they posed to be the keeper of the royal conscience.' wanted the less they would get.' In a letter to Lord Holland,

In the last of the private letters of Junius to written in 1816, he remarks, · Whether you look up to the top Woodfall—the last, indeed, of his appearances in or down to the bottom, whether you mount with the froth or

sink with the sediment, no rank in this country can support a that character-he says, with his characteristic ardour and impatience, 'I feel for the honour of this perfectly degraded name.' "My recital,' he says to Lord Holcountry, when I see that there are not ten men in it land, shall be inflicted on you, as if it were an operation, with

compassion for the patient, with the brevity of impatience and who will unite and stand together upon any one

the rapidity of youth ; for I feel or fancy that I am gradually question. But it is all alike, vile and contemptible.' growing young again, in my way back to infancy. The taper This was written in January 1773. Forty-three that burns in the socket flashes more than once before it dies. years afterwards, in 1816, Sir Philip Francis thus I would not long outlive myself if I could help it, like some of writes in a letter on public affairs, addressed to Lord my old friends who pretend to be alive, when to my certain Holland, and the similarity in manner and senti- knowledge they have been dead these seven years.' The writer ment is striking. The style is not unworthy of of a memoir of Francis, in the Annual Obituary (1820), states Junius :- My mind sickens and revolts at the that one of his maxims was, “That the views of every ono scenes of public depravity, of personal baseness, and should be directed towards a solid, however moderate indeof ruinous folly, little less than universal, which pendence, without which no man can be happy or even honest.' have passed before us, not in dramatic representa- in a private letter by Junius to his publisher Woodfall, dated

There is a remarkable coincidence (too close to be accidental) tion, but in real action, since the year 1792, in the March 5, 1772: As for myself, be assured that I am far above government of this once flourishing as well as glori- all pecuniary views, and no other person I think has any claim ous kingdom. In that period a deadly revolution to share with you. Make the most of it, therefore, and let all has taken place in the moral character of the nation, your views in life be directed to a solid, however moderate and even in the instinct of the gregarious multitude. independence. Without it no man can be happy, nor even Passion of any kind, if it existed, might excite action. I honest.'

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