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instead of questioning and quibbling, had occu- was not inhuman in disposition or weak in inpied his time in teaching the uses and offices of tellect? Either of these qualities may subvert philosophy? There is as wide a difference between a state, exposing it first to many sufferings. In the imputed and the real character of this man, our Athenian constitution, if we are weakly as there is between him who first discovered corn or indiscreetly governed, or capriciously, which growing, and him who first instructed us how to hardly can happen, the mischief is transitory and grind and cleanse and prepare it for our susten- reparable: one year closes it : and the people,
We are ashamed to give a false character both for its satisfaction and its admonition, sees of a slave, and not at all to give a falser of our that no corruption, no transgression, in its magisbetters. In this predicament stands Plato, trates, is unregarded or unchastised. This of all regarding his master, his scholars, and his advantages is the greatest, the most corroborative opponents.
of power, the most tutelary of morals. I know Eubulides. Before him Pythagoras and Demo- that there are many in Thrace, and some in Sicily, critus and, earlier still, Pherecydes, taught im- who would recall my wanderings with perfect portant truths, and, what is rarer, separated good-humour and complacency. Demosthenes them from pernicious falsehoods. Pythagoras, has not lived, has not reasoned, has not agitated who preceded Plato in Egypt, and from whom his soul, for these : he leaves them in the quiet many of his fancies are taken, must have been a possession of all their moulten arguments, and in true lover of wisdom, to have travelled so far into the persuasive hope of all their bright reversions. countries known hardly by name in Greece. Pythagoras could have had little or no influence
Demosthenes. Perhaps he sought some con- on such men : he raised up higher, who kept them genial soul; for if two great men are existing at down. It is easier to make an impression upon the extremities of the earth, they will seek each sand than upon marble: but it is easier to make other.
a just one upon marble than upon sand. Un. Eubulides. Their greatness then must be of a civilised as were the Gauls, he with his moderation different form and texture from what mankind and prudence hath softened the ferocity of their hath usually admired. Greatness, as we daily see religion, and hath made it so contradictory and it, is unsociable.
inconsistent, that the first of them who reasons Demosthenes. The perfect loves what generates will subvert it. He did not say, "You shall no it, what proceeds from it, what partakes its longer sacrifice your fellow-creatures :" he said,
If you have formed an idea of greatness, "sacrifice the criminal.” Other nations do the 0 Eubulides, which corresponds not with this same: often wantonly, always vindictively : the description, efface it and cast it out. Pythagoras Gauls appease by it, as they imagine, both society adapted his institutions to the people he would and the Gods. He did not say, “. After a certain enlighten and direct. What portion of the world time even this outrage on Nature must cease :" was ever so happy, so peaceable, so well-governed, but he said, “We have souls which pass into as the cities of Lower Italy. While they retained other creatures.” A belief in the transmigrahis manners they were free and powerful : some tion of souls would abolish by degrees our inhuhave since declined, others are declining, and manity. perhaps at a future and not a distant time they Eubulides. But what absurdity! may yield themselves up to despotism. In a few Demosthenes. Religion, when it is intended for ages more, those flourishing towns, those inex- the uncivilised, must contain things marvellous, pugnable citadels, those temples which you might things quite absurd to the wiser. But I discover deem eternal, will be hunted for in their wilder- no absurdity in making men gentler and kinder; nesses like the boars and stags. Already there and I would rather worship an onion or a crust of are philosophers who would remedy what they bread, than a God who requires me to immolate call popular commotions by hereditary despotism, an ox or kid to appease him. The idea, not of and who think it as natural and reasonable as having lost her daughter, but of having lost her that children who cry should be compelled to by a sacrifice, fixed the dagger in the grasp of sleep: and there likewise are honest citizens who, Clytemnestra. Let us observe, O Eubulides, the when they have chewed their fig and swallowed religion of our country, be it what it may, unless it, say, “yes, 'twere well.” What a eulogy on the it command us to be cruel or unjust. In religion, human understanding! to assert that it is danger- if we are right, we do not know we are ; if we are ous to choose a succession of administrators from wrong, we would not. Above all, let us do the wisest of mankind, and advisable to derive it nothing and say nothing which may abolish or from the weakest! There have been free Greeks diminish in the hearts of the vulgar the sentiments within our memory who would have entered into of love and fear : on the contrary, let us per. alliance with the most iniquitous and most inso-petually give them fresh excitement and activity, lent of usurpers, Alexander of Pherai, a territory by baring them to the heavens. On the modifiin which Thebe, who murdered her husband, is cations of love it is unnecessary to expatiate; but praised above others of both sexes. 0 Juno ! I am aware that you may demand of me what may such marriages be frequent in such countries ! excitement is required to fear. Among its modi
Look at history: where do you find in continu- fications or dependencies are veneration and ation three hereditary kings, of whom one at least obedience, against the weakening which we ought to provide, particularly in what relates to calmer minds what we have not the patience to our magisterial and military chiefs.
