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is not inactive) many other things characteristic Florentine Visiter. You may also have heard of our lamented sovran. But humour and face the anecdote I am about to relate, but this gentiousness are the appurtenances of a light heart tleman may not; and I think I remember you rather than of a kind one, and rebound for the declaring that the repetition of a tale in favour greater part from something hard about us. We of anyone gives you as great pleasure as the first look for them however when much better things hearing. are before us; as we turn our attention from fields English Visiter. That is curious. of ripe corn and rich pasturage, sustainers of life Landor. My reason is this; there is the proof and comfort, to any sparkling mineral.

that a good action is not forgotten at once. Tell Did not you, M. Landor, reside one summer at the story, if you please, for I know not what it the Villa Catani, just behind Poggio Imperiale ?

Landor. I did. The distance is so short and Florentine Visiter. Nicolini, our dramatic the situation so elevated, I could see the family writer, no less enthusiastic in his politics than in from my terrace, and hear the music; to which I his poetry, was librarian to the Granduke. He always listened in the evening. For music has requested his discharge. Why so, Nicolini ?” another effect when it comes from a family no less said Ferdinand. “ Highness ! my sentiments are in concord : and it is delightful to think that those adverse to the occupation,” answered he. The who govern us, taste in common our purer de Granduke was surprised, but knowing that Nicolights. Such are the sources of happiness to these lini was an irreproachable man, and that nothing good people ! Do any such rise from the fields of was remoter from his character than ingratitude, Austerlitz and Jena ?

he replied, “Well, Nicolini, if you insist on your Florentine Visiter. Excuse me; you must have discharge, you must have it. I have nothing to heard about the mason.

say when your conscience and feelings will not English Visiter. What is that ?

permit you to retain the office." Within four or Florentine Visiter. The Granduke was much five days his younger brother was promoted to the occupied in building, and was often out of doors rank of captain ; and going to court on the occaamong the labourers. He was watching them one sion, the Granduke asked him very particularly day (for masons of all workmen want watching how the elder did, without the slightest reference the most) when a bucketful of rubbish thrown to what had passed, and mentioned him as one down, and covered him from head to foot. Some- whose talents do honour to his family and his thing of pain was added to his surprise, and, utter country. Soon afterward a new place was created ing one exclamation, he walked toward the palace for the republican, more congenial to him; that door on the side of the garden. The labourer of lecturer to the Academy of Painting and heard a voice; and looking down, and seeing a Sculpture. hat on the ground covered with mortar, he de- In this manner did Ferdinand treat his subjects scended the ladder from curiosity. Turning his whose sentiments were adverse to his form of body from it, the first object he beheld was the government. Never has any man approached so Granduke, standing against the wall under the near to a command which no one has executed, scaffold, and wiping his shoulder. The labourer“ Love those who curse you." threw himself on his knees . . implored forgive- Good nature, patience, forbearance, reconcilianess , . prayed the Virgin to soften bis heart.. tions of one family to another, the reverse of what could never have supposed that his Highness was is assumed for a motto by many rulers, were his below.. “ It is well it was I,” replied the good daily practices, man in the midst of this, and still wiping his If our laws are defective, the fault is nowise his, shoulder and his sleeves ; "say nothing about it." | On his return in the plenitude of power, he desired For he knew that, if it had happened to a prime the people to decide by which code they would minister or a prime menial, the poor creature of be governed, his father's or Napoleon's. The a mason would have been dismissed. And per- most celebrated jurists in Tuscany were convoked: haps he suspected it might happen : for, some the ministers and judges, who had served the days afterward he asked “how many were at three or four past governments, did what such work;” and, (when it was told him) “whether the men will always do; they took, as more condusame number had been there constantly.” cive to their power, the looser. Ferdinand ab

Landor. Inquisitive man! how he idled and stained from every remark upon their judgment; trified ! and at a time too when the first princes but no man in his dominions was less pleased and opera-dancers in the world were at the Con. with it. gress of Verona, fixing the fate of nations ! English Visiter. The patriotic party ...

