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thy face, and inform thee triumphantly, that if wherein the swells of their sorrows and the irreguantecedently no fitness or reason had existed, yet larities of their other affections may subside and both reason and fitness sprang up full-grown when sweeten. This practice remains with them through he overthrew and smote thee.

life. I see no similitude in it to that of the papist, Peterborough, Famous illustration.

when all the confidence a young man places in Penn. Sneer not at what prelacy holds the most his father, and a young woman in her mother, is pertinaciously of her doctrines, and what, if thou considered by the priest as not among the duties wilt not swallow it from the pulpit, thou must of life, unless both of them come before him, and gulp from the drum-head. Nay, Mordaunt, with submit the tenderer and purer mind to his hardall thy pride, impetuosity, and disdain, thou, even ened and intrusive touch. He tells them such thou art the liveryman of this gardener : yea, confession, and such only, is necessary to their thou who wert indignant to be designated as his happiness in a future state. God, he says, accepts master. Inconsistent creature!

it not as a merit, but as an atonement: those who Peterborough. It is something to have an influ- have been injured may be passed aside : he himself ence on the fortunes of mankind : it is greatly acts for these, without seeing them, without more to have an influence on their intellects. communicating with them, without making them Such is the difference between men of office and reparation, without rendering them account. men of genius, between computed and uncom- Peterborough. There are creatures brought from puted rank.

other countries, as these priests were, and exhiPenn. Thou art not among those who place bited in fairs and markets and festivals (and wherFortune above Nature, and the weakest work of ever men and money are idly tossed about), as these the weakest mortals above the greatest work of priests are, which superintend each other's polls Deity in his omnipotence. It is generous in thee with much care and cunning, as these priests do, to acknowledge what it would be expected from and pick out from them, and put between their thee to deny, if thou wert not higher than a garter grinders, the minute generations of incommodious could lift thee.

things springing up innumerably from pruriency Peterborough. I should be as mean as a man of and scurf

. What thinkest thou? Thinkest thou fashion if I disallowed it, and as silly as a presi- that these animals, the bigger or the smaller, do dent of the council if I attempted to dissemble it. the same for cleanliness? No; they do it for eating, Only the first personage in the kingdom should as these priests do. be unenlightened and void, as only the first page Penn. Inconveniences there may be in our in a book should be a blank one. It is when it is manners, but not to us : inconsistencies there torn out that we come at once to the letters. may be in our government, but not ours are those.

Your complimentary terms shall not preclude In this country, where we are left to ourselves, me from an attack on you, now we are away from we reconcile them gradually or remove them your garden and gardener. You also in manners peaceably. and regimen have your inconsistencies.

Peterborough. If they were serious, and in your Penn. Let us correct them : we can do it, and native country, you would find your religious are ready: what are they?

scruples an impediment to every such exertion. Peterborough. I am not captious by nature, nor Penn. Thy difference to modes of worship and over-nice.

to articles of faith is founded on the principle, I Penn. Thou beginnest well.

suppose, that a virtuous man will be virtuous in
Peterborough. Really I am almost ashamed to any of them.
take exceptions at mere words.

Peterborough. Unquestionably.
Penn. Better and better.

Penn. What maketh him virtuous ?
Peterborough. I will not spare you then. On my Peterborough. His inclination : the current and
conscience, I do not see why your people, in reality quality of his blood.
so sincere, should use expressions in which there Penn. Hast thou reflected so little as not to
is no sincerity. Friend, on all occasions, is an know that inclinations are given by discipline and
abuse. A friend is a creature now extinct : we habit; and that the quality and current of the
read of its petrified bones in distant regions, and blood are as much to be modified by indulgence or
those who would represent its figure in their coercion, as they are by pepper or hemlock.
persons, resemble it only in its petrifaction. I would never try to arouse thy soul from the only

Penn. We call every man our friend because we state of languor it is subject to, did not this indifwish to be every man's. Thou hast not found ference to externals, as thou callest them, cover friendship in certain places, because thou wert in almost every breast (and might hereafter in looking for something else. Take virtue with thine) an equal indifference to what lies deeper. thee, and thou wilt either find it or not want it. But, the thing being so, rise from thy apathy, from Here thou art as unfair with us as thou wert on thy lethargic trance, if true courage, or even if excommunication, of which I will now explain to false, be within thee! Away to Piedemont; away thee our employment.

to the people of the Valley! Doth the sword We admonish our younger brethren to omit no charm thee? doth blood thrill thee? or hath it opportunity of pouring their ill actions and ill lost its voice with thee when it crieth unto God? thoughts into quieter and more capacious minds, Thousands had been cast into infected prisons ;

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yea, seventeen thousands. Winter stepped in ment was cannonaded and bombarded, and there between the pestilence and them; and those whom was on every side a pertinacious and most desperate the ice had not fastened to the floor were at last assault. This too failed: but as the ill-constructed in number three thousand ; when it appeared to parapet was laid in ruins, they escaped down the their prince to be a costly matter, and an offence precipices by night, amid the sentinels of the beleato the Virgin, to feed any longer these heretics. guerer, and posted themselves at some distance, Scourged from their dungeons, bayoneted from in the Pré du Tour, a small plain surrounded by their country, they traverse Geneva; they reach the wildest mountains, where their ancestors like Berne. Not houses nor lands nor brotherly love, themselves had displayed such courage, as never nor compassion, so sweet a stranger to them, so was exhibited in any region of the earth, by any long unlooked for, could detain them there, nor other portion of the human race. the only alluring one of interdicted pleasures (for Peterborough. Are you not ashamed of being so such it had ever heen to them) the blessed com- eloquent ? munion of Christian faith, Their grain was Penn. I know nothing of oratory : I carry no growing yellow on its stalk, when they assembled piece of tape to measure periods; but reflection by night in the wood of Nyon. The boldest of shows me that the greater part of the most elohuman enterprises was undertaken on thesixteenth quent books that ever were written, might with of the eighth month, in the year of our redemp. more advantage be cast into the ovens of Paris tion sixteen hundred and eighty-nine.

and London, than placed in the hands of the I designate the year particularly, although two young and inconsiderate. Philosophy, whatever have not since elapsed, because the existence of it may do hereafter, has done little good at pre these persecuted men appears to be one of those sent: and History has reserved all her applauses glorious actions which both contemporary and for the destroyers of mankind. Point out to me future annalists may overlook. For History is now one single schoolmaster or professor, in any age, become as fond as Poetry ever was of the violent who has not applauded the speech of Alexander to and powerful, and much more contemptuous of Parmenio : that if he were Parmenio he would low condition. She loves better great nations sheathe the sword. Was the man so besotted as than great actions, great battles than great ex- not to see clearly that Parmenio spoke in the amples, and is ready to emblazon no name under interests of humanity and in the opinion of all which she descries no shoulder-knot. Of these nations, and that he himself spoke not even in his holy men, pursued like wolves, but never dropping own interests, and directly against the well-being in their flight the ark of true religion, fewer than of the world. nine hundred climb the hostile mountains of Peterborough. What an unfortunate man was Savoy. Prudence and Justice guide them in their Ludlow, not to have been present at the battles of path : they pay their cruel enemies for everything these brave fellows! He left their vicinity just needful, out of a pittance insufficient for perhaps before, and came into England, hoping to end his another day. Between Suze and Brianson, at the days among us. I met him in Westminster-abbey bridge of Salabertrans, they are opposed by two the morning of that memorable sitting when Sir thousand five hundred regular troops, and by a Edward Seymour, who enjoyed the general's estate numerous armed peasantry. The bridge is barri- at Maiden Bradley, moved the house of commons caded : a battle of two hours renders them masters for an address to the king, praying that he should of this position. Weary with their conflict, be arrested. Whiggism prevailed: and the hungered (for now those among them who had soundest and sincerest friend of liberty went again money can procure no subsistence with it, the into exile for the constancy of his attachment. peasantry being in the field against them), they I was struck by the manly, calm, unassuming, still pursue their march, and attain the summit military air, of a robust and fresh-coloured man, of the highest mountain on the road.

about seventy years of age, who stood before me Why have they fallen on the earth ? and where with his eyes fixed downward on one spot. Being fore are they praising God? Because they see neither very shy, nor more disposed to balk my again the land that nurtured them in the strength curiosity than my other propensities, I bowed to of holiness, the rafters (for some are unconsumed) him respectfully, and expressed my persuasion of the churches wherein their parents were united, that whoever was interred there, merited the and the elder-tree in full flower upon their graves. sympathies of the nation. Orchards and gardens had disappeared : flocks “Young gentleman,” answered he mildly, "you there were none, nor any beast whatever. The do not know, apparently, whose bones have lain villages were to be conquered from the invader: here?" in another day not a trace remained of them, Certainly not, sir," I replied ; “but probably excepting two black lines, where the fire had run many men's in many ages : for, whatever may be along. Reduced at last to four hundred comba- the respect which, in this place above others, lants, they threw up strong entrenchments, and is paid to the deceased, it will not ensure to resisted until winter the repeated assaults of their their bones an undisturbed and permanent increasing enemies. Early in the spring an army station.” of twenty-two thousand men attacked them, and “ If it could,” replied he,“ surely those of the was repulsed. Eight days afterward the entrench- most prudent, humane, intelligent commander,

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He said many

that ever led Englishmen to victory, would not property, most of my days, all of my thoughts, have been disinterred."

designs, and labours, have been devoted to the “ The felonious Stuarts and their insatiable consummation of this one event. How gladly jackals,” cried I, “prowled after rotten carcasses, have I bestowed them ! how gladly shall I bestow and had more stomach to lap congealed blood the remainder. To see the country I have served than to fight for fresher. And there are syco- by my life and writings, is an ample recompense phants yet among us who would excite our com- for any service I could render her, and almost miseration for their chastisement. The same comforts me under the privation of friends, assofellows, next week, will be just as loyal and reli- ciates, and comrades, swept away by the storm gious in extolling the powers that be.”

that split our island and convulsed all Europe." He seemed neither to notice my expressions An old beadle at this moment twitched me by nor to partake in my emotion, but, laying his the skirt of my coat, and drew me aside.“ Have hand gently on my shoulder, said, gravely and a care," said he, in a tremulous voice ; " that is tenderly, “Even generous enthusiasm leaves men old Ludlow. The tories would pink him, and the sometimes ungenerous.

We have removed the whigs poison him.” evil ; let us pardon and forget it. Let us imitate, Faith! honest friend,” said I, "you describe as far as we can, him whom we ought rather to the two parties better than anyone in the land." think on than on the Stuarts. We are treading the Then, turning to the general, I told him he had a ground that covered Blake; the man of men.” right to reprove my forwardness; and in order

Roused to higher enthusiasm by his calmness that he might know on what person the reproof than I could have been by his eloquence, if he had should fall, I gave him my name. any, I seized him by the hand, and swore by God kind things, and added some compliments. I the eulogy was merited and true.

regretted that he was not received in the country Penn. And God will forgive thee; for though with public honours, as having been commander thou didst (as many wise men will tell thee) take in chief, and against a family then excluded by a his name in vain, never was it taken in adjuration majority of the nation, and now expelled by the less in vain than then. Some admirals have main- whole. My indignation burst out against that tained the glory of England; some have increased wrangler and robber, Seymour, who a few days it: he found it lower than that of Holland, of afterward drove him from the country, lest his Spain, or even of France, and raised it by his virtues should be acknowledged, his sufferings genius and valour far above them all. The hope pitied, his losses compensated, and his estates is more reasonable that we may never want such restored. men again than that we shall ever see them. Penn. We may discourse on better people and

Peterborough. Hold! friend William ! With better things. your leave, I will entertain both hopes alike; little Peterborough. We will then as is the probability that, if any admiral shall

Away to the valleys, the mountains, and moors. equal him in the union of nautical skill and inoral bravery, the same person will be equally grave, Pardon my bad singing. Even your mare flinched disinterested, dispassionate, humble, and tender- at it. hearted. I agree with you that no fighting man Our accounts of the Valdenses in England have was ever at once so great and so good a man as never been explicit and particular. Blake: and since History does not inform us that Penn. Latterly the government has always been there has been, Reason does not encourage us to unfriendly to the growth of freedom in foreign believe that there will be at any time hereafter : countries, and to the purity of religion at home : but Hope may whisper when these are silent. In wherefore, as we yield to the impulse it gives, all ages, party and self are the prime movers of their success or annihilation would concern fewer human action, and never were they more busy now than formerly. In the time of Cromwell this than in the whole of his lifetime. Firm as he was oppressed people was commiserated and protected. in the principles of republicanism, he belonged to Peterborough. I remember some verses written no party, and was as far removed from selfishness on their calamities by his Latin secretary, Mr. as from faction. He declined the honours of the Milton, a strenuous advocate of their cause. state, he avoided the acclaim of popularity, he won Penn. And of every cause in which the glory of battles against calculation, he took treasures above God and the dignity of man are implicated. He it, he lived frugally, he died poor.

spake with the enthusiam of a prophet, he reasoned Ludlow was moved by the earnestness of my with the precision of a philosopher, and he lived language and demeanour, and said gracefully, with the purity of a saint. “Sir! I perceive you are a military man; so was Peterborough. I love all great men, and hate all I, while I had any existence as an Englishman.” counterfeits of them, particularly such as are “How! sir !" exclaimed I.

struck and milled at a blow in the royal mint. They under these stones,” continued he, “in- Cromwell does not displease me, though I should herit their place of rest : I come to seek it: and have fought against him, unless my uncle, who if rumours are to be trusted, I may fail to find it. commanded the artillery under Essex, had led me Again I behold my beloved country in the en- preferably to that side. joyment of peace and freedom.

Much of my

Penn. Thou wouldst have judged ill in fighting against him, for his side was the righteous one, the Mind, I speak of the functions of a prince, not of side of the sufferer and the oppressed : and thou the accessaries, not of what belongs to the man or judgest no less ill in saying he doth not displease the philosopher. You will understand my reason thee. He is thought to have been a hypocrite for for expressing a doubt of the Protector being a the sake of power; whereas in fact he was sincere, usurper. If he was one, so is the gentleman I until power by degrees made him a hypocrite. helped to introduce from Holland, who is likewise How little then of it should be trusted to any man, a great man, and perhaps the next in dignity when the wisest, and the bravest, and the calmest among our rulers. It is childish to talk of illeare thus perverted by it! However, in no instance gality because the army was the instrument. The did he exercise his authority to the detriment of army must always be the instrument in funda his country, which indeed he elevated as high in mental changes; and is never so well employed ; glory as the hereditary Charles immersed it in dis- not even in repelling an aggression. For we are grace. So great and so desirable a prince as Crom- liable to more mischief in our houses than out; well never since the creation had been appointed liable to equal violence and greater depredaby the Lord of it, to preserve the liberties and to tion, and that depredation in costlier things; moderate the passions of a turbulent, a factious, and the injury is the worse as coming from and a sinful people.

those about us, and trusted by us implicitly in Peterborough. When so many high-minded men our concerns. were against him, and those nearest him the most, Among such a people as the Valdenses, there is I wonder how he could contrive to mount above no danger of such a man as Cromwell obtaining them as he did.

an ascendancy. They warmed you; which is more Penn. Whoever is possessed of such a genius, than he ever did ; I will answer for him. or anything like it, and is resolved on deception, Penn. The commands and the practice of our may rise to the first distinction : but neither teacher do not permit me to applaud the bloodsheddeception without genius, nor genius without der, although in resistance. Cruelty, if we consider deception, will elevate him to that wide prospect it as a crime, is the greatest of all: but I think we of dominion, at which the tempter in his breast should more justly consider it, in men of education, says, “ This, O my worshipper, shall be thine.” as a madness; for it quite destroys our sympathies,

Peterborough. In general there is as much dif- and, doing so, must supersede and master our ference between a usurper and a hereditary King, intellect. It removes from us those that can help as there is between a wild boar and a tame one: us, and brings against us those that can injure us: but Cromwell had nothing in him ferocious; nor whence it opposes the great principle of our nature, had Charles anything sordid, if we except the self-love, and endangers not only our well-being but abandonment of his friends when they were dis- our being. Reason is then the most perfect, when tressed, and of his promises when they were it enables us the most to benefit society : reason inconvenient. I disapprove of the clownishness is then the most deranged, when there is that over in some and of the levity in others, with which it which disables a man from benefiting his fellow they treated the criminal on his trial; nor do I men : and cruelty is that. We hold it unlawful less disapprove of the slavish baseness, the corrupt to kill a fellow creature for any offence whatsycophaney, with which in his prosperity the king ever. was served by his equals : for above an English Peterborough. But if the laws enact it, then surely gentleman there neither ought to be, nor is there, it is lawful. in character and dignity, anything upon carth. Penn. There is a law, above the passions, above The king is the work of our hands, we are not the mutabilities of man, from which whatever is the work of his : we existed before him, and shall lawful must emanate. Herein the commands of exist after him : he may do much with us, with God are clear and definite. out us nothing.

Peterborough. Some of them; others not; or Penn. In this thou art wise ; and on this secure rather they run quite contrary. You feel greater part of thy wisdom let thy bravery act and rest. horror at murder than any people do, and yet you

Peterborough. I know not upon what principle would punish it less severely. the chancellor Clarendon called Cromwell a bold Penn. I deem that offence the worst which tends bad man, unless it were to persuade us that he furthest to deteriorate our social condition. Were had read a play of Shakspeare's; in which we find it lawful to punish anyone with death, it would the same words, rather more happily applied. be the conqueror, holding in subjection the people People are bad and good relatively and compara- that has not injured him, and that consents not tively. Oliver would have been but a sorry saint, to his domination. If a traveller, who has been and no very tractable disciple or apostle; nor do robbed and bound by a thief, can unbind himself I imagine that you would have admitted him with and recover his property, ye deem him justified in out a scrutiny into the society of friends : but he so doing, although he can do it by no other way was a good father, a good husband, a good com- than by slaying the thief. panion, a good soldier, and (taking up now the Peterborough. Certainly; and praise his spirit. point on which we are to consider him) he was cer- Penn. If a prince exacteth from his people any tainly the best usurper, if you can call him one at part of their substance, without asking their conall, and perhaps the best prince, that ever lived. sent, or forces them to labour or fight, ye would

deem that what is done by force may be resisted | hope that, if the victory should be ours, the only by force.

punishment we inflict on the governors be the Peterborough. Princes who levy taxes and troops civilisation of the governed. Let us hope that despotically, may justly be killed by those who we may exact the freedom of the Africans and of suffer under them, whether born in that condition the Spaniards, and may empty for ever the holds or not : but every kind of government has made of the slave-ship and the dungeons of the Inquisiconquests, and has retained them by treaty: these tion. We have the same right to stipulate the therefore are inviolable.

one as the other, and a much greater than to Penn. By whom were the treaties made ? demand the cession of a single village, or the Peterborough. By the governors.

transfer of a single man. Penn. But if the majority of the people, con- Abolish the slave-trade! Ah, who can ever voked and appealed to, did not consent, without hope it! Whoever shall effect this, will have force or fear, to pass under the new ruler, he who effected more than the twelve apostles. They but holds them in bondage may, according to thy threw a stone at a sparrow, and did not bring it principles, and according to worldly justice, be to the ground; he will have placed his foot upon slain by any of the conquered. And until it is a serpent, more venomous than ever was feigned agreed and enforced, that no nation in Europe by fear or poetry, and will have crushed it in all shall take possession of another, or of any part, its folds from the setting sun to the rising. What international law will be no better than quibble in comparison have all the philosophers done, or and contradiction.

what have all the religious ? they have raised much Peterborough. He must be a legitimate fool, and dust, and have removed little. He indeed hath of the purest breed, who believes that the power conquered his enemy who binds him by moral ful will ever cease to exercise their power for its obligations; he indeed is great and good who propagation.

knows how to make other men so; and he is in a Penn. Ye defend the violence done by system, worse condition than a slave who reduces a higher and punish by the gallows the same violence done mind to slavery. Incessant horrors haunt him, by poor wretches incapable of reflection; done per- and eternal punishments (if there be any such) haps from want of food, perhaps from neglect of await him! education, criminal not in the robber, but in the Princes of the earth! will ye never hear a truth ministers of the prince. If power is ever right- unless what is preached to you by your fellows at eously to be exercised by one state toward another, the scaffold? Have ye forgotten so soon your last it is in taking away the means of injustice and lesson? Alas! must it be repeated to you? cruelty from the administrators, and in restoring Peterborough. The old admiral would not perto the people their rights. When they once have haps have been so civil as to ask the question of them, and find them acknowledged, they will fear them. He would have preached to them when he to hazard the enjoyment of them, as they must do had cropped the hair from both ears, and had by assailing or injuring another state. For in- erected a sounding board to his liking at Whitehall. stance, if the French were free they would have no Penn. Fools! it is they who make such men as false appetite : being slaves, they are restless for my father. He had his faults : but he feared God something to buoy them up from their degrada- and loved his country. Let us honour him! I tion. They are yet to be taught that Honour must ever do it. may dwell in houses as well as under tents; and Peterborough. And I too. I admire and venerate that, if they must boast for ever, they may boast many whom I should be glad to fight against. of better things than having served.

Penn. Strange creature! Are we then images Peterborough. Well said, my Quixote of orders of clay, baked by children in the sun, to be broken grey! The next proposal I expect from you, is for their entertainment? the settlement of differences in the moon; the Peterborough. The first of us are hardly worth a second, the abolition of the slave-trade; and the serious thought. third, of the Inquisition.

Penn. And yet how much happiness might Penn. As to the moon, thou hast more to look even those who are not the first of us, confer ! for there than I have, and I should gladly see Peterborough. I should have said enjoy. thee righted : but ( that God would grant both Penn. I said it. those abolitions! I do indeed hold it just and In the spirit of religion, which is humanity reasonable in any powerful people to insist on and nothing else, I may nevertheless demonthem.

strate why these children of the mountains fought Peterborough. Insist! when a nation insists on courageously. They believed that they were anything against another, it declares war. protecting the household and the house itself of

Penn. There is nothing in this life worth quar. God: they believed that their sufferings were relling for, and there is nothing to be gained by trials, and that this life was given them for enduit in another : yet, apparently in the present state rance, in proportion to which should be their of things, we never can be long at peace. Our happiness in the next. Hope is the mother of quarrels are as frequent and as irrational as those Faith. of children. Since however the great evil of Peterborough. Who has a twin daughter very bloodshed must yet for some time continue, let us | like her, named Folly.

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