investigate.* Eubulides. I do not conceive that Pythagoras Eubulides. Plato hath not mentioned him. hath left behind him in Gaul, unless at Massilia, Demosthenes. O greatness ! what art thou, and the remembrance of his doctrines or of his name. where is thy foundation ! I speak not, Eubulides,
Demosthenes. We hear little of the Gauls. It of that which the vulgar call greatness, a phantom appears however that they have not forgotten the stalking forward from a salt-marsh in Bæotia, or wisdom or the services of Pythagoras. The from a crevice in some rock of Sunion or of man of Samos was to some extent their teacher. Taxos ; + but the highest, the most illustrious, the It is remarkable that they should have preserved most solid among men, what is it! Philosophy the appellation. He was too prudent, I suspect, gives us arms against others, not against ourselves, to trust himself many paces beyond the newly not against those domestic traitors, those homebuilt walls of Massilia ; for the ignorant and stead incendiaries, the malignant passions ; arms barbarous priests would be loth to pardon him that are brilliant on the exercise-ground, but britthe crime of withdrawing a dependent in a tle in the fight, when the most dangerous of proselyte.
enemies is pressing us. Early love was never so Eubulides. The Druids, the most ferocious and jealous in anyone as philosophy in Plato. He resem. ignorant of all the priests our countrymen have bles his own idea of God, whose pleasure in the anywhere discovered, fell back farther into their solitudes of eternity is the contemplation of woods and wilderness at seeing the white stones himself. of the citadel rise higher than their altars. Even Eubulides. Jealousy is not quite excluded from these rude altars were not of their construction, the school opposite. Aristoteles, it has been but were the work of a much earlier race. The suggested to me, when he remarks that by the Phocæans and other lonians were sufficiently well elongation of the last member in a sentence a versed in policy to leave the natives unmolested dignity is added to composition, looked toward in their religion. Already does that lively and you, who, as you have heard the rhetoricians say, imitative people prefer a worship in which the are sometimes inattentive or indifferent to nobility song and the dance and geniality warm the blood, of expression. to one which exacts it in the windy downs and Demosthenes. When Aristoteles gives an opinion gloomy woodlands, and spills it on the channeled upon eloquence I listen with earnestness and restone and catches it dropping from the sus- spect : so wise a man can say nothing inconsipended wicker. Young men crowned with flowers derately. His own style on every occasion is are likelier to be objects of aversion to the ancient exactly what it should be : his sentences, in which priests than to the most timorous and shy of their there are no cracks or inequalities, have always disciples. The religion of blood, like the beasts their proper tone: for whatever is rightly said, of prey, will continue to trend northward. Wor- sounds rightly. shippers of Apollo, and followers of Bromius and Ought I to speak nobly, as you call it, of base the nymphs, would perish in the sunless oak matters and base men ? ought my pauses to be forests; and the Druid has no inheritance in the invariably the same ? would Aristoteles wish that country of the vine. But it becomes the quiet a coat of mail should be as flowing as his gown? religion and placid wisdom of the Greeks, to leave Let peace be perfect peace, war decisive war: but inviolate all the institutions of the circumjacent let Eloquence move upon earth with all the people, and especially of those who wish to live facilities of change that belong to the Gods themamong them. By degrees they will acknowledge selves ; only let her never be idle, never be vain, a superiority which they could contend against never be ostentatious; for these are indications of were it asserted.
