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Chifflet wrote a trentise to prove that it was a bee. Joannes | it being indigenous, its root very fragrant, and ased in Ferrandus Aniciensis composed an Epinicion pro liliis. flavouring wine. We call it orris, corruptly. It is wonderful that painters of such courage left any The good Abbé Delille entertained a high esteem for doubt, whether what they had drawn so accurately were Milton, but felt that Adam and Eve, Michael and Satan, a flower, a spear-head, or a bee. Before this controversy could not be mignonnement troussés unless by the hand of the Florentines used the iris as the symbol of their city, a Parisian.

THE EMPEROR ALEXANDER AND CAPO D'ISTRIA.

Capo d'Istria. Your Majesty now perceives the the oyster-shell on which his name was to be writbenefits of the Holy Alliance, and may remember ten in order to banish him. my enumeration of them. Here is a fact for every I am nauseated with this dust which people stir word. The Holy Allies can not retract : they have up about antiquity. Come, give me your opinion, admitted the principle : they have gone to work supposing war inevitable. upon it. Austria possesses Italy : turbulence in Capo d'Istria. First then, if war is inevitable, I adjacent states may be repressed by invasion : must publish in the journals, on the testimony of there is not a monarch in Europe who denies it : merchants and bankers, that the differences are not one who, whatever his fears, whatever his accommodated. The violence and pride of the imprudence may be, will oppose by action or word Turkish character will indeed at last break off your long-meditated conquest of the Turkish accommodation.* Your good allies, at your earnest empire.

entreaty, will zealously interfere, to avoid the Alexander. Capo d'Istria, you are a Greek, and effusion of blood : you must request their advice would engage me, prepared or unprepared, in war, how to avert this tremendous evil : you must weep for the defence of your native country.

over the decrepit fathers of families, the virtuous Capo d'Istria. Pardon me, my Emperor! a wives, the innocent children, the priests at the Greek, it is true, I am, but you will find me not altar, with God in their mouths, weltering in their precipitate. The country of a statesman is the gore. council-board of his prince. Let the pack bark Alexander. To avoid remonstrance on Greece, in the kennel ; the shepherd-dog sleeps upon the I will now further tell you my reasons for what wallet of his master.

you think forbearance. It has been agreed priAlexander. I have never yet caught you running vately among my brother rulers, that each, in the into vagaries and extravagancies, such as even the desire of peace and holiness, shall invade his weak. learned and wise sometimes allow to themselves, est neighbour, in a friendly and family way: first in their frowardness and warm blood. Nothing is however protesting in the name of the Holy and idler, nothing is more directly in opposition to the Indivisible Trinity, that his armies on the frontier actual state of things happily re-established in had never such an object or idea as invasion, and Europe, nothing is attended by worse consequences, shall carry into execution these salutary plans, in than to mention the ancient republics as models of all simplicity and sincerity, whenever he judges it good government, or their primary citizens as great convenient. It has beside been declared to me

I have agreed with my allies to banish or as the opinion of them all, that Turkey is not yet imprison the professors who in future shall do it; sufficiently despotic; that the Janissaries are but and I hope by degrees to introduce a general law Jacobins in loose trowsers, and that the violence (for Europe must be governed on one system) under they often commit on the Sublimity of their theenactment of which law, whoever is found guilty Emperor, is of dangerous example. We deem it of printing or possessing any book, modern or requisite to insure our inviolability, and to execute ancient, containing such doctrines, shall be shut up what our good pleasure prompts us, not only with. in a fortress, or sent to join the armies on the fron- out a struggle, but without a murmur. tier. Reason with yourself now: in such govern- Capo d'Istria. The worst part of their instituments what should you or I be? Well may you bow; tions and usages, is the misapplication of the bowit is not to me, but to truth and conviction. Eng- string, which sometimes gives an awkward twang land calls herself the mistress of letters, of liberty, across the neck of a vizier, and, just the contrary of arts; and indeed she possesses more than any of what one would suppose, is always the most of what exist on our portion of the globe. In rela- terrible when it happens to have no arrow to work tion to her I will not talk of you or me; but upon. suppose her to have produced the personages her Alexander. Another thing. Do not you know unwary youth are ever prone to admire and that the liberation of Greece, if this liberation applaud. According to her laws and usages, failed to make them my vassals, would be greatly Brutus would have been hanged at Newgate; and almost solely to the benefit of England ! Be Cato buried with a stake through his body in the cautious: be silent: the Ministers of England have high-road; Cicero transported to Botany Bay; at present no such suspicion. If they had, they Phocion, instead of being called upon to serve his would fit out a cutter, and perhaps five-and-twenty country some forty or fifty times, would have lost marines; a force more than proportionate to that his election in any borough of the three kingdoms; and Aristides would not have been thought worth

* This happened three years after.

men.

which they directed against Constantinople in the garrison. They saw the walls, and turned back; late war; and this they would be the better dis- although the walls, on the side where they landed, posed to do, as it would authorise them in the eyes were incapable of sustaining one discharge of of Parliament and of the nation, to appoint a artillery, and the garrison consisted of half a commissariat of ten or fifteen, and about the same regiment; and although the city of Corunna, number of commissioners, so that every member seven miles distant, is commanded by the hills of the Cabinet might have a new appointment at above it, with walls even more feeble and a garhis disposal, with a comfortable half-pay for life rison more defective, and might have been taken after one month's service.

at the same time by the same forces : an attack Capo d'Istria. Sire, not only England, but the by sea would be hopeless. Buenos-Ayres was potentates of France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, assaulted by the bayonet, without a grain of and Italy, should in sound policy desire the form- powder ; a stone-built city, the doors strongly ation of republics in Greece; considering that chained across, the windows thickly grated. The country (of which they know nothing better) as a condition of Antwerp was unexplored when an mere drain, whereby the ill humours of their attack was to be made against it; nay, the English subjects may be carried off. It should serve them Ministers had never heard that the island of as a warehouse of exportation for all those whose Walcheren was unhealthy; by which ignorance opinions are dangerous; just as America is to they lost three thousand men. England. It is nearer at hand, may be reached at The Duke of Wellington himself, then untitled, less expense, and there is this further advantage, was superseded by two Generals, one after the that if they should publish their opinions, neither other, at the moment when he had gained the the princes nor their subjects can read them : the most arduous of his victories. Nelson's brave former then cannot be offended, nor the latter led heart was almost broken by persevering injustice astray.

and by insolent neglect. He returned, like anAlexander. How will France, England, Sweden, other Bellerophon, from unexpected and undesired act upon this occasion ?

success. Constantinople, which never contains Capo d' Istria. Your Majesty must know that fewer than forty thousand fighting men, was to England is not in a condition to equip twenty be assailed by four thousand English ; a number thousand troops, and that the maintenance of not sufficient to garrison the Seraglio, as your such a force in the field would cost her more Majesty will find next October. than a hundred thousand would cost Russia. Her The Ministers of England have squandered last year's expenses in the contest with France away the resources of their country among their were triple the expenses of Russia in all the cam- supporters and dependants: the people are worn paigns of Peter the Great; and her march to down with taxes, and hardly anything short of an Paris cost more than the building of Petersburg. invasion could rouse them again to war. Beside, If her Ministers had ever been men of calculation, in a time of discontent it is dangerous to collect which they should have been above others from the together so large an army as would be sufficient habits and wants of their country, they would for any important purpose. A declining nation, have avoided, as Walpole did, nearly all continental it appears to me, must fall before it can recover wars, and would have been contented to throw in its strength; as a ball must strike the earth bea military and monied force, there only where its fore it can rebound. weight and celerity must turn the balance. The Alexander. But look away from England to folly of others is as useful to us as our own wis- the Continent. dom would be without it.

Capo d'Istria. The armies there have not yet Alexander. England is a brilliant performer, done what they are destined to do. Pertinacity but bad timist.

among rulers, in making them the instruments of Capo d'Istria. Employments in England are their ambition, has made them the arbiters of properties holden under certain families; and their fate. I would not speak so clearly, if I were victories and conquests are secondary objects in not convinced that your Majesty will find full her wars. Against the most consummate gene- occupation for yours. Soldiers can never stand rals and the most enthusiastic troops in Europe, idle long together : they must turn into citizens was despatched an inexperienced young Prince, in or into rebels.* The Janissaries are only a transwhom the soldiers having no confidence, lost that lation of the Pretorian-guards. which personal courage and national pride had Alexander. This seems true : and certain I am implanted in them. Every new disgrace and dis- that England is little formidable to me just now. aster was a new reason for employing him : ex- Capo d'Istria. Strike the blow, and she will be pedition followed expedition, defeat followed less. If she attack you, let her attack you in

defeat. On another occasion, republicans were possession of Turkey, not in writing a declaration | taken out of the prisons, and brigaded with roy- of war. Threaten her with exclusion for twenty

alists, to fight for the King of France. They years from your ports, if she moves. landed on the shores of their country, and slew Alexander. Her high spirit would not brook their comrades. Afterward the city of Ferrol this language. was to be attacked : neither the General nor any

* This was written in 1823, printed in 1824 : the events | person under him knew its fortifications or its l of 1825 confirmed it.

Capo d'Istria. Her spirit must rise and fall you take possession, as you propose to do, of with her condition. She has thrown her enemy California, and the coasts to the north of that upon the ground, but he will rise up first. In a province, by consent of the Spanish King, then time of the greatest plenty, England removes a indeed may she have reason to tremble all the tax upon malt, to the advantage of the brewer present century for her dominions in Hindostan. only. She will proceed in conciliating first one The conquest of them you will always find impractrade, then another, until she sacrifices her sink-ticable from the side of Tartary, through which ing-fund, which ought to be sacred as the debt Bonaparte, in the crassitude of his ignorance, itself. It should never have been diminished: on fancied a road was to be opened. If the Americans the contrary it should have been augmented, and English permit your Majesty to occupy as with whatever could have been curtailed from much of the American shore as you, by your imunnecessary and ostentatious offices. Yet I con- perial ukase, lay claim to, you become the arbitrator fess I do indeed entertain some fears on the part of in the first dispute between them, and possess the England.

commerce that should belong to both. I am afraid Alexander. All at once !

that, instead of this, another kind of Holy Alliance Capo d'Istria. Yes, Sire ! I am afraid that even may be formed against you; and that America, a short delay may give her time to turn herself Sweden, England, Austria, Prussia, may discover and open her eyes. It is her interest that we do the necessity of putting a stop to your career : nor not interfere in the affairs of Greece : it is her would it be surprising if, after some future and interest to watch over them, brood over them, not distant war, Odessa should be the capital of and foster them secretly into full maturity. If an independent and rich kingdom, standing up she thinks wisely, or thinks at all, she will con- erect between you and Turkey, and bounded by sider the minor constitutional governments and the Danube and the Sea of Azof. Take while you the secondary maritime powers not merely as can, and what you can. England may not always members, but as vital parts of herself. By the be the dupe of a Minister whom the lustre of a provisions of the Holy Alliance, Russia has ob- diamond brings down from his highest flight, and tained the same power and the same right of a snuff-box shuts up for your pocket. Make haste, interfering in the political affairs of Europe, as Sire! acknowledge the liberty of Greece .. and she obtained by her victories over the Turks in crush it. those of Servia, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Your Alexander. I had begun to doubt of your sinMajesty has wiped away with the soft part of the cerity, my faithful friend, and almost to question pen what the British Minister thought he had the soundness of your politics. In our menacing written indelibly in the treaty of Vienna. the Turkish empire, the interference of France is

Alexander. I shall certainly make some de- much to be apprehended; do not you think so, monstrations, on the side both of Greece and of Capo d'Istria ? Spain. The English, I hope, may be intimidated. Capo d'Istria. The good King of France is If they should assist South America, my views of occupied in rocking to sleep the martial spirit of commerce in that quarter will be clouded, and his children, as he calls them. The better part of those of conquest utterly shut out.

his army is favourable to the cause of Greece; and Capo d'Istria. England looks so long at an the Spartan fife is pitched to the carmagnole. object that her eyes grow dim upon it. What she France wants colonies; England has too many. To most should deprecate she must at last expect; a England the most successful war is, on this account, violent and long conflict with her liberated pro- more disastrous than to her defeated adversary: vinces. The best, the only allies she could concili- her conquests are the worst of evils to her colonies, ate are the rising states of the south: she should be and the destruction of another's commerce is a the first to help them in their distress, the most violent shock to hers. Cyprus, or Egypt preferassiduous to strengthen them in their growth. ably, would abundantly compensate France : Alexander. I must prevent this.

either would accelerate the decadence of her rival, Capo d'Istria. Alas! Sire, you could as easily or at least increase her distresses. France will be prevent it from another planet. At present you persuaded by England to make some feeble reare among the least formidable of her enemies : monstrances, but your Majesty will be informed of you never can touch her but on the Mediterranean their import. Supposing (for nothing is impossior Adriatic. No nation seems yet to have divined ble) that England should confide in her sincerity, the importance of California. The Russians, I it could produce no more than an intemperance of hope, are destined to teach it. Possession of this language, the echoes of which boisterousness would country was taken by Drake, who called it New sound but feebly on the shores of the Bosphorus. Albion. It is wonderful that the English should Alexander. The spirit of your countrymen is not never have thought it worth occupation; the more a spirit which I am disposed to encourage. I especially since their intercourse with China. abhor republicanism. Once possessing it, they could hardly by any Capo d'Istria. So your Majesty should. I feel possible effort be driven out; certainly not by no such abhorrence; but your Majesty shall find the Mexicans, who never have attempted to con- that my speculations are lowered down to policy ciliate the natives.

and duty. Leave the Greeks, my countrymen, to If indeed England sits down quietly, and sees their own efforts for a time: every day will produce

some new atrocity : mutual hatred will increase : / armies excites to ambition, and every officer exmutual efforts will be made incessantly : both pects promotion under a new dynasty. The King parties will exhaust themselves : the Turkish will avoid this by the preservation of peace, which cavalry, the strength of the empire, will perish is as necessary to him as war ever was to his where it cannot act; and among the mountains predecessor. and defiles it will want both exercise and pro- Let us now take another view of the subject, Fender. The Greeks, on becoming your subjects, and look beyond the King toward the army. under whatever form of government, whether Three hundred thousand French bodies lie exabsolute, mixed (permit me an absurdity), or free, posed and stiff along your territory. Place the will be heartily glad to repose ; and granting that French army between a Russian and a Turkish, their fibre still quivers, their strength will be and say to it, “ Frenchmen, here are those who onable to trouble or molest you. Propose to the slew your companions in arms, unprovoked ag. King of Persia the invasion and possession of the gressors; and here, on the other side, are those best Turkish provinces, such as Bagdad and with whom hitherto you have lived in amity, the Damascus; offer him either a great or a small slaughterers and oppressors of the Greeks, those force, whichever he chooses, of the infantry now children of Leonidas and Epaminondas, the nation quartered on his borders. This will prove your which founded Marseilles, Ajaccio and Aleria, sincerity and ensure his success : and you may and left imprinted its finest features on your chamediate and recover the whole when the sons con- racter :" they would consult their glory rather tend for the kingdom. Beside, there is an ob- than their revenge, and their only hesitation would scure and ancient prophecy, that, as the empire be, whether it allowed them to attack the weaker of Persia was conquered by one Alexander, the enemy. A single spark fires and explodes them. empire of Turkey will be conquered by another. I must remark to your Majesty that Russia is

Alexander. I never heard of this before. It the sole country in the world whose policy is imbath some weight with me. Nothing can resist a mutable. Russia, like the star that shines above good old prophecy.

her, must remain for ever a guide to steer by. Capo d'Istria. The Turks have also another : The policy of England has varied more frequently that Constantinople will be entered by the northern than that of any other nation on record, because gate. Their bones will crack between these pro- in general a new administration deems it necessary phecies if we clap them together vigorously and to change the system of the former. The persons opportunely.

who now administer the affairs of that country, are Alexander. But Austria will not assist, and may persons of humble birth and humbler genius, and oppose me.

are maintained in their places by the timidity of Capo d'Istria. God grant it! Her assistance, the aristocracy, and by the contempt of all classes at the best, would only be in cutting up the prey; for the leaders of opposition. They will hazard but her opposition would end in being cut up her- nothing: they are far more prudent (weak as they self. The united kingdoms of Poland and Hungary! are) than any past Ministry for half a century. We must be fashionable, may it please your Majes- As we have entered into the French national ty: united is the word of the day ... unless we feeling, so will we now into the English ; and I talk of marriages. The next year may produce am confident of discovering that no hostility is to that which must happen within the next twenty. be apprehended by your Majesty, from the system The Adriatic is the boundary of the Eastern em- of either Cabinet or the spirit of either people. pire. No Runic spell was ever so powerful as the The Englishman, in all respects the contrary three words, Italy is free. They would disband of his neighbour, is too great and too fierce a every army on the continent, and carry you as in creature to be gregarious. He has little public a whirlwind to the British Channel. You do not honour, much private : his own heart makes large want so much ; but what you want you may have. demands upon him, national glory none. The Power says as softly and as invitingly to your innermost regions of Hindostan, the wildest shores Majesty, as love said to an emperor in former of the American Lakes, should have repeated the times, Imperatori quod libet licet : a principle language of England. This is power; this is which forms the basis of the Holy Alliance. glory. Rome acquired it, and civilised the world

Alexander, I again acknowledge my appre- by it; with how much scantier stores of intellect, bension of France, both from her perpetual favour how much less leisure, how much less intercourse, toward Turkey since the reign of Francis the how much less philanthropy, how much less First, and from her jealousy of any continental wealth! England would not assist the Greeks superior.

from any regard to their past glory, or with any Capo d Istria. Apparently there is reason from prospective view to her own, but because they have these motives ; but others operate in a contrary suffered much and fought bravely. When the direction. France will be cautious of raising up populace has pelted the King amid his guards (a a military chief. She remembers how much has ceremony not uncommon) and some have been been effected by one unworthy of her confidence, dismounted in the performance of their duty, they one great only by the littleness of his competitors; have always been hailed with loud cheers. Let a and she remembers that her King was imposed foreigner be attacked and defend himself in Lonupon her by the conqueror. The command of don, he raises up an army in his favour by the

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first effort of courage, and the brother of his, sees the necessity of peace : for, although her antagonist clears the ground and demands fair soldiers have been at all times the best that ever play for him : such is the characteristic expression marched upon the earth, they never marched of this brave unbloody people. All in other without some great object; and none such is now countries crowd about the strong: he alone who before them. The Swedes are the most orderly prevails is in the right; he alone who wants no and the most civilised people on the continent. assistance is assisted. The Englishman is the Lovers as they are of their country, if they felt an friend of the desolate and the defender of the op- unnecessary weight of taxes, they would change pressed. Hence his hatred and contempt of those their habitations, well knowing that Swedes make who presume to an equality with him in other Sweden, in whichever hemisphere. The finest states, and the suddenness with which he breaks countries in the world are unoccupied. Avarice off intercourse from the few whom he has admitted hath seized a few bays, a few river-banks, a few to his society. On these principles your Majesty will savannahs, a few mines, of America : the better prepossess a most powerful and generous people: and greater part remains unpeopled. Emigration and although in the opinion of a few the national in- has only begun: the colonists at present there are terest is concerned in maintaining the Turkish em- merely explorers. What rational creature would pire, the popular mind will aid you in its overthrow. live where the earth itself is taken away from him

On no other resolution than the conquest of by nature one-half of the year, where he sees Turkey was it prudent in your Majesty to grant nothing but snow and sky one-half of his lifethe dominion of Italy to Austria. The occupation time, if the produce of his labour and the exercise of Naples does not require an army : four regi- of his will were not perfectly his own ? Are light ments and four hangmen could keep the whole and warmth worth nothing? They cost much in peninsula in subjection. We wanted from every cold climate. There must also be a great governments an acknowledgment of the dogma expenditure in more costly clothing, in more that every ebullition of the public sentiment copious food, in more spiritous beverage, in more should be compressed. We obtained it; we saw profuse and wasteful hospitality. For solitude is it acted on.

The first regiment of Austria that intolerable, even to the morose and contemplative, marched to Naples paved a road for your guards without warmth or light. Every man then is to Constantinople. Why should we break it up severely taxed by the north itself : rewards, comagain! why abandon a line of policy both ends forts, enjoyments, privileges, should be proposed of which are in our hands ? England in the for- and invented to detain him : not impositions, not mer city did not stand merely neutral. The hardships. Sweden, whoever be her King, whatwhole correspondence, perfidious and traitorous ever her constitution, must avoid them, and must as Englishmen must denominate it, between the employ all imaginable means of procuring from King, then at Vienna, and his son, ostensibly at her own soil, her food, her raiment, and her lurthe head of the government, was carried on uries.

She should interdict every unnecessary through the hands and under the cover of a importation : and her worst land should be proved British envoy. Supposing, which is impossible, to be capable of producing fruits from which may that any continental power dares to oppose you, be extracted strong and delicious and salutary is there any that would be so powerful in hostility liquors. Such is the beneficence of Providence, as the Greeks in amity ? Every male of that rarely well seconded, and often thwarted and nation, from puberty to decrepitude, would take intercepted, that the least fertile countries and up arms; even her women, her bishops, her the least genial climates would mature vinous sacristans, her singers.

fruits, and administer a beverage more wholesome Alexander. But France, England, Austria, and more grateful, than fifty parts in sixty of the might confederate.

grape-wines brewed in Italy and Spain. This is Capo d'Istria. Their confederation would act perhaps the first time, since the reign of Cyrus, more feebly than the efforts of one singly, and that a minister of stateever talked on such matters. would ruin the finances of the only state among When I was twenty years younger I should have them which hereafter might injure you materially. come forward with fear and blushes, if I had a They could not hold together three months ; the word to say to my emperor on plums, cherries, very first would serve for the seed-time of dis- currants, and raspberries. But a labourer may cord. France has a long account to settle with forget his weariness amid the murmur of his several on her confines : they know it, and will hives, and a citizen be attached to his native soil keep themselves shut closely up at home. by an apple-tree or a gooseberry-bush. Gardeners

Sweden and Prussia have one only warranty for are never bad subjects. Sweden will encourage their integrity. Prussia may expect and obtain agriculture, plantation, and fishery. The latter is much if England moves a foot. Whatever your the most fertile of her possessions, and wants no Majesty could take away from Sweden, is of no garrisons or encampments. These occupations value to you, and would be taken only as a punish- will deaden excitability to war, without injuring ment for defection. She will therefore seek to the moral and physical force by which, whenever cultivate the friendship of a potentate, interested it is necessary, it may be supported. But she more in preserving than in ruining her, alone appears to me farther removed from such a necescapable of either, and alike capable of both. She i sity than any other nation in the world ; and your

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