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should counteract their beneficence. We no longer Cyrus. Speak, 0 best Xenophon! have those valiant creatures among us; to which Xenophon. If then destiny should cast down privation I attribute it chiefly that we possess before me the horse of thy brother Artaxerxes, more eloquence indeed and learning than those and the chances of war, or Mars after due sacriwho have them, but less bodily activity and fice, should place him in my power, what is my strength.

duty ? Cyrus. There are other and better reasons, 0 Cyrus. Canst not thou, having in turn with Xenophon, for these things. You are unbelievers others of thy countrymen the command of ten in the true religion, and have sunk through your thousand Greeks, do thy duty without consulting idleness on the bosom of false gods : you clasp me, in cases which, being unforeseen, are disgraven images, falling at the feet of such as have cretionary? any.

Xenophon. The fall of a king is terrible. Xenophon. O Cyrus, I have observed that the Cyrus. The rebound is worse. authors of good make men very bad as often as Saturn fell from heaven, did any God or mortal they talk much about them; whether it be to lend a hand to raise him up again ? punish us for our presumption, or merely to laugh Xenophon. It were impiety to contend against at us, I do not know; nor have I ever heard my Jupiter. master Socrates discourse upon the question. Cyrus. It were madness to contend against Certain it appears to me from whatever I have Destiny. According to your fables, Saturn came read, that the powerful and the wise lose both first; then came Jupiter. The same divine right their power and their wisdom the moment they of expelling and occupying will be asserted as enter into this dim and sacred inclosure; just as, occasion may require. But Destiny saw the order on entering the apartment of the women in your of things rise, and sees it continue : and Gods country, you lay aside both slipper and turban, before her are almost as little and weak as we and cover the head with only the extremity of are: she teaches them to repeat her words and the robe.

obliges them to execute her will. If thou hast Cyrus. We will try to keep ourselves no less any wisdom, as thou surely hast, O disciple of cool and orderly on our argument, if thou wilt Socrates the mage, never ask me another question come into it with me. And now inform me, oon such a contingency: but answer me now, I most excellent, on what difference in religion or entreat thee, about the strange word barbarian, government you Greeks denominate all other at which (I hear) there are satraps and royalets nations, and among the rest even us, barbarians? who take offence when you apply it to them.

Xenophon. If, O Cyrus, I may (as I believe I Xenophon. Attribute not the invention of the may) rely on thy wisdom, thy modesty and mode word to us, 0 Cyrus! I have been as studious to ration, I will answer the question to the best of know the derivation of it, as thou art; for it is my abilities.

not Greek. On the return of Plato (of whom Cyrus. I, who aspire to the throne of my an- perhaps thou hast heard some mention) from cestors, can not be angry at the voice of truth, nor Egypt, I learned from him * that the expression offended that a guest should execute my wishes. was habitual with the priests of that country,

Xenophon. Courtesy and gentleness distinguish whence we, who have borrowed much knowledge the Persians from other mortals. They are less from the Egyptians, borrowed also this term. subject to cruelty than any race among men, They apply it as we do, to all strangers indisunless sceptres lie across their path. Now, Cyrus, criminately : but originally it signified those those things must surely be the worst of things only who live nearest to them, and whom on that which render the most humane of men the most account, as is customary with every nation in the inhumane. I deviate a little way from the main world, they hated most. The Africans to the question, like my teacher, for the purpose of westward are called by themselves ber-ber, a asking a preparatory one, which may lead me generic name, and probably of honourable import. back again, and enable me to conduct thee Cyrus. O Xenophon, thou art indeed a treasury smoothly and pleasantly. Pray inform me, of wisdom; and in addition to it, I pray thee, do Cyrus, since I am about to be a leader in thy the Gods, as I have heard, manifest to thee future army, what are thy orders if I should happen events in dreams; to intercept the concubines of any hostile Xenophon. Some they have truly laid open satrap?