debility. We, who have habituated ourselves Demosthenes. Pythagoras is said to have been from early youth to the composition of sonorous vigorous in enforcing his doctrines.
periods, know that it requires more skill to finger Eubulides. In his school ; not beyond. They and stop our instrument than to blow it. When are such indeed as we would little wish to see we have gained over the ear to our party, we have established in a free state, but none ever were other work to do, and sterner and rougher. Then better adapted to prepare the road for civilisation. comes forward action, not unaccompanied by veheWe find it difficult to believe in the metempsy- mence. Pericles, you have heard, used none, but chosis. In fact, as other things grow easy, belief kept his arm wrapped up within his vest. Pericles is apt to grow difficult.
was in the enjoyment of that power which his Demosthenes. Where there is mysticism we may virtues and his abilities well deserved. If he had pause and listen ; where there is argument we carried in his bosom the fire that burns in mine, may contend and reply. Democritus, whom you he would have kept his hand outside. By the often mention, certainly no mystic, often contra- contemplation of men like me, Aristoteles is what dicts our senses. He tells us that colours have he is; and, instead of undervaluing, I love him no colour: but his arguments are so strong, his language so clear, his pretensions so modest and
* Newton has elucidated the theory of colours first pro
posed by Democritus, the loss of whose voluminous works becoming, I place more confidence in him than in is the greatest that Philosophy has sustained. others : future philosophers may demonstrate to + Taxos was rich in silver-mines.
the better for it. Do we not see with greater shall imagine they have been singing to the drum partiality and fondness those who have been and horn, and dancing to dithyrambics. The educated and fed upon our farms, than those who dustbox of metaphysics shall be emptied no more come from Orchomenos or Mantinea ? If he were from the schoolroom into the council. now among us in Athens, what would he think of I suspect I have heard the chatterer you mentwo or three haranguers, who deal forth meta- tioned. The other day in the market-place, I physics by the pailful in their addresses to the saw a vulgar and shuffling man lifted on a honeypeople ?
barrel by some grocers and slave-merchants, and Eubulides. I heard one, a little time since, who the crowd was so dense around me I could not believed he was doing it, ignorant that the busi- walk away. A fresh-looking citizen, next me, ness of metaphysics is rather to analyse than to nodded and winked in my face at the close of involve. He avoided plain matter, he rejected every sentence. Dissembling as well as I could idiom ; he filtered the language of the people and my impatience at his importunity, " Friend,” said made them drink through a sieve.
I,“ do believe me, I understand not a syllable Demosthenes. What an admirable definition of the discourse.” have you given, unintentionally, of the worst “ Ah Demosthenes !” whispered he “your time public speaker possible, and, I will add with is fairly gone by: we have orators now whom even equal confidence, of the worst writer. If I send you, with all your acuteness and capacity, cannot to Hymettos for a hare, I expect to distinguish it comprehend.” at dinner by its flavour as readily as before dinner “ Whom will they convince ?" said I. by its ears and feet. The people you describe to “ Convince !" cried my narrator; “ who has me soak out all the juices of our dialect. Nothing ever wished to be persuaded against the grain in is so amusing to me as to hear them talk on elo- any matter of importance or utility? A child, if quence. No disciple at the footstool is so silent you tell him a horrible or a pathetic story, is and ductile as I am at the lessons I receive; none anxious to be persuaded it is true; men and attends with such composure, none departs with women, if you tell them one injurious to the such hilarity.