Florentine Visiter. You probably know Nico- Florentine Visiter. Congratulated the choice. lini; if not personally, at least by character. English Visiter, O Sismondi ! what a bottle of

Landor. Although I avoid the society of lite- ink have these fellows been shaking up for thy rary men, desirous of taking no part in their admirable pen! How think you, Landor! what differences, and to receive no displeasure or un- a garner is the study of a man like this? easiness at the recital of their injuries, I have Landor. Nothing is more useful than the study twice met him; as modest a man as he is a dis- of such a philosopher : he is legible to all, and tinguished poet.

intelligible, and impressive : no doubtful dogma, no wayward fancy, no love of wrangling or school- | divided the beauty of Tuscany; and in such a ing, no mystery to veil his ignorance, or to manner that neither should be jealous. In every aggrandise by an uncertain light the factitious family, high or low, one of the domestics or one and dressed-up spectre of his importance. He of the children communicated to the agents of bore (let me say it) an ephod on his breast, in the Granduke a detail of its most minute affairs. scribed with one word .. God. Whatever could No harm probably was perceived in these combe commanded from on high, or suggested from munications, which never led to punishment and hence below, to render those about him peace- seldom to inconvenience, but in reality they did ful and contented, he took, and carried into greater mischief to our national character than execution.

the best institutions could remedy or compenFlorentine Visiter. We preferred him in gene- sate. Hence venality, bad faith, suspicion, ral to his father. But there is less agreement on cowardice; hence the prostration of private and the character of reformers than on any other, and the extinction of public virtue. A thief-taker Leopold was a reformer. His enemies accuse him walked into our societies, unchecked, unmolested, of avarice, and support their opinion by insisting unquestioned. Age lost its dignity, manhood its on the inadequate education and slender mainte- serenity, youth its vivacity, in his presence. All nance of his natural children.

bowed before the grand Informer. This creature, English Visiter. Irony may say of Leopold what by name Chetani, has formed the manners of Flattery said of Cosmo III., that he was pater two generations, and perhaps the national chapauperum.

racter for centuries to come. Peter Leopold was Florentine Visiter. The charges both of parsi- in such security by his means, that on his deparmony and imprudence may, I think, be substan- ture from Tuscany he left behind him not a tiated against him, in the vast damage he did soldier in his capital. I wish I could dismiss him to the pastures and climate, by cutting down with merely a charge of unwise curiosity, unthe extensive forests in the Tuscan Apennines. worthy suspicion, or a vague indulgence in vulgar Hence many fountains and streams are dried up, sensuality: I wish he had always maintained in which are much wanted on the declivities, and himself the justice he enforced in others. almost as much on the plains; and the soil is English Visiter. Did he not? We never heard carried away by the thawing of the snows in any complaints against his impartiality. spring, and by the heavy rains and frequent thun- Florentine Visiter. Hear one then. The counts der-storms in summer and autumn. Thousands Del Benino, for services to our city, inherited of sheep and goats were pastured formerly where certain advantages, by no means injurious to the at present there are only rocks and ravines : and community : Leopold cancelled them. Del Benino an honest inoffensive pastoral population is suc- petitioned him that he might appeal to a court ceeded by plunderers and contrabandists. He of justice ; Leopold assented; the judges fancied too frequently, but not always, neglected the they should flatter the prince by displaying in education of his progeny. Still, though liberal their decision a luminous proof of his equity, and he may not have been in some private trans- accordingly gave a sentence for the plaintiff. actions, he was singularly so to his people at Leopold disregarded it, and refused him any large: and if he was not prodigal to his own satisfaction. offspring, he was enabled to be the more bene- English Visiter. Not only no such injustice, ficent to the sick and poor. The hospitals were but no vice of any kind ever was suspected in abundantly supplied and carefully attended. Since Ferdinand: no virtue, I hear, was deficient, if his decease, the lands belonging to them have energy be excepted, which in princes is one, and been granted on perpetual leases, their income among the first, although in other men it is much diminished, and their superintendence much but the agent of principle. neglected. At Pisa the indigent and afflicted are Florentine Visiter. Englishmen, I know, are apt so reluctant to enter the hospital, that the num- to censure him for his adherence to the French. ber of patients is reduced to half, and the accom- English Visiter. I am one of those. modation to less. At Florence the public is per- Florentine Visiter. He found a large portion mitted to send subsidies of food twice a week, of his people led away by theories and promises ; and instances have occurred of patients suffering all the men of talents, all the men of enterprise. fatally by the sudden effect of a nutritious meal. Could he oppose his cooks and the canons of the

English Visiter. The less contemptible princes cathedral to these and French armies ? Undelove money for the sake of power; the more con- sirous of reigning, he was ardent in his love temptible love power for the sake of money. of concord, and was ready to make any sacriAvarice is condemned in them from a sentiment fice to ensure it. He commanded his faithful of avarice. Other faults injurious in a greater friends to obey the stronger. Napoleon, who degree to public morality are overlooked or for- knew him, esteemed and loved him; which he given.

never did the selfish or the insincere. On the Florentine Visiter. The principal one of Peter fall of that usurper, the Tuscan officers, who had Leopold was his employment of spies and in- served under him, applied to Ferdinand for halfformers. Curiosity and lust were the motives, pay : the Austrians opposed it. " I will not connot cruelty nor suspicion. He and lord Cowper sent to it,” said Ferdinand. “Gentlemen, you

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fought for the French government: you swore to The efforts he had made, to perform whatever defend it: and you did defend it to the last. That duty his heart could dictate, at last exhausted government has ceased : you will serve me with him; and his mind, before it left the body, wanthe same fidelity. Continue to enjoy the pay dered with him. you receive, the rank you have merited: but be I have been in Austria and in Bohemia," said contented, I pray you, with your past victories." he, after what seemed insensibility and torpor,

English Visiter. No prince, not even the most “ and now I have seen all my friends." warlike, ever had troops more devoted to him. I Landor. Beloved Ferdinand ! thou hast not do not form my opinion in those places only seen them half, even in vision : but thou shalt where I have dined among his officers, as I have see them hereafter: they will press around thee done most days for the last two years; but expe- from all countries, in all ages. riencing on every occasion, in my travels through Nothing can be spoken so gloriously of any the country, the civility of his soldiers, I have prince in modern days, as this of Ferdinand; that, always been induced to converse with them about although he had to apprehend the authority of a him. I talked the other evening in the fortress relative, who on other occasions had sacrificed the with a captain now in garrison at Pistoia, who members of his family on the altars of bad faith had accompanied Bonaparte in most of his cam- and blind ambition, he nevertheless stepped forth, paigns, and who returned with him among the in the calmness of courage and in the strength of few from Moscow. Confirming the universal sen- virtue, to comfort the menaced and to alleviate timent, he added, placing his hand upon my the oppressed. The greatest power on earth, or shoulder, There is something of the Napoleon- that ever existed on earth, is the power of the esque in that man's heart, though it lies so quiet." British public; its foundation morals, its fabric

Florentine Visiter. It does indeed lie quiet! wisdom, its circumvallation wealth. Yet this and it is the only one in Tuscany that does ! mighty power, which could overawe the universe,

There is however some consolation in knowing and (what is better) could fix its destinies, was, that his sufferings had ceased before his death, in less embarrassing circumstances, almost inert. and were assuaged by everything he heard or saw Far am I from the inclination of lighting up a about him. Yesterday he sent for his family, and fire to invite around it the idle, the malevolent, talked privately and separately with each : to-day the seditious: I would however subscribe my he desired they would come together. He alone name, to ensure the maintenance of those persons was calm : he alone could utter one word : he who shall have lost their country for having consoled them in few. He told them that his punished with death its oppressor, or for having Maker had called him, that he was ready, that he attempted it and failed. Let it first be demonwas going, that he knew the road.

strated that he hath annulled the constitutional “ Leopold ! take care of my wife, of your poor laws, or retracted his admissal or violated his sister here, and of my people.” Then, after a promise of them, or that he holds men not born pause, “On these occasions the theatres are his subjects, nor reduced to that condition by usually shut a long time: many live by them : legitimate war, in servitude and thraldom, or shorten the period."

hath assisted or countenanced another in such Leopold fell upon the floor : the women were offences. No scorn, no contumely, no cruelty, no carried from the apartment. They yielded to single, no multiplied, injustice, no destruction, necessity ; but sense had left them; and he, who is enough, excepting the destruction of that upon was so soon to be a corpse, was the least like one. which all society is constituted, under which Reason and affection with him had no contest for all security rests, and all hope lies at anmastery; each kept its own, nor went one step chor, faith. Public wrongs may and ought to beyond it. For there was a higher power that be punished by private vindication, where the controlled them in their spheres : they were to tongue of Law is paralysed by the bane of Desenlighten the earth, but they were to move apart potism; and the action which in civil life is the from it.

worst, becomes, where civism lies beneath power, Even in this moment, insupportable to those in the most illustrious that magnanimity can achieve. health and youth, insupportable to those accus. The calmest and wisest men that ever lived were tomed to the sight of sickness and sufferance and unanimous in this sentence; it is sanctioned by agonising death, he opened his eyes again, and the laws of Solon, and sustained by the authority said, “ I have yet one duty: call my physicians." of Cicero and Aristoteles. The latter, mild and They entered.

moderate as he was, goes a great way farther than “ Gentlemen,” said he, “three nights of watch. I have ventured.* Teachers, the timid and sefulness at my bed-side, where you, together with cluded, point it out to youth among a thoumy beloved wife, have been constantly, ought to sand pages; colleges ring with it over chants be followed by some repose. But I wished to tell and homilies ; Piety closes her thumbed lesson you with my own lips, how certain I am that and articulates less tremulously this response. everything you have done for me has been done The street cries Cæsar, the study whispers wisely. I thank you."

Brutus. Degenerate men have never been so Yet he knew it was by their mismanagement he was dying.

* Δεί τους αδικουμένους υπέρ έαυτών τολμεϊν, ή υτές συγγενών, | η ύπις ευεργετών, η συμμάχους αδικουμένοις βοηθείν.

degenerate, the earth is not yet so effete, as not tance to the emperor as an act of clemency, and to rear up one imitator of one great deed. Glory began to hope that he might again see the face of to him! peace, prosperity, long life, and like a beloved son, if indeed the prison were one of descendants!

those into which daylight ever entered. Remember, brave soul! this blow fixes thy “ O sire! spare the life of my child !” cried he, name above thy contemporaries. Doubt not, it spreading one hand on the floor, and raising the will have its guard to stand under it, and to fill other to conceal his tears, “ if Heaven and your the lamp that shows thy effigy. Great actions Majesty have preserved him so long, in pity to my call forth great eloquence, as great eloquence years and infirmities, my prayers and sorrows. Few calls forth great actions. There have been those days of existence are now left me: let him think who, after the battle, could raise the dead above (for he was ever the most affectionate of sons) that the living, the unfortunate above the prosperous : my sufferings have not shortened them. It may there have been those who could give even to the be a crime in him to love his country, too ardently, trophies of Marathon a fresh and livelier interest: too hopelessly, too inconsiderately; but he has there have been those who, in the midst of this injured and would injure no one.”

