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mitted by a christian, and also abhorred and deplored by him, without destroying the moral relation between that thing and him ; and since also the very idea of its abuse presupposes its intrinsic goodness and affirms the wickedness of its abusers alone. For example: the ministry of the gospel is a divine institution, and one of incalculable excellence and usefulness; but none perhaps beside it (unless that of marriage) has been so sacrilegiously and horribly abused in every way: is the institution therefore bad, as bad, and as worthy to be execrated and scouted by the whole community as are its abuses and abusers ?

10. He cannot be wrong who goes really according to the scripture.

11. The Bible is a good book.

12. It is possible that a knowledge and love of the contents of the Bible may induce a man to defend it with vehemence, and even to oppose men with decision for its sake; while his feelings toward their personal interests, whom he judges to be adverse to that book of God, are not the less benevolent, but the more so, because of his supreme regard for truth, and for God, its Author and avenger. 13. Purity is properly before peace, and properly

, before unity ; while purity, unity, peace,-just in that order of precedency,—are all desirable.

14. Communion of feeling is founded on communion of sentiment; so that doctrinal coincidence always induces (or tends to induce) union of affection ; doctrinal contrariety or divergency equally inspires alienation; and no combination of senti

ment, soul, or action, is comparatively desirable, except that which results from “ the truth as it is in Jesus.”

To the last two of these statements, I doubt indeed if Friends will agree. I however believe them. Instead of others, let us mind a standard passage in James, 3:17. “But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy.” Mark!-the celestial wisdom is first pure—then peaceable! If I mistake not, this is the very reverse of the wisdom of mankind. They wish us to be first “peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits,” and other benignities, and then-after all these harmless qualities—then-if ever—"pure!" But purity must precede, or—the wisdom “descendeth not from above; but is earthly, sensual, devilish.” Here is the point of divergency! The great question is, shall PURITY or PEACE precede ? If peace had always been preferred in the church, such a thing as persecution for righteousness' sake had not been known. I would however wish always to retain the spirit of moderation and benevolence, even when engaged in controversy respecting fundamentals. To use the excellent words of an esteemed cotemporary ; (Dr. Fitch, of Yale College ;) “ the heat does not enable us to see, it is the light only. Truth is learned only at the pure fountains of evidence. Authority does not create it;

. dogmatism recommends it not; neither does violence impose it: from such task-masters conscience retreats that she may hear, in the still silence of her musings, the voice of God.”

15. It is proper to use the scripture in all religious investigation, since it was given to this very end, that the man of God might be accomplished for every good work; according to that signal testimony of the apostle, which I thus alter in the translation, to make it more orderly and like the original; “ All scripture is given by inspiration of God; and is profitable for instruction, for conviction, for correction, for education in righteousness; so that the man of God might be accomplished, consummately furnished for every good work.” 2 Tim. 3:16, 17.] The last six verses of the chapter ought to be read in their connection and thoroughly digested in their common scope, especially by Friends.

Having thus stated several principles of reasoning, by which to be governed in this work, I will now state some POSITIONS OF TRUTH, or things that I believe and shall endeavour to prove as we proceed. As in the former I have stated what I suppose will be mainly admitted on both sides, so in the latter will appear what I indeed believe with very high conviction ; but what (or the most of which) Friends characteristically, (if not universally,) disbelieve with very great decision. .

1. The scriptures are the PARAMOUNT rule of faith and practice; they were so given and designed by their divine Author ; and are never duly honored when they are equalized or subordinated, to reason, conscience, feelings, private spirits, dreams,

revelations, impressions, visions, or influences of any other description.

2. The scriptures are given by that kind of divine inspiration (I forbear all technical names) which procures the result of written truth, without any mixture of error, in the original Hebrew and Greek: of which our translation is in the main a very excellent representation.

3. The scriptures have been providentially preserved from all substantial corruptions of the text, - so that they answer the original design of their author in remaining a volume (or rather many volumes) of divine inspiration, virtually and wonderfully pure. Psalm 12:6, 7.

4. Divine illumination or spiritual discernment characterizes the saints in all ages, and is vital to the existence of religion; that influence, however, of the Spirit of God, which produces and matures it, is specifically different in nature and result)

( from that of proper inspiration.

5. In true religion, which is substantially the same in all ages, the truth of scripture, affecting the mind in the forms of preaching, reading, admonishing, meditating, or some other and yet kindred form, is the grand instrument of the Holy Ghost in all his saving operations. 6. All the moral excellence of man is the

supernatural production of the Spirit of God, and is properly resolvable into “the fruit of the Spirit :" which is not indigenous to the soil, or the spontaneous growth of nature, or one of the fruits of the

flesh; and this is mainly what I mean by the epithet (not miraculous, but) supernatural.

7. Inspiration is a gift and not a grace, a gift that may more benefit others than its subject; and so is not necessary at all to be personally experienced in order to salvation; since otherwise, all that were not divinely inspired, as the apostles were, are infallibly lost ; since wicked men, as Baalam, Caiphas, and inany others, were divinely inspired, but never (as we must think) regenerated ; and since the inspiration of the writers of scripture, though they were “holy men of God,” in no part constituted, however it might have occasionally and even eminently assisted, their personal religion.

8. We have no evidence that, since (or near) the apostolic age, there has been one proper miracle wrought, or one human being divinely inspired, or that there exists any more the necessity than the reality in our age of such wonderful endowments.

9. To pretend or affect inspiration, without possessing it, or being able to give any proof, either miraculous or rational, of its reality, is either capital impiety or terrible delusion, or probably both. It is incalculable misery and guilt!

10. No man evades or habitually disparages the authority of scripture, who is not to be suspected, as secretly conscious or timorous that the scripture itself is his moral enemy.

11. To disparage or corrupt the influence of scripture upon the minds of men, is enormous sin; a sin especially against the first three and indeed all the commandments of the decalogue ; a sin that

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