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1821.) REVIEW. Robinson on the Mexican Revolution. 427 vered with mud, and fainting under fa found such mansions of borror in any tigue and buoger, bis appearance and situ- other part of the world. They have not alion excited the surprise aod sympathy of only been the sepulchres of thousands, but the Spanisb officers, particularly of the in their horrid dungeons cruelties have commander, Ortega, who in a frieodly been practised as dreadful as the most manner took him by the band, and inquir. heart.rending scenes of the secret caverus ed his name. As soon as it was mention of the luquisition." ed, the officers exclaimed, “Thank God!

so strong an apprehension had (gracias a Dios) Doctor Robinson has at last fallen into our hands. They wished

the Viceroy of Mexico of the Au. to interogate the writer very particularly;

thor's publisbiog the important infor. but be declined replying, and requested

matiou he possessed, relative to the they would suspend their inquirie's until Mexican affairs, that he absolutely the next morning, for the want of steep determined on sending the unfortu. and food had rendered it impossible for nate prisoner to Spain, in order that him at that moment to gratify their curi. he might be confided for life. After osity. They acceded to his wishes, and being imprisoned at Campeachy and supplied him with food, a change of clothes, Moro Castle for several months re. and a hammock in their quarters. The

spectively, he arrived at Cadiz. He following morniog he arose perfectly re

was again confined, and threaleved fresbed, and was prepared to go through

with a rigorous imprison ineot at the scene which he anticipated. He en.

Ceula; but effected his escape, and deavoured, io the first place, to convince the commander, Ortega, that he was a dif.

arrived at Gibraltar. ferent individual from Doctor Robinson ; The Author's subsequent adventures for which purpose he exhibited his pass. are detailed at greater length than port from the government of the United our limits permit us even to notice ; States: but be found it impossible to re. but it does not appear that he obtainmove from the minds of the Spanish offi. ed the least redress for the cruel treatcers tbe fixed impression that he was the ment he received; or that he was alDoctor. After some amicable discussion, lowed any indemnity for bis losses, Ortega suddeoly assumed a stern aspect, notwithstaoding his repeated remonand informed him, that his orders were of the most peremptory nature to put to

We have been more minute in re, deatb all prisoners who fell into his hands; and that he was empowered to deviate

lating the peculiar circumstances, to, from them only when an insurgent volun. which the Autbor was exposed, than tarily surrendered his person, and implor." we otherwise might, because of the ed the benefit of bis Catholic Majesty's doubt and vocertaioty that have al-1 pardog findulto). He continued, «In ways atteoded the accounts respecting your case, Doctor Robioson, although affairs in the Spanish colonies ; for no your presenting yourself to the Spanish intelligence could scarcely ever be autborities has been the result of neces- obtained from Mexico,except through sity, yet I am willing to spare your life,

the agency of tbe Spanish Governprovided you claim the protection of the

ment. The most dreadful war might indulto; but otherwise, it becomes my

be ragiog for years in that country, painful duty to put you to death."

and the whole world, with the excep Mr.Robioson, finding remonstrapce tion of Spain, be igporant of its exisuseless, accepted the royal indulto ; tence. All intercourse with the transbut it was afterwards violated by the atlaotic possessions of Spain, without Spanish gcoeral, who coofiped bim as her special permission, is interdicted: a prisoner at Oaxaca. He was subse

under the severest penalties. It apquently immured in the dungeon of

pears that the principal reason which the fortress of San Juan de Ulua, and joduced ihe Spanish authorities to uoderweot the most cruel treatineut.

adopt such harsh ineasures against «Were the writer to give a detail of his

Mr. Robinson, was the idea that be, sufferings during a confinement of eleven

was too intimately acquainled with, months in that dreadful Bastile, it would the Mexican affairs. His visit to be deemed incredible by his readers, un.