respectability of a neighbour. Desire of persuaI have been careful to retain as much idiom as sion rests and dies here. We listen to those I could, often at the peril of being called ordinary whom we know to be of the same opinion as ourand vulgar. Nations in a state of decay lose their selves, and we call them wise for being of it; but idiom, which loss is always precursory to that of we avoid such as differ from us; we pronounce freedom. What your father and your grand- them rash before we have heard them, and still father used as an elegance in conversation, is now more afterward, lest we should be thought at any abandoned to the populace, and every day we miss time to have erred. We come already convinced : a little of our own, and collect a little from stran- we want surprise, as at our theatres; astonishgers: this prepares us for a more intimate union ment, as at the mysteries of Eleusis." with them, in which we merge at last altogether. “ But what astonishes, what surprises you ?" Every good writer has much idiom ; it is the life “ To hear an Athenian talk two hours together, and spirit of language; and none such ever enter- hold us silent and immovable as the figures of tained a fear or apprehension that strength and Hermes before our doors, and find not a single sublimity were to be lowered and weakened by it. one among us that can carry home with him a Speaking to the people, I use the people's phrase- thought or an expression.” ology: I temper my metal according to the uses “ Thou art right," I exclaimed; "he is greater I intend it for. In fact no language is very weak than Triptolemos; he not only gives you a plenin its natural course, until it runs too far; and tiful meal out of chaff and husks, but he persuades then the poorest and the richest are ineffectual you that it is a savoury repast.” equally. The habitude of pleasing by flattery “ By Jupiter !" swore aloud my friend, “ he makes a language soft ; the fear of offending by persuades us no such thing: but everyone is truth makes it circuitous and conventional. Free ashamed of being the first to acknowledge, that governments, where such necessity can not exist, he never was master of a particle out of what he will always produce true eloquence.
had listened to and applauded.” Eubulides. We have in Athens young orators I had the curiosity to inquire who the speaker from the schools, who inform us that no deter- was. minate and masculine peculiarities of manner “What! do not you know Anædestatos ?" said should appear in public: they would dance with he, making a mark of interrogation upon my ribs, out displaying their muscles, they would sing with a sharper elbow than from his countenance without discomposing their lips.
I could have imagined had belonged to him ; Demosthenes. I will drag them, so help me “ the clever Anædestatos, who came into notice Jupiter ! back again to their fathers and mothers : as a youth by the celebration in verse of a pebble I will grasp their wrists so tightly, the most per- at the bottom of the Ilyssos. He forthwith was verse of them shall not break away from me. presented to Anytos, who experienced a hearty Tempestuous times are coming. Another month pleasure in seducing him away from his guardians. or two at farthest, and I will throw such anima- Anytos on his deathbed (for the Gods allowed tion into their features and their gestures, you him one) recommended the young Anædestatos
warmly to his friends: such men have always sybulos. This, I know not by what oversight, is
my prudent friend : "he has those about him who “ Impossible ! six hundred talents are sufficient will swear, and adduce the proofs, that you are for the annual stipend of all our civil magistrates, holding a traitorous correspondence with Philip from the highest to the lowest, and of all the or Artaxerxes.” generals in our republic and its dependencies.” I began to gaze in indignation on his florid
" It was before you came forward into public and calm countenance; he winked again, again life, 0 Demosthenes ! but my father can prove the accosted me with his elbow, and withdrew. exactness of my statement. The last little sip Eubulides. Happy Athenians! who have so from the reservoir was seventy talents* for a many great men of so many kinds, peculiar to voyage to Lesbos, and a residence there of about yourselves, and can make one even out of Anæthree months, to settle the value of forty skins of destatos. wine, owing to the Lesbians in the time of Thra
BONAPARTE AND THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE. President. Sire, while the car of Victory is iron arm of despotism, and to produce, or rather awhile suspended in its course, and mothers are to place within the reach of all your Majesty's embracing those pledges of affection, which a subjects, those luxuries which a long war, excited frightful Revolution hath spared to their mater- by the cupidity of the monopolising islanders, nity, happy France is devising, under the auspices seemed to have interdicted to our policy, and of her immortal hero, new pangs and afflictions which our discretion taught us manfully to resign, for the tyrants of the ocean. The radiant star it is proposed that every regiment in the French that shone upon your Majesty's nativity, throws service be subjected to a mild and beneficent a lustre that eclipses the polar. It embellishes diabetes. Our chemists and physicians, ever our soil, and renders it fruitful in all those re- labouring for the public good, have discovered sources of industry which will for ever keep it that this disposition of the body, which if improindependent of distant and less happy climates. perly managed might become a disease, is attended The beet-root, indigenous plant, satisfied all the with the most useful results, and produces a large wishes of a nation at once the most elegant and quantity of saccharine matter. luxurious. Frenchmen, I am contented with The process was pointed out by Nature herself you," said her tutelary Genius : “ yes, your Ma- in the person of your Majesty, and of several of jesty said it.” Suddenly a thousand voices cry, the Grand Dignitaries of the Empire, when the “Let us make fresh sacrifices : we have wished; barbarians of the North flew from their capital, it is not enough; we will do more."
which they reduced to ashes, and threw themArdent to fulfil their duties, and waiting but selves in consternation on the Vistula, the Oder, to be instructed how, the brave youth, and those and the Elbe, to the very shores of the Cimbrian whose grey hairs are so honourable, implore that Chersonese. paternal wisdom which never will cease to watch Bonaparte. Strike out that foolery. Now start over them, that they may receive those august again. commands which will accomplish their destinies. President. I therefore have the honour of sub
The enemy no longer pollutes our soil : France mitting to your Majesty, that the sugar, the prorecovers her attitude. Your Majesty wishes no duce of this simple operation, be made subsidiary new provinces : greater triumphs, wider dominion, to that of the beet-root in the proportion of oneto the successor of Charlemagne and of Trajan! third ; and that this lively and long-desired sugar, That mighty mind, to bless a beloved and grate- so salutary to man from its prior relationship with ful people, shall make the animal kingdom con- his constituent principles, and so eager for its federate with the vegetable. Such are his con- reunion, be the only sugar used in the French quests : the only ones that remain for him to empire, and among the good and faithful allies achieve.
of your Majesty : and further, that after the expiraFrom the calm of their retreats the sages of tion of fourteen years, every Power in amity with France step forth; and behold the decree which France may fabricate it within its own territory. Four Majesty had already uttered at the bottom His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of their hearts.
of Italy, Protector of the confederation of the Bona parte. Read it, and make haste.
Rhine, and Mediator of Switzerland, was graciPresident. To put our implacable enemies to ously pleased to make the following reply. May confusion, to drive proud Albion to despair, to it please your Majesty to dictate one. abolish the feudal system, to wither for ever the Bonaparte. Write. * 14000 pounds.
'Sir, president of my senate, I am content with
My minister of the interior shall be charged and tearing the proud to pieces. No longer shall to carry your proposition into effect.'
monopoly, with Feodality in her train . . And now you are here, you may lay your heads Bonaparte. Stop there : alter that ; reverse the together and prepare an address to me on the order : Feodality comes first. birth of my son, the King of Rome. President ! President. Contract and poison the sources of why do you lift up your shoulders ?
existence. The labourer shall prune his vine unPresident. May it please your Imperial Majesty, molested in the happy plains of Cashemir : and the glorious prince, whom France and the whole Beauty, the child of France, shall deign to accept world sighs for, is unborn.
her graceful shawl, earnest of gratitude and goodBonaparte. What the devil is that to you? He will. The Georgians and Circassians, now groanwill be born within a day or two, or at most a ing under the odious yoke of England .. week, and I may not have leisure or inclina- Bonaparte. Of Russia, I think, or Turkey. But tion to send after you again. Write down my let that pass : my good people will never find it out. words.
President. Shall throw it off their necks at the • The star which, on the day of my birth, pro- approach of the first French soldier: and Phasis mised me a son, accomplishes its promise. The and Choäspes and Liffy shall roll their golden King of Rome descends on earth, already the sands to the feet of their deliverer. To accomdefender of monarchy and religion.'
plish in one campaign these high destinies, a son, Have you written, monsieur, what follows ? worthy of his august genitor, in happy hour is President. Yes, Sir; although imperfectly. born to your Majesty. Egypt, from whom your
France, to commemorate the event, will aggra- star removed you, Sire, lies desolate. The palace vate on some future day the grief and malignity of the Pharaohs, the Alexanders, and the Ptoleof proud Albion, seizing in her despite the noblest mies, flew open in vain at the distant sound of monument she left behind in Egypt. That pyra- your foot. Never more shall it rejoice in your mid from which forty ages spoke to your Majesty presence : but your legions, under their young the purest French, is destined to stand at the Alcides, already invincible by his father's name, bottom of your staircase at the Tuileries, and shall carry him thither on their conglomerated to bear on its summit the plumed hat of your arms, to solemnise the banquet of Victory. adorable infant.
Resound, O Memnon! thy prelude to that Bonaparte. The sentiment is truly French. morning-star, to which the brightened counte
President. Memnon shall resound the name to nances of all nations are uplifted. Take thy stahis satellite the Odeon.
tion, O Pyramid ! at the bottom of a staircase Bonaparte. Bravo!
which a hundred kings have mounted and dePresident. And every department of the empire scended, but only one great man. shall respond to the annunciation.
Bonaparte. President! take some lemonade. Bonaparte. Sounding and sensible: but you An instructive volume might be composed of the speeches have fallen from Memnon. Make a dash again made to Bonaparte and Louis XVIII. The adulation here at England.
falls short of that presented to Charles X. by M. le comte President. Too long has France permitted the de Sèze, president of the Court of Cassation. “Tous les
Bourbons se ressemblent : ils sont tous de dignes descendans frightful chariot of Juggernaut, driven by relent- de St. Louis et de Henri IV. Ce sont toujours les mêmes less Albion, to crush the children of India. Her vertus, la même foi, la même clémence, le même amour pour eagle has one more flight, only one more, to make. le peuple, le même désir de concilier les libertés publiques et From the summit of that pyramid she shall cover les droits sacrés du trône." There is only one truth in all with her wing the Thames, the Hydaspes, the this, but it is too much of one : Tous les Bourbons se
ressemblent. The eulogy was delivered in the reign of Indus, and the Ganges, protecting the innocent Ferdinand VII. of Spain and Ferdinand IV. of Naples.
THE ABBÉ DELILLE AND WALTER LANDOR. The Abbé Delille was the happiest of creatures, | just as to transport an obelisk from Egypt, and to when he could weep over the charms of innocence erect it in one of the squares, must be considered and the country, in some crowded and fashionable a greater labour than to build a new milliner's shop. circle at Paris. We embraced most pathetically Delille. Milton is indeed extremely difficult to on our first meeting there, as if the one were translate ; for, however noble and majestic, he is condemned to quit the earth, the other to live sometimes heavy, and often rough and uneqnal.
Landor. Dear Abbé ! porphyry is heavy, gold is Delille. You are reported to have said that heavier: Ossa and Olympus are rough and unequal: descriptive poetry has all the merits of a handker- the steppes of Tartary, though high, are of unichief that smells of roses ?
form elevation : there is not a rock, nor a birch, Landor. This, if I said it, is among the things nor a cytisus, nor an arbutus, upon them, great which are neither false enough nor true enough enough to shelter a new-dropt lamb. Level the to be displeasing. But the Abbé Delille has Alps one with another, and where is their sublimerits of his own. To translate Milton well, is mity? Raise up the vale of Tempe to the downs more laudable than originality in trifling matters; above, and where are those sylvan creeks and har