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Trdavny. No man ever excelled him in pru- | byeword : utility is the phrasc in vogue : a dence or in courage.
linsey-woolsy phrase, picked out from the pack of Acrire. Ah son guest ! hadst thou seen my hus- some Scotchman : some adept in that science band, the father of Andritzo, but for the twinkling which among them is called economy, among us of an eye, thou wouldst never have said this. starvation. Odysseus is a dutiful child, and hath slain many Odysseus. Glory is utility to kings : it adorns circumcised dogs, and thrown many more off their the throne and establishes it. But in the sight scent when they thirsted for our blood and trea- of politicians, reference to the virtuous and valiant sure : he doth not want valour nor circumspec- of ancient days is pedantic, admiration of heroism tion : few have more : none in Greece, I uphold is puerile, an enthusiastic expression is an insurit: none upon earth, I will be sworn for it ..... mountable hindrance to preferment. Here he comes. Tush ! These are the very things Trelawny. Nevertheless I walk straight across he can not bear to hear; the only ones that anger the stubble-field, whatever may stick to me, burr or offend him.
or brier, keeping in view the distant scenery that Odysseus. Well, Trelawny! whenever my fair always has captivated and delighted me. grandmother shall have ceased to whisper soft Odysseus. Well sayest thou, never was there sayings in thy ear, and the conversation shall have wanting, in the worst and most barbarous ages, begun to grow a little less interesting, look above some generous warlike enthusiastic prince, to be and athwart and along! This spacious and airy excited by a love of fame and a spirit of enterprise: cavern, dry in all seasons, warm in winter, cool in now for the first time on record such a character summer, well supplied with water, well stored is nowhere in Europe. with provisions and munition, free from insects Trelawny, One well-sustained note of a public and reptiles, inaccessible to traitors, and easily singer is able to stir and scatter those accumulaand by few to be defended against aggressors, tions of exaction, which would lie motionless and hath been heretofore the refuge of half-extin- inert as in the mine, at the cries of all Greece, all guished nations. Here art thou my guest and Christendom, all Nature. The taskmasters for comrade, here art thou my only confidant and whom we labor, press forward and combine friend. I will treat thee now and evermore with together for no other object than the support of the confidence a brave man deserves. Be not lawless authority. offended! The gold of England hath corrupted Odysseus. All perhaps may not anathematize no few among the most courageous of my country and persecute us alike: but all alike would crush men: the gold of England enchases the dagger- us. Nations of free men and nations of slaves are hilt that aims at my life.
equally friendly to us: the rulers of slaves and Trelawny. Incredible! Certainly this, however, the rulers of free men are equally our adversaries. is not among the crimes of our late minister. The Tersitza. Then which are the free? which the only life he ever personally aimed at, was the slaves ? vilest in existence, and none complains that he Odysseus. Ask those who see better : my vision succeeded in his attempt. I forgot : he aimed blends them. at another so like it, that it is a pity it did not Trelawny. We can hope nothing from the desire form a part of it.
of reputation in our princes, which they cared Odysseus. The present time is the first thou hast little for keeping while they had it: any speculaever heard me complain of thy country: if this tion to recover it, is the last idleness and folly be complaint. I meant it only as a reason for they are likely to fall into. my sojourn here, and for conducting thee so far Odysseus. Alas! too true is it, my friend ! and away from amusements and from action. Those not only in princes, though in them chiefly, the who direct your councils are themselves no longer desire of reputation, which
ought to be the steadiest free. I will not say they are slaves; but they are of desires, is the most erring. Beneficence is nobound to such, and must follow them, straight or where, as she should be and would be, the guide crookedly. On this condition they are allowed of Glory. In every part of Europe, the name what they call freedom and what they call power ; slace hath ceased to be associated with pity or the liberty of seizing from others whatever suits with ignominy; and yet the condition of one class their purposes, and the power of stopping inquiry of slaves is more pitiable than it ever was, and of and of punishing complaint.
the other more ignominious. The appellation is Tersitza. O stranger! is there no prince in however too honorable for us : we are rebels! And Europe who holds it glorious to stand by the cross England is as much our enemy as if we were rebels of his Redeemer ?
to her. First she brought about a peace between Trelawny. In the darkest of former days never our murderers and Persia, that they might come was there one such wanting. Nobody now, in the against us undivided and unimpeded. She now is whole confederacy of despots, will trust his neigh- desirous of continuing one between them and the bour. They act toward one another as if they Emperor of Russia, bound by duties and treaties were mutually known to be the most dishonest to protect the ministers of our religion. He hath men in the world. All of them have seized what is suffered the ignominy of seeing the most exalted not theirs, and are resolved that none shall re of them, of seeing a patriarch who approached his cover or retain what is. Liberality is a scoff, a hundredth year, slaughtered on the most solemn of our festivals, descending from the altar, attired Believe me, that country will become the most in the vestments of the church. Eternal shame! powerful which does the most extensive good. inexpiable treason to the cause of holiness and of Nations live and remember, when princes have humanity!
fallen asleep by the side of their fathers, and ! Are we rebels ? no. The conditions, hard as dynasties bave past away. No princely house they were, that held us to the Ottoman, were was ever grateful long together: a people has violated, cast asunder, trampled on, by himself, a capacious heart, a full one, a sound one, and for centuries. There is no rebellion against lust one that may beat for ages. 0! who would and rapine : it is our duty, the first of duties, the empoison and paralyze, who would contract and most sacred. After this great truth, need I re- harden, who would estrange and alienate it! mark that many districts never owned the legiti- Tersitza. Sad perverseness ! Why are not other macy, or the existence, of Turkish authority; men like you, my dear brother? made no alliance or compact with the invader; Trelawny. We see nothing, O fair Tersitza ! nor did any such live within them! Need I re- but traces of evil in the world. The sunshine mark that not only was the despot unable to pro- leaves no mark, the lightning leaves it. tect us from an enemy, without which ability there Yet, even the devastators of nations, not only neither is allegiance nor subjection, but that he among the ancients, but in all modern times until was unable to defend us from his own people, the ours, have felt something of anxiety for fame and Albanians! The bond was cancelled before; and reputation. now his slave tore it and burned it.
Catharine and Frederic sought the friendship A certain force by sea is requisite to constitute and correspondence of every man in Europe who the blockade of a single port : and surely a certain stood eminent in merit and remarkable for genius force, moral or physical, is requisite to constitute and attainments. They established societies the possession of a whole country. If any nation for the encouragement and furtherance of arts, claim an island in the South Sea, and never colo-sciences, and literature in general; and if they nised it for many centuries, but only plundered made any distinction between the abettors of it at longer or shorter intervals, would such an despotism and the opponents, the distinction was exercise of power be considered by jurists as a in favour of the latter. For what and to whom ght over it ?
re the acknowledgments and rewards of England? Trelawny. Probably : by those jurists who She sends the Order of the Garter to the king of pointed cannon against you for defending your Portugal, on the subversion of the Constitution he families from apostacy and violation : by those had sworn to establish and defend : Russia, the jurists who sold as slaves the first of you that Order of Saint Andrew to the king of France, on resisted: by those jurists who carried in their the violation of the Charter he had bestowed upon transports barbarians from the deserts of Arabia, his people. Knighthood is now conferred for that of Libya, of Nubia, to exterminate the rest, to very action (I am loth to name it) for which aninhabit your country, to render it as happy, free, ciently it was taken away with every demonstraand fertile, as their own : by those jurists who tion of ignominy and disgrace. I know not what intimidated a weak wavering autocrat from aiding term designates it among kings, who undoubtyou, from driving off the vultures that devoured edly, like the Gods of Homer, have a language af you : by those jurists who pretended to the right their own; but, among us private men in Engof interference when your oppressor would have land, a very coarse monosyllable serves the purlost the means of oppression, and who disclaimed pose. Reading such incredible stories, posterity the right when you appealed to them to exercise will surely place our age in a second series of the it, in the cause of religion, of justice, of mercy, fabulous : but neither sage nor schoolman will and when you would have rested from war under ever confound it with the heroic. their flag.
Odysseus. Let us look to that. The only counGreat God! by what calamity, by what crimes, try in which anything is reported of the heroie have we, who gained so much glory in war, lost ages, is ours. There may be heroes out of bull. so much more in peace! Why are we, who could hides and brazen chariots : and there may also be render all Europe free and prosperous, at no ex- heroes crushed by the inert. pense, by no exertion, without lifting the arm, Trelawny. It was easy to foresee that, when without raising the voice, why are we hated, republics were subverted, constitutions and the scorned, insulted, universally? It is because we defenders of constitutions would be insulted and ought to do it, can do it, and will not.
assailed: but who could ever have imagined that Odysseus. No, Trelawny! It is because you the body of Christian princes should conspire neither will remove the grievances you promised against Christianity! That England should me to remove, and openly and repeatedly, as Sicily diate for Russia, and take on herself the whole and Italy bear witness, nor will permit others to negotiation, only that Turkey might have both abolish or diminish them, or even to provide hands at liberty, to rivet her chains on Greece! against their future accumulation. We required Every indignity that could be offered the patriots, only your neutrality: your national honour had has been wantonly and prodigally cast against other wants. Be comforted; be calm ! The them : even commercial relations have been fore English by degrees are growing insensible to them. gone and interdicted, even the course of money
checked and interrupted. When the supplies | oppressed stand over the oppressor ; we see happy, which you obtained by a loan in England had not them who never were otherwise, not them who reached Corfu, it was discovered that to deposit have made no effort, no movement of their own them there was a violation of neutrality: a law to earn their happiness, like the creatures of our never promulgated in Europe, never in Asia, and imaginary new world, but those who were the most now enforced by a grave sagacious governor, wretched, and the most undeservedly, and who aspiring (no doubt) to display in his diplomatic now, arising as from the tomb, move the incumlife the energy and lustre of his military.
brances of ages and of nations from before them, Odysseus. Let such men flourish; it is their and, although at present but half erect, lower season. Bad weather does not shake down the hip the stature of the greatest heroes. and haw, when every better fruit, and every leaf Trelawny. Two islets, neither of them greater that protected it, has fallen.
than a gentleman's estate in England, defied the Trelawny. What those among us who are vengeance of the Turkish government and the affected by a sense of national honour, most malignity of the English, devoting the fortunes lament, is, that England, whose generosity would and lives of the inhabitants, raising troops, fitting cost her nothing, and whose courage would be out armaments, erecting fortresses, filling them unexposed to fatality, stands aloof. What could with munition, fighting under and upon them, the united power (suppose it can ever be united) of setting fire to them, and expiring with their Austria, Turkey, Russia, do against England ? enemy amid the ruins. What would they attempt? Have they not already Odysseus. In more than one place was this imposed as many and as great restrictions on our done. Do you carry provisions of patience enough trade as their own can suffer ? and would not a for a long story? war with us dethrone whichever of their emperors Trelawny. I am ready to start with you. should proclaim it? The popular power is dis- Odysseus. Santa Veneranda is a fortified monasplayed the most vigorously where only one blow tery, to which Ali Pasha, some years before, had is requisite ; and the guards of despots are often- penetrated with an army of fifteen thousand men, times the tutelaries of justice. As the generous driving back the Suliots, in number one thousand and domestic of the beasts avoid and fly from the three hundred. At the sight of their women, led anger of their master, while the ferocious are im- thither by Mosko and Kaido, they again gave the pelled to violence by the activity of fear, so the shout of battle, and became in turn the assailants. civilised and liberal of men elude the shock of Many of the females fought by their sides : whoroyal discontent, while the barbarous rush against ever saw a sabre drop, or a musket, seized it. it, and strangle it at a grasp.
Others stayed upon the rocks, rolling down stones An alliance, offensive and defensive, with on the young ardent Mussulmans, who had fancied | Greece, would render us invulnerable in the only them an easier prey, and better worth conquer
part of the world where we have lately shown our ing than their husbands and their brothers. feebleness. We should unite to us a maritime Seven hundred and forty heads were piled up power, which within half a century would of itself into a trophy by the Suliots; and Ali Pasha fled be equipollent on the sea with France; and we away in disguise . . and halted at Yannina. This should attract to our merchants those advantages battle was fought on the 20th of July, in the of commerce in the Levant which at present lean year 1791. toward her. Chatham, if he had lived in our Photo Zavellas and his sister Kaido, in the year days, would have cast on every side around him 1802, were received into Santa Veneranda, when the seeds of maritime and constitutional states. he had set fire to his house that no Turk should We may extend our dominions in many ways; we ever profane it, and when he had asked as the can extend our power in this only. None of our only reward of his obedience that the archons late ministers have had clear views or steady aims. would watch over their country, and never let the We have been hovering on the shores of Greece name of their ancestors be dishonoured. until the season is going by for aiding her; and Samuel, who from the austerity of his life, from another power will soon have acquired the glory the confidence and awe he had inspired by anand the benefit of becoming her first protectress. nouncing the prodigies he would undertake, and
Odysseus. If a new world were to burst forth by performing them to the hour, had obtained the suddenly in the midst of the heavens, and we were appellation of the Last Judgment, defended Santa instructed by angelic voices, or whatever kind of Veneranda with three hundred Suliots, rejecting revelation the Creator might appoint, that its in the offers and retorting the threats of the Mahomehabitants were brave, generous, happy, and warm tans. He gave that reception to Photo and Kaido with all our sympathies, would not pious men which their courage, their perseverance, and their fall prostrate before him, for such a manifestation virtue merited. Few covet the glory, eminent as of his power and goodness? What then! shall it is, of being the first to acknowledge in anyone these very people, these religious, be the first to true greatness. He added this large sum of it to stifle the expression of our praise and wonder, at a what he had acquired by his prudence, his fortimarvel far more astonishing, at a manifestation of tude, his devotion, and his integrity. power and goodness far more glorious and mag- The Suliots now began to value him whom nificent? The weak vanquish the strong ; the Samuel loved and cherished, expressed their
repentance at exacting the sacrifice he had made, armies equally numerous, took the field against a sacrifice to him so costly and to them so profit- the invader. While they encountered death for less, implored him to return among them, and their country, Pilio Gusi, a Suliot, introduced the offered to rebuild his house, and to place in his enemy into Suli. Photo Zavellas escaped. He hands the supreme authority.
and Kaido and Samuel were blockaded in Santa If you hope," replied he, “ that the enmity of Veneranda by nine thousand Turks, of whom they Ali can be turned aside from you by negotiation, slew seven hundred. Means of defence and of I will undertake it: if on the contrary you be sustenance were failing: a favourable capitulalieve, as I do, that open war is better, let me bear tion, with the honours of war, was proposed to that part in it, whatever it may be, of which you them: none ventured to express the wish or the may deem me capable. Leave not, however, to necessity of accepting it. Samuel now spoke. me the invidious duty of punishing those who “ My children ” said he “ the terms offered to us were my friends and fellow-soldiers, and now are include the unfortunate of Suli, who wander on traitors."
the mountains or hold out from insulated towers : The adherents of the men he thus designated we have no time to hesitate, no choice to make: and denounced, at last prevailed in the council ; accept them." This voice had always been heard and it was resolved that he should go embassador as a father's, as a prophet's: the terms were ratito the court of Yannina. He soon discovered, fied.
“ And now
” cried he aloud and solemnly what he never had doubted, the perfidy of Ali, let us for the last time in this holy place render no less evident on this occasion than on former thanks to God for our preservation and deliverones, and was not sorry to carry back the con- ance. The service was performed: the soldiers ditions of peace proposed by him to the Suliots. went forth armed: the wounded were supported Having then returned home, and having given by the women. Samuel, who told them he should his advice both to reject them and to resist the give up possession of the fortress when he saw tyrant that would impose them, in vain did his them safe on the road, waited until six hundred friends and followers adjure him to remain in the Turks had entered. They rushed into the church, city.
partly through fanaticism to pollute it, and partly Formerly” said he "when our arehons com- through avarice to plunder it. He stood in the manded me to assist him with seventy men vault below: his hour was come: he threw a against his enemies in Argyro-Castro, and he fell lighted torch on the powder, and left but his upon and disarmed us and led us off captives, I name on earth. Detachments had already set out watched my opportunity of escaping, that Sulito despoil and exterminate the last Suliots. It might not be taken by surprise, although my son was impossible to protect the women in any other was yet left with him, and grievous (I confess it) way than by defending their own lives against the were my fears for a life so dear to me: I have multitudes that encompassed them. Sixty mo now given my promise to return."
thers, those who had become so the latest, too There was silence: but, among those who knew feeble to contend or to fly, and unable to join Zavellas, there could no longer be suspense or their husbands, or even to find them in the conexpectation. He had spoken; and was soon in a flict, far as they had penetrated into the main dungeon of the fortress on the lake.
body of the enemy, hurled their infants in de Samuel was not inactive : he and Photo had speration against their merciless pursuers, seized watched with no less curiosity than inquietude the one another's hands and necks, raised the hymn construction of a redoubt at Vilia. It was flanked of death, and rushed down a precipice together. by four towers, mounted with twelve brass cannon, Unfortunate! (for humanity must call them so and manned with a hundred and eighteen chosen even in their eternal glory) not to have lived to Arnauts. Against this post Samuel demanded see how their elder sons now avenge their younger two hundred men and a barrel of powder. A and them. Despo, widow of Bozzi, yet possessed workman had brought him information of its a tower in the territory of Suli, into which she had weaker parts; and leading forth in the silence of carried her daughters, her little grandaughters, night the troop entrusted to him, followed by and their nearer relatives. Defence and escape several of the women and many of the stouter with honour were alike impossible: surrender boys, he gave them his benediction, took up a was unthought of. She exhorted them to die pickaxe, ordered a few to follow and work beside with her : they were passive and silent, placed him, fixed the barrel of powder in the cavity they themselves on some chests of cartouches at her had opened, laid the train, descended, and raised side, and shared with her the death of Samuel. a loud shout, which his followers filled up cou- Noti and Kitzo Bozzaris had withdrawn in good rageously. The Turks rushed forward to the time from Suli to Vurgarelli, had opened to themtower, and disappeared with it. Ali, more indig-selves the pass of Athanasia, forced the gorge of nant at a loss than a disgrace, vowed vengeance; Theodosia, and, after fighting two days incessantly, marched through the plain of Yannina with four- pressed forward to the bridge of Coracos, the ter teen thousand men, and nothing lived behind him. mination (as they imagined) of their march. It! The Suliots, emboldened by success, and remem- was however commanded by a Turkish battery. bering that for ten whole years they had resisted No hope was left to them, but of occupying the the best soldiers of the Ottoman empire, and rock and monastery of Veternizza. This they
accomplished ; and many were the Turks who fell, like period, although the number that could come in striving to dislodge them from it. As, how- forward was formerly much greater. With all ever, there were no provisions, nor means of the advantages of education and example, Greece obtaining any, another attack was made against never saw at once so many disinterested patriots the bridge. In the attempt to force the barri- and devoted chieftains. Has the whole world, in cade, nearly the whole troop was slain. The two thousand years, beheld so many who effected women saw nothing now between them and the so much with means so slender? Foremost of Turks : husbands and brothers were called upon them are Miaoulis and Canaris, and Zavellas and in vain : no voice of pity, none of encouragement, Samuel, and he at whose side I stand. none of acknowledgment, was heard. Not all even Odysseus. The politicians of England seem of the children were surviving ; for some had been afraid that Russia may benefit by the separation slain while held up that the fathers might see of Greece from Turkey; and Russia is afraid of them. Two hundred mothers ran with their in the principles which operate the separation. She fants and little boys to where the river was deeper, wishes the exhaustion of both nations; and, with just above, and commanding their daughters to or without the absolute conquest of the Ottoman cling to them inseparably, if they ever loved them, empire, she may threaten or endanger your and if that which distinguishes the Suliot women dominions in Hindostan. above all others, is dear and sacred. Never were Trelawny. She would not be able in half they more obedient. The traveller who may see a century to send an army into India, even if hereafter the whirlpools of the Achelous, will shud- she possessed the dominions of the Turk. Inder: they did not.
deed, they would be far from affording her any Noti Bozzaris had fainted after his fifth wound, great facility. In less than half a century it is and was dragged into the dungeon of Yannina : probable we shall lose that empire; but we shall Kitzo and ten more escaped : Photo Zavellas and lose it, like every other we have lost and are about Kaido, with Dimo Draco and Zima Zervas, forced to lose, by alienating the affections of the people. their way through the defiles, retreated to Parga, God grant that Russia may invade and conquer and afterward were received with the compassion, Turkey! Not that the Russians, or any other and the honours due to them, in the Ionian Isles. people on the Continent, are a better, a braver, But Parga and they were doomed to be no longer an honester race than the Turks, but because the the refuge of the free or the unfortunate. The policy of the government is adverse to the profirst time a whole Christian people was ever sold gress of civilisation, and bears with brutal heaviopenly by another Christian people to the Maho- ness on its cradle. God grant that Russia may metan, was by England, on the thirteenth of possess her! Not because it will increase her March, 1817. On the ninth of May, at sunset, strength, but because it will enable, and perhaps the British flag was struck from the walls of Parga. induce her, to liberate from bondage more than
Trelawny. The worst harm ever done to Greece, one brave nation. She cannot hold Turkey at even more atrocious than that inflicted on Parga, the extremity of such a lever; and those who now was by prevailing on the king of Persia to suspend run to help her, will slip from under her. It is hostilities against the Turks, and finally to accept only by a war on the Continent, a war however conditions of peace in the hour of victory. Had in which England has no business or right to take our ministry abstained from this interference, a part, that what ought to have been done long your freedom had been secured in the second year ago, can be at last effected. If our ministers of the contest. The least we can do now is to should enter into hostilities, the nation will cersave the remainder of your women and children tainly refuse the succours, even though a majority from slavery ; since, without our active co-opera- in Parliament should vote them. Here another tion against you, these would not, for the most great question starts before us, not at present to part, have been fatherless and widows. If you be discussed. One thing is certain : if we cannot had been our enemies for centuries, we could stand under our debt we can not fight under it. never have proved ourselves more persevering, Orders to march may be given to him who has more systematical, or more destructive, in our lost a leg; but what drum or what cane shall hostility. Among the innumerable acts of par- make him go? If ever we have another war tiality shown by our ministers to the enemies of within the next thirty years, it must be a war of Greece, it was with grief and indignation that we speculation, a subscription-war, in which the holdsaw the Zenobia guide the Ottoman fleet into the ers of shares shall pay all the expenses and take harbour of Galasendi, and the commander place a all the profit. Do you suppose we could not, mortar against men fighting for the most sacred without a war, have kept the army of Louis out rights of humanity, fighting to escape from a of Spain? An appeal to the French troops and slavery not endured in any other portion of Europe. the French people would have shaken that drowsy
On every ingenuous and well-educated mind enslaver from his throne; a glance of approbation antiquity lays a spell, of which they never after- would have encouraged the Constitutionalists to fix ward are dispossessed : yet, where judgment has the House of Braganza in Madrid, and to inflict grown up in its due proportions, there can exist on a perjurer the punishment of his crimes. no doubt that the Greeks in the last five years It is idle to ask what was the object, for that have equalled the glories of their ancestors at any was varying from the first day to the last : let us