Mexico might also be considered as less any of them should have had the mis.

violation of the Spapish laws, and fortune to bave experienced incarceration among the Spaniards. Even in its mildest

consequeotly punishable with impri- ; shape, it is worse than in any other civilized

sonment or death, nation ; but when we speak of the castles

A brief account of the conquest of of San Juan de Ulua, aod of Ounoa, it must Mexico isintroduced at thecommence.? . be understood, that there are not to be ment of the history.

Pri " The

strances.

to put to

426 REVIEW.- Robinson on the Merican Revolution. May,

The conquest of Mexico was unders of July, but with severe loss. The friendtaken by Cortez, in conformity with a plan ship' of the Tlascalans remained mwaltered which bad been prescribed tori Columbus by the change of Cortez's fortune ; aod by the Spanish Crown; by which it was they offered him every assistance be should provided, that the expence attending the require, to enable him to contioue his opediscovery and conquest of any unknown ratiops against their enemies, the Mexi. countries should be altogether borne by cans. Cortez, having incorporated wilh the adventurers, who should, as a compen- his Europeans the soldiers of the conquer. sation, retain the passalage of the oations, ed Narvaez, and reinforcements from tbe upon the condition of instructing them iu Antilles, returned to and entered 'Tezcuco, the precepts of the Christian religion. the 31st of December. "On the 31st of The dominion of all such countries as May, 1521, he laid siege to the city of should be discovered was to be vested in Mexico, with eighty.seven cavalry, eight the crown of Spain, which, on its part, hundred and forty-eight Spanish infantry, guaranteed (Leyes de las Indias, Ley I. eighteen pieces of artillery, seventy-free lit. 1. lib. 3.) that on no account should thousand Tlascalans, and thirteen small they be separated, wholly or in part, from vessels, which he had built on the fake. that monarcby:' and the Emperor Charles “The Mexicans, under Quauhtemotzio, V. bound himself and his successors for the successor of the upfortunate Monte ever, that these settlements should on no zuma, defended themselves with desperate account, or in favour of any one, either valour; but, after a resistance of seventy. wholly or in part, be separated ; and that five days, during which they had to con.

if, in violation of this stipulation, any of teod against the ravages of famide and his successors should make any gift or disease, and an enemy who had increased alienation, either wholly or in part, lhe in force toʻupwards of two hundred thou. same should be void.'

û sand men, Mexico was taken by Cortez on ." Cortez, in pursuance of these favour- the 13th of August, though tot agtil the able enactments, proceeded from the island greater part of that beautifal city bad been of Cuba, on the 10th of February, 1519, destroyed, to the work of conquest. Aster sailing " The emperor, endeavouring to escape, along, aad making descents on the coast of in a canoe, from the fury of the Spaniards, Yucatan, he landed, on the 21st of April, was taken prisoner. The sanguinary Coron the spot where the castle of San Juan tez crowned the dreadful cruelties which de Ulua now stands; and, after experienc. had sollied all the steps of bis conquest, ing several vicissitudes of fortune, and by torturing the emperor in a manner the displaying the courage and ferocity of the most diabolical. With a view of extortSpaniards of those times, he succeeded, ing from the unfortunate monarch a conon the 8th of November, in planting the fession of the place where his treasores Spanish banners on the capital of the were concealed, his feet were first soaked Mexican empire.