“ Your son, interest, could turn the eyes of the city away Count Gonfaloniere," calmly replied his A postolic from them, to the despoiled and unsepulchred on Majesty, " is in a better condition than I should the plains of Cheronea. With us let there be the have been in, if I had fallen into his power." will; and let the failure (if failure there must be) He ceased, and looked aside. lie with higher powers. In that thought alone is The old man had strength to rise, and courage all-sufficient consolation.

to walk away. Those inhabitants of Milan who Ours is the time for associations to reward the retained some respect for the imperial dignity, extinction of despots, since it is certain that none ceased to salute the Emperor of Austria, slipped such as those I have pointed out, is now living to into any shop, or house, or gateway, when they be offended or alarmed. If the richer of our pa- saw his carriage, and recollected another speech triots would offer an asylum and a subsistence, in as humane of another dignitary as exalted ; America to him who should punish them on their “ Let him die, so as to feel he is dying." rising, no doubt can be entertained that every At his arrival, two days before, a loyal Frenchgazette in Europe, royal and imperial, will be or- man congratulated a loyal Milanese on the ap dered to announce the resolution : for what ser- plause his Majesty had received at the theatre : vice can be rendered to monarchs, equal to that the Milanese replied, “ All very well ! all very of making them respectable?

well ! but we are poor; and it costs us a great So well known to me is their liberality, I should deal of money to applaud so*." I was present not be surprised if, for this proposal, they consign and heard it. to me through their ambassadors more crosses English Visiter. Yon, sir, I presume are a liteand stars than would cover the convexity of the rary man: you then can inform me whether the most Christian King, and more ribbon than report is true, that Ferdinand was no great fawould surround it; a fortune of itself, and not vourer of letters. unmerited (let me say it) at their hands.

Florentine l'isiter. I am afraid there is some English Visiter. Perhaps they may entertain foundation for it. We have many among us casome idle doubts concerning your veneration for pable of reflecting lustre on our city, if they were their institutions.

properly encouraged. Florentine l'isiter. On the Continent men have Landor. Encourage then one another: this ceased to dispute about the different forms of is the properest of encouragement, and the government, and care only about the difference in most effectual. The best princes are often bad its administration. The Milanese think theirs judges of literature: would you wish them to the worst; the Parmesans doubt; the Modenese give what is not due ? to encourage what is not dare not do even that, for fear of their wives and worthy ? confessors. The name of the Emperor Francis is English Visiter. Landor, do not wantonly make incessantly eulogised by your English ministry, yourself enemies in the literary world : you will who know about as much of the popular opinion hardly find two authors in England who can enin Europe as of the popular opinion in the planet dure to hear your name mentioned, you are so Saturn. I will tear out one page from his history, illiberal. The Tories hate you for your abhor. and give it you. Count Gonfaloniere threw him- rence of the Holy Alliance, the Whigs for your self at the empress's feet, in Milan, and requested contempt of Napoleon. her intercession, that, having lost the use of his Landor. This Holy Alliance will soon appear limbs, he might be conveyed to his son's prison, to unholy to every nation in Europe. I despised know whether he were alive or dead, and, if living, Napoleon in the plenitude of his power no less bless him once more, and bear the consolatory than others despise him in the solitude of his tidings to his wife and children. The empress exile : I thought him no less an impostor when told him she was unable to influence her husband he took the ermine than when he took the emetic. in political affairs. However, she did exert the I confess I do not love him the better, as some powers of which she doubted ; and she prevailed. * Sta bene, sta bene; ma siamo poveri e ci costa gran The supplicant could not but consider his admit. dinaro.

mercenaries in England and Scotland do, for hav- what cost him a minute. If he has a knack for ing been the enemy of my country; nor should Iverses, he must break it and forget it. Both the love him the less for it had his enmity been prin- poet and the painter should acquire facility and eipled and manly.

frankness; but they must be exercised with disFlorentine Visiter. At least he patronised the cretion; they must be sternly regulated, and in arts, the sciences, and literature in general. great part suppressed. The young poet will re

Landor. He had this merit, and much more, monstrate, and more often scoff': he will appall above the other potentates of the age ; but not you by placing before you the deep mouth of enough withal to raise him above contempt, if Pindar and his mountain-torrents. Tell him, and falsehood and subterfuge, if envy and malice, if tell older ones too, that Pindar of all poets is the dastard cruelty and deliberate murder deserve it. most accurate and the most laborious. Usually even the worst men are friendly to those Florentine Visiter. Pardon me, sir, for crosswho have adopted their principles. In what man- ing your string of mules, if any are behind : we ner did this cruel wretch treat his enthusiastic remember Corilla. admirer and humble follower, Toussaint L'Ouver- Landor. But who remembers her poetry? I ture? He was thrown into a subterranean cell, have read the best of it, and have read better solitary, dark, damp, pestiferously unclean, where from our farmers and shepherds, and nearly as rheumatism racked his limbs, and where famine good from our bellmen. I could philosophise terminated his existence. Few can think those much upon this subject : but my mind is not of their contemporaries great who never have framed as most are. They philosophise best when trampled on them. Greatness must have a fierce they are grave; I when I am gay; for nothing or a mysterious air, a sounding title, a swaggering then exhausts or tires me: when I am grave I go gait, a swollen purse, a priest before, a lawyer at down fast. Drive a guinea-fowl under my winthe side, and a hangman after him. You terrify dow, or but repeat to me several times the same me less by conjuring up this phantom before me, word in the same key, and in vain do I look for than by opening to me my dangers on the side of wand or glass : I am in dejection and darkness. literature. In England, it seems, an author is I shall defend, as well as I can without much forced to pay out of his integrity for even a nar- reasoning, the character of Ferdinand, on his row and incommodious seat in it, and only a few imputed neglect of literary men in general. receive free tickets. In countries where there is The school of natural history is close to his less honour, generally there is incomparably more palace; and his first conversation on matters of in this quarter. A literary man in France, for science was with Fontana, the director. It was example, feels for the honour of his order, as a the custom of this professor, as some of you have woman feels everywhere for the honour of her sex. told me, when any stranger of distinction visited

English Visiter. You would deprive them of the cabinet and admired his preparations, to step their vails and perquisites ; you would let them suddenly into the room, his hands covered with live by sucking and licking one another, like blood or some chemical injection, and to make a young bears. They can not be fond and loving thousand apologies for the negligence of his dress, when they are hungry.

protesting that he was obliged to do everything Florentine Visiter. Ours are courteous in the himself, even the most sordid and the most minute. extreme, and lend one another praise, ideas, and the poor assistant, an intelligent and scientific dresses. We have among the rest some excellent man, who had done everything delicate and diffiimprovisatori ; a race peculiar to our Italy. cult, heard this month after month ; sighed at

Landor. Long be it so! No improvisatore ever his obscurity and poverty, and deeplier still at rose above mediocrity; few have reached it. the hopelesness of celebrity, of honest hard-earned Poetry, like wine, requires a gentle and regular reputation, of even thriftless justice ; and threw and long fermentation. What is it if it can buoy himself into the Arno. What must have been the up no wisdom, no reflection? if we can throw into pangs that swelled to such insanity so unaspiring it none of our experience ? if no repository is to be a breast! We take fire and burn out presently : found in it for the gems we have collected, at the we call ourselves the feeling, and feel little : 0 price sometimes of our fortunes, of our health, what must he, unfortunate man! have suffered. and of our peace? Your improvisatori let drop Ferdinand knew the story afterward. He then their verses as a string of mules their morning remembered the odes and sonnets (or at least the oats, for miles together. The Italian habit of baseness of them) addressed to him on all occaconversazioni, as those assemblies are called where sions, by those who rejoiced in the same measures people do anything rather than converse, pro- on his expulsion from the throne, and saluted his duces the same effect on the minds of your coun- successor as warmly. trymen as brandy does on the bodies of your grey- Florentine Visiter. We are a nation of praisers; hounds: it stupefies them, takes away their we mean nothing by it. strength, and makes them little all their lives. English Visiter. Do not complain then if you The first thing a young person who wishes to be get nothing by it. a poet has to do, is, to conquer his volubility ; to Florentine Visiter. Sir, when you alighted at compress in three verses what he had easily the inns on the road, did not one poetaster or thrown off in twelve ; and to be an hour about other bring up a sonnet in your praise, as Fantoni

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