unto me. Cyrus. O Xenophon, keep thy hands, thy eyes, Cyrus. Couldst not thou, O most wonderful, thy desires, away from them, as becomes thy pray to them (not telling them that I said any. gravity of wisdom and purity of heart, expressed thing about the matter) to give thee one about in a countenance where we discern and venerate the success of my arms? For our own pure religion the beauty of seriousness and reserve.

does not allow us to expect or to pray for such Xenophon. O Cyrus, I am a hunter, and, being an intervention. so, a deviser of stratagems, and may perchance take others than concubines. I dare not utter that in this manner the expression came first among the

* Plato says nothing on the subject : it seems probable what labours in my bosom : in vain fidelity ex- Greeks, who would otherwise, we may suppose, have taken cites and urges me.

the name of some nearer and more ferocious tribe.

Xenophon. If we had an oracle near, I would Cyrus. He added that, immense as is the consult it. For dreams usually are confined to the glorious orb, it is only a dewdrop on the finger eventual good or evil of the dreamer ; although of God, shining from it under the light of his there are instances to the contrary; but in these countenance, as he waves his paternal blessing instances the dreams fall upon minds peculiarly over the many peopled world. gifted, and properly fitted for their reception. Xenophon. This is poetry, but oriental. Strange

Cyrus. I have asked the Sun several times for absurdity! when Jupiter is barely a foot taller counsel ; and yet I never could collect out of his than I am ; as may be well imagined by his interradiance any certain sign or token. Only once mingling with our women, and without inconit was attended by a lark, suddenly

venience on either side : at least I have heard of

none recorded by the priests. He has indeed a "Springing from crystal step to crystal step In the bright air, where none can follow her."

prodigious power of limb, and his expansion at

need is proportionate to his compactness. Thus one of our old poets, in a volume laid up at Cyrus. Give me thy sentiments, freely and Persepolis, describes her. The lark herself, and entirely. the recollection of the lines, comforted and ani- Xenophon. I can not but marvel then, 0 Cyrus, mated me greatly; first the bird, merry and at the blindness of the Persians. There is no daring; then the brightness of the air; and lastly, other great nation, at all known to us, that does but principally, the words “that she was rising not acknowledge a plurality and variety of Gods ; where none could follow her.” This must cer- and this consent, so nearly universal, ought to tainly mean myself: for who can suppose that convince the ingenuous and unprejudiced. I see Artaxerxes at that moment saw another lark the worst consequences to a government in coundoing the like, or remembered the same verses, tenancing the adoration of a single one, to the which came upon me like a voice inspired ? exclusion and mortification of the rest.

Xenophon. Although larks are not strictly Cyrus. Perhaps to such a loose fabric as a rebirds of augury, like eagles and vultures, and public. swans and herons, and owls and chickens, yet in Xenophon. In a monarchy no less. Power hath this country, and against the Sun, and upon such here too its gradations; the monarch, the mages, an occasion, the appearance hath its weight with and the satraps. me, O Cyrus! However I would not neglect to Cyrus. Do not you see at once the beauty of sharpen the scimitar, and to see that the horses this form ? No government is harmonious or be well exercised and have plenty of oats and rational without three estates; none decorous or barley in the manger, and that their manes be stabile. The throne must have legs; but the legs carefully combed, lest the adversary think us must never stand uppermost : the king bears disorderly and unprovided, and inclined to flight. upon the mages, they bear upon the floor, or For the immortal Gods have often changed their people. The king reserves to himself omnipominds upon finding us too confident and secure, tence; he grants to his mages omniscience; to or too negligent and idle, and have enlightened his people, in the body, omnipresence. In this ours, to our cost, with a new and contrary inter- manner he divides himself; but all is one. Where pretation of sentences uttered by their oracles. power is so well poised, in case of urgency we

Cyrus. On reflecting a little, I think these might impose taxes to the amount of nearly a oracles in general are foolish things..

tenth, and rarely hear a murmur in the land. If Xenophon. I wish, o blameless Cyrus, that you, the magistrates of free Greeks, were to desuch a word had never overflown the enclosure of mand a fifteenth of the property in Attica for thy teeth, as the divine Homer says.

the purposes of government, the people would Cyrus. I wonder, 0 most intelligent and stone you. Now unquestionably that regimen is thoughtful Xenophon, that you Greeks, so few the best which has constantly the most power as there are of you, should worship such a num. over them; as that is the best riding by which ber of Gods.

the horse is managed the most easily and quietly, Xenophon. And I, 0 Cyrus, that you who have in even places and uneven. Nothing is truer or occasion for so many, and particularly just at pre- plainer. If we had as many gods and temples as sent, should adore but one. The Sun (I would you have, and if our deities and priests had as speak it without offence) is nothing but an orb of good appetites, our armies must be smaller, our fire; although, as some say, of a prodigious mag- horses leaner, and there would be more malignity nitude, hardly less than the Peloponnese. and discord in the provinces. For all sects, all

Cyrus. I once heard from a slave, a scholar of favourers I mean of particular gods and goddesses, Democritus, that it is many hundred times are united in one sentiment, that their deities are greater than the earth.

equally fond of picking bones and breaking them. Xenophon. I seldom laugh, and ought never Xenophon. Our religion is most beautiful. at insanity, and least of all at this. Alas, poor Cyrus. Extremely so on the outside. In this Greek ! when he lost his freedom he lost his external beauty, as in that of women when it is

O immortal Gods ! may my countrymen extreme, there is little expression, little sense. at no time be reduced to that calamity, which Our ritual is the best that can be devised for any nothing but this can mitigate.

hot climate. In order to adore the Sun at his


rising, we must (it is needless to say) rise early. (trated into theirs. I know that in sound policy This is the time of day when the mind and body you never should let an ally whom you have are most active, and most labour can be performed served be greater than yourself, if you can prevent both by men and cattle. Hence agriculture it; and that those whom you assist, like those flourishes among us. Cleanliness, the consequence whom you attack, should come off the worse for of our ablutions, is another spring of activity and it in the end. Individuals whom you succour health. We possess large sandy plains, which in private life may sometimes be grateful ; kings never would be cultivated unless they produced never are. They will become of an unfriendly temmyrrh, benzoin, lavender, and other odours; the per toward you, were it only to prove to others, only sacrifices we make to God. The earth offers and to persuade themselves, that they were them to her Creator where she hath nothing else powerful and flourishing enough to have done to offer; and he receives with a paternal smile, in without you. these silent downs remote from groves, from cities If the victory should be mine, as can not be and from temples, her innocent oblations, her doubted . . I being born the son of a king, solitary endearments, her pure breath. I do not Artaxerxes not .. there is no danger that so complain that the Baotians kill a bull for the small a people as the Athenians should attempt same purpose : but a bull is that to which others to divide the kingdom, or compromise it any beside gods and priests could sit down at table : way between us : nor would I suffer it: but Policy and the richer plains of Boeotia would be culti- is my voucher that I will assist you against your vated whether Jupiter ate his roast beef or not. enemies : in such a manner however as to provide

Xenophon. There are many reasons, O Cyrus, that you shall always have some, and dangerous politically speaking, for your religion ; but it is enough at least to attract your notice. I say these not founded on immutable truth, nor supported words to you in pure confidence. To a friend here by indubitable miracles.

speaks a friend; to a wise man here speaks no Cyrus. What things are those ?

simple one. Xenophon. I could mention several, attested by Xenophon. If you would worship, O Cyrus, the thousands. Those of Bacchus, who traversed your Gods of Greece, I should be the more confident of country, are remembered still among you : but success. as Apollo is the God from whom at this crisis we Cyrus. I have indeed at times, to a certain demay hope a favourable oracle, I would represent gree, a faith in auguries, in which I know the to you his infancy, his flight in the arms of Greeks are expert : but although your religion Latona, and his victory over the serpent : all as is in her youth, your Gods are as avaricious as evident as that he sits above us arrayed in light, old-age could make them. Every religion that and is worshipped by you, O Cyrus, although in starts up, beyond Persia, takes only as much truth ignorance of his godhead.

to stand upon as will raise her safely to men's Cyrus. I have heard about these things : and purses. The Egyptian priests have extensive since perhaps we may consult his oracle, I will lands : Attica is poorer in soil: there it is requinot question his power or deity until that is over. site to have oracles too and sacrifices, gold and About the event I have more curiosity than in- cattle, oil and milk, wax and honey. If this requietude, knowing the force of legitimacy on the ligion should be succeeded by another, as it must minds of men.

be when the fraud is laid open, the populace will Why dost thou sigh, my friend ? do I appear to follow those enthusiasts who threw down the thee light, irresolute, inconstant ?

images of the Gods, and will help them the next Xenophon. Not thou, O Cyrus; but thy evil morning to raise up others in the same places, or station. Nothing is so restless as royalty: not even those elsewhere, differing but in name. Pride air, nor ocean, nor fire : nothing can content or will at first put on the garment of Humility; and hold it. Certainties are uninteresting and sating soon afterward will Humility raise up her sordid to it; uncertainties are solicitous and sad. In its baldness out of Pride's. Change in rituals is made weakness it ruins many, in its strength more. purely for lucre, and, under the name of ReformaThou, 0 Cyrus, art the most intelligent of kings, tion, comes only to break up a virgin turf or to and wilt be (let me augur it) the most potent. pierce into an unexplored mine. Religion with Think that the immortal Gods have placed thee you began in veneration for those who delivered on thy eminence only as their sentinel, whose you from robbers : it will end in the discovery watch is long and wide, stationing thee at the that your temples have been ever the dens of principal gate in the encampment of mankind. them. But in our hopes we catch at straws; the Great is the good or evil that is about to flow far movement of a feather shakes us; the promise of and near under thee.

a priest confirms us. Cyrus. Far and near! These words I think Let us now go to the stables : I have intelligence are rather ill placed, by one who was the disciple of a noble tiger, scarcely three days' hard riding of Socrates the mage. They have however their from us. The peasant who found the creature meaning, their propriety, and, in thy eyes, their shall be exalted in honour, and receive the governright order. Thou, O Xenophon, I perceive, ment of a province. wouldst wish to penetrate into my thoughts re- Xenophon. Is the beast a male or female, to the lating to the Athenians : I have already pene- best of his knowledge ?

Cyrus. A female: she was giving milk to her Xenophon. Fortunate he escaped her! We young ones. On perceiving the countryman, she might have lost a fine day's hunting in ignorance drew up her feet gently, and squared her mouth, of her lair. and rounded her eyes, slumberous with content; Cyrus. He passed away gently, as if he had and they looked, he says, like sea-grottoes, ob- seen nothing; and she lay still, panting. Come, scurely green, interminably deep, at once awaken thou shalt take thy choice, O wonderful Xenophon, ing fear and stilling and compressing it,

of my spears.

LANDOR, ENGLISH VISITER, AND FLORENTINE VISITER. DESCENDING the staircase of Palazzo-Medici, went our way. When my visiter and myself were which I inhabit, I observed the venerable old up stairs again and seated, “Really,” said he, “I gentleman, its proprietor, walking up and down am now of your opinion: there is no sincerity in gravely before his own apartment. He seemed to this people : I don't mean the old gentleman, avoid my salutation ; whether the most modest of whoever he is.” men did not wish to speak while a stranger was Landor, And what think you then of the with me, or whether he was returning to his room porter ? for anything. However, as he had seen me, I English Visiter. I did not see him nor hear went up to him, inquired after his health, which what he said ; you went alone into the lodge. But has been long declining, and then after the the young man carries it too far. Granduke's, who had been confined to his bed Landor. The Granduke has given him nothing; four days, as I learnt the day preceding. I now and which of his ministers, think you, is not saw the reason why the Marchese turned away : proud of saying to himself, “I can withhold an tears were in his eyes and running down his cheeks office worth a crown a day from the descendant copiously. He took my hand, lifted it between of our first Granduke ?" his on a level with his heart, and said, “He is in English Visiter. What ! and are these two genhis last agonies !”

tlemen of that family? Is it possible they can While I stood for I was affected deeply be thus affected at the decease of one who occuat seeing in tears an old man, majestic in gait pied the throne of their ancestors ? I should as and stature, and cordially my friend, I fancied I soon have expected it from you. And truly I heard more footsteps in the street than usual, and never saw you less disposed to talk on the meetthat people walked faster and stopped oftener. I ing of an old acquaintance, or less capable (you heard no songs. It was probably the first hour, must excuse me) of saying something worth by daylight at least, since the building of the city, hearing. unless in the time of siege or plague or under the Landor. I never said anything in my lifetime duke of Athens, that you could have heard none; so worthy of making an impression on the mind, for the Florentines by nature are joyous and noisy as what you heard from that young man. Treaas grasshoppers. I turned, and seeing the porter sure it up in your recollection: lose nothing, as at the gate, who had been asking some questions, you hope for heaven, of that which may give you I called to him. He must have heard me, yet he a better opinion of your fellow-creatures, a just went into his lodge and said nothing. I followed and worthy one of God's great work. How good him, and wishing to hear a more favourable re- and glorious when the right affections are unsupport, inquired how the Granduke was.

pressed by the perverse ; when love, pity, grati“Sir,” said the porter, “I hope you do not tude, are in vigour; when Death himself warms think me wanting in respect : I can hardly tell our hearts and elevates our affections. Then are you."

we indeed redeemed from our fallen state. “Let us hope then he is better.”

English Visiter. You are coming round, I per“ He is with God."

ceive: I shall see you a king's friend ere long. He turned his back on me: his grey hairs glim- Landor. God grant it! mered with the tremulous motion of his head, English Visiter. Well! at least you have no until he rested his brow against the wall. Not hypocrisy : but, upon my soul, I did not think wishing to pursue my walk, nor deeming it deco- you so very . let me say at least . , unguarded. rous, I proposed to my visiter that he should You would really don't be angry) be bribed return and sit down again. At this instant a then. young man overtook us with a quick step.

Landor. Really and truly. “Better it had been me, ten thousand times," English Visiter. Your smile is a fixed one; cried he.

and must I believe you? I would have sworn “Luigi!” said I, knowing his voice, “stop a that you never would have changed your prinmoment: is it quite certain ?"

ciples; not even to be prime minister. “I am happy you stopped me," replied he. “I Landor. Swear nothing. was running to my father : it would have half- English Visiter. No, after this, indeed. You killed him."

have acted very inconsistently ; not only in the Few more words passed between us, and we change of your principles, but in the management of your talents. In the time of Castlereagh, there an ante-chamber filled with fine pictures : every was indeed but little hope from a fellow who countenance in the portraits seemed to smile on never read a book through, even at school, and him, every landscape bloomed before him. He who was once proved by a friend in joke not to had little taste or time for them : onward he folknow the latitude of England by ten or any lowed the valet : the folding-doors of the drawingother number of degrees. Canning, however, is room flew open: the whole family were there a scholar, and, what is more to the purpose, he is assembled. Sieur Dorcas being loudly anobliged to pick up sad sticks.

nounced, all eyes were instantaneously fixed on Landor. They resemble the dragon-fly: I see him. Madame Mozzi and her aja rose from their his hard eyes and heavy body (heavy it is for a seats : and the former, smiling graciously, turned fly) and see not what it is that bears him up again to the company, and presented “the Ilusabove my hedge : so filmy and apparently so ina- trissimo who would have done such honour to dequate is the finer part of him. Such are the them all, had he not fixed his attentions on the insects now in office. Canning is himself an un- least worthy of the family.” They bowed to the derstrapper; a Gil Blas turned sour, and with a sieur. “And now," said Madame Mozzi to the tendency to the vapid.

aja, "you will do me the favour, my dear friend, English Visiter. What would you have? Pub- to read aloud the elegant note of the British lic men and public women may alike be desig- secretary." The aja wiped her glasses, placed nated by one trisyllable. Ministers come into them across the slender ridge they befitted, and, office by giving as a pledge their virtue, their without any change of voice or physiognomy, read judgment, and their sentiment. They resign them- it slowly through. The husband took Sieur Dorselves bound hand and foot to the faction that cas by the hand, apologised for the necessity he hoodwinks the crown ; a faction existing in every was under of leaving him so soon after his introkingly government; and they distribute employ- duction, and wished him all possible success in ments according to the lists presented to them, his negotiation. The other relatives complibeing permitted to insert out of their own fami- mented him on the peculiar frankness of the lies and partisans a limited assortment of names. English character, of which they protested they Here they may stick in a bishop, here they may had never seen before so charming a specimen : prick a judge, here they may cushion an envoy; the lady told him with an air of sweet concern but leaving room on each side of him for another and tender reproof, that she only lamented to to bench his secretary, and a third to boot his find him somewhat colder than his note had courier.

promised. In reply to the smiles that were lurkLandor. The court of England has not been ing and trembling in the unsteady dimples of her quite so observant of merit in its appointment | lips, he bit his angrily, twitched up one side of of diplomatists to the smaller courts, as, no his shirt-collar, bowed as well as he had learnt to doubt, it has to the higher. We residents in Tus- bow, and withdrew. He found the servants eany have been more amused by some of them ranged upon the staircase. His conductor told than edified or flattered. One Sieur Dorcas, a him it was customary in Tuscany to give a mansecretary of legation, no sooner found himself in cia on the first good fortune, and hoped his Expossession of his hundred pounds a year, than he cellency would remember it. bought a pony, hired the best saddle and bridle English Visiter. I believe the story to be true in that were to be let out, presented a bunch of all its parts and circumstances: for I have heard it flowers (when the season was somewhat advanced) frequently, even in England: and indeed wherever to the lady of highest rank he met at the Cascine, a tale of consummate impudence is related, the and manifested his resolution to be cavaliere ser- Sieur Dorcas comes forward as regularly as the viente wherever he found beauty and cookery. sentinel in a German clock at the hour. But He soon introduced himself to Madame Mozzi, a no man of the most ordinary attainments among lady of great personal attractions, good-humoured, us has reason to despair of office, if that man poswitty, well-informed, and whose house enjoys the sesses a lucrative and a high one who came from reputation of an admirable kitchen. The next | Ireland half naked, offered his services to the morning he addressed a billet to her, declaring publisher of a periodical work at two guineas that she had pleased him, and desiring to know a week, and, writing in defence (as he tells us) at what hour she would be ready to receive his of our laws and religion, shocked a good old visit. She answered him frankly, and proposed woman in her hospitality, which at that time he that the interview should take place in the found very useful, by seasoning her leg of lamb evening. Sieur Dorcas ran to the milliner's, and pigeon-pie with the coarsest and stalest of bought a frill ; to the perfumer's, a bottle of Eau- irreligion. Cumberland said he was the most de-Cologne; to a friend's, and borrowed a cambric vulgar man in the least elegant and least decorous handkerchief. Observing that his gloves bore of nations ; but that he could forgive him if he the marks of the bridle, he put them into his were not also the most malignant in the least pocket before he knocked at the door. This he spiteful. I can account for it only from the facidid once and softly. It opened as by magic: and lity with which his old associates despise him, a servant in a rich livery, with a lively saluta- and the violent effort he makes at mutual distion ushered him up-stairs. He passed through dain. I dare to profess myself a christian ; in

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