in oil, and afterwards burnt by a slow fire. The chief of that empire lavished upon Cortez, finding that the torture was borce Cortez every mark of respect and hospita. with firmness by the noble Mexican, orlity ; but was soop made to feel the effects dered him to be released; but be, toge. of Spanish artifice and treachery. Mon. ther with two other kings, were haug, tezuma was entrapped, and kept a priso. three years afterwards, on the allegation per by Cortez for six months. At length of an intent to revolt. : he was shot by an arrow, while endeavour. «The natives of the country continued, ing to quell a tumult among his own sub. for some time, to withstand the progress jects. They were anxious to avenge his of the conqueror, but eventually fell ticwrongs, and to revenge the treacherous tims to their inferiority in arms. A derasmassacre of their nobles on tbe 13th of tation ensued, by fire and sword, that bas May, 1520. This unfeeling outrage was no parallel in history. The unoffending committed by Alvarado, who had been left Aborigines were'slaughtered without mercy in the command of the city during the or 'distinction. To the Spanish historians absence of Cortez, wheu the latter was of those days te refer the reader, who marching upon Zempoalla, to attack his feels desirous of perusing the accounts of rival Narvaez. Montezuma died, frantic those cruelties in detail : he will there find with mortification and despair, about the pourtrayed only a part of the bloody 30th of June, in the quarters of the Spa- scenes, yet sufficient to cover the Spaniards, where he had been kept prisoner mish game with eternal opprobrium. by Cortez. This event so much excited After Cortez felt himself firmly esta. the rage of the Mexicans, that Cortez blished in the empire, the iron reign of found it impossible to maintain his posi- tyranny commenced, in all its bitter and tion in the city; and it became expedient dreadful forms ;-the Indians perished by for him to abandon it, aod to fall back on thousands, under the scourge of their bar

bis allies the Tlascalans. This movement barous, and cruel task-masters." i was accomplished on the night of the 1st s it

Uoder

1821.] Review,-Robinsou on the Mexican Revolution. 429

Under the reign of Charles V.mady binson haschieflyavailed himself of the wise 'regulations were adopted ; but Journal of a gentleman who accomthese soon gave way to the most un- panied General Minafrom England, aad paralleled injustice and oppression acted, for some time, as his Commis. that ever disgraced the annals of a sary General. Mipa's correspondence Nero or a Caligula. The Aborigines, with various persons in Europe and finding their burdens increase daily, the Uuited States bas likewise afforded after the elevation of Ferdioand vil. him considerable information. The to the Spanish throne, and seeing ao romantic achievements of this youog hope of redress, but through Their and gallant warrior will be perused Owo exertions, eotered into a plan for with deep interest by every class of emancipating themselves from the readers. They will be found as indespotism of Spaio. "

structive as they are interesting. He "lo this conspiracy were engaged niany

was born in Navarre, io 1789, and of the most distinguished men in the kiog.

educated at Pampeluna. He joined dom, principally ecclesiastics and lawyers.

the Spanish army at the age of eigh. It was conducted with the greatest secresy,

teen--the period when the Spaniards and extended to almost every city in the

cominenced their resistance to the kingdom. A simultaneous insurrection French. That system of Guerilla was intended in the provinces ; and the warfare, which was so destructive to plot bad nearly reached maturity, when it the French armies, first originated was checked by one of those accidents with bim. After the return of Perwhich frequently prevent the accomplish- divand to Spain, Mina experienced ment of great projects ; else, it is bighly that iogratitude from bis sovereign of probable that, Venegas would have been

which numbers of brave individuals the last viceroy of the Mexican throne. " One of tbe conspirators, in a death

had justly to complain. He afterbed confession, revealed not only the plot,

wards raised the standard of the but the names of many of his principal ac.

Cortes, in conjunction with his uncle complices. Venegas was alarmed at the Espoz. Having been furnished with magoitude of the plan, but was in hopes, a ship, and other necessaries, he un. that by seizing the principals he should dertook an enterprize against Mexico, be able to check it; and he took the most in the hope of striking a blow at the prompt and active measures to arrest tyranny of Ferdioand in that quarter. Those who were denounced. In the pro- The eveots of this undertakiog are vince of Guanaxuato, the head of the con.

truly astonishing. A small band, at spiracy was Dr. Hidalgo, the rector of

Do time exceeding 308 in number, ad. Dolores; in which town, and the adjacent one of San Miguel el Grande, many of the

vanced from Soto la Marina ; fovgbt

its way into the interior of Mexico, conspiratory resided. " Venegas dispatched orders for the

beating on different occasions large arrest of Hidalgo and his party; but, as bodies of men sept to oppose its adsome of their colleagues were in the confi. yance, and succeeded in formiog a dence of the viceroy, and knew the mea. junction with one of the revolutionary sures he was adopling, they immediately bands. In his first battle, that of dispatched private couriers to apprise the Peotillos, 172 men, with a loss of 56 rector of what was in agitation, The in killed and wounded, beat a force contelligence was received by Captain Don

sisting of 680 jpfautry of the EuroIgnacio Allende, who commanded a small

pead regiments of Estremadura and body of the kiog's troops in San Miguel.

America, 1100 cavalry, and a rearHe few to Hidalgo, at Dolores, with the information. Tbey ai once agreed that

guard of 300. Mr. Robinson mainAlight was of no avail; they knew that, if

tains and it is hardly possible to read taken, death was inevitable, and therefore this parrative without agreeing with resolved on making a desperate effort to

him that if Mina had then had 1000, save themselves and their party, Allende iostead of 150 foreigners, he might hasing brought over his men, and the pro- bave marched at once on the capital scribed party beivg in readiness, the locsin of Mexico, aod put an end to the auof revolt was sounded, on the night of the thority of Spain ;--and that two 10th of September, 1810: and thus com- thousand foreigo iofantry, under the menced the civil wars of Mexico, which bauners of freedom, led by intelligent form the subject of the following and callant officers, would overturn sketch," ,4 14

due . . ; the Spanish govern inent of Mexico in In the account of Mina's unfortu- less than six months from the day of nato expedition to Mexico, Mr. Ro their landing, either on the coast of

the

430

Review.Hunter's History of Sheffield. (May, the Pacific Ocean, or on that of the is given a succinct bat datisfactory Gulf of Mexico. .. ) view of its manufaetures, population,

The premature and igoominious police, and its various improvements, death of this gallant bero is feelingly during the last two centuries, stated. He was surprized in the night Chapter IX. embraces Ecclesiastiby a party of cavalry, at El Venadito, cal Affairs; including a particular acand taken prisoner. The Viceroy of count of the parish church of St. Peter Mexico ordered bis immediate execu re"It is de reclangular building, having tion... at ng "

.

neither porcha por chapel protruding be. * On the 1'1th of November he was con yond the buttresses. Its lengti from ducted under a military escort to the fatal East to West is about 240 feet, and its ground, attended by a file of the Caça- breadth about 130. A tower and spire dores of the regiment of Zaragoza. In rise near the centre of the building. Ori. this last scene of his life was the hero of ginally, like most of our churches that Navarre not unmindful of his character: Were erected for the use of a considerable with a firm step he advanced to the fatal population, it was in the form of a cross, spot, and with his usual serenity told the

the lower and spire rising at the jotersecsoldiers to take good aim, Y no me hagais tion of the two limbs. In the original de sufrir,'' (and don't let me suffer.) The sign were included side ailes both on the officer commanding gave the accustomed North and South, above wbich rose the signal; the soldiers fired; aod that spirit

nave with a range of clerestory wiodovs. fled from earth, which, for all the qualities Perhaps the first change in its form was which constitute the hero and the patriot, produced by the erection of the Sbrews. seemed to bave been born for the good of bury Chapel, which now forms the Soutbmankind. Thus perished ihis gallant youth, East angle of the building. Since that io the twenty-eighth year of his age. His period there have been many changes short but brilliant career entitles him to a and many re-edifications, till nothing re. distinguished place on the list of those be- mains of the original fabrick, except the roes who bave shed tbeir blood in bold and massy pillars that support the tower, and generous exertions to break the tyrant's the whole bas assumed a form wbicb nerer sceptre, aud to extend the blessings of belonged to the antient churches of this freedom among the human race."

country, a parallelogram contained by

walls of equal altitude." A most excellent portrait of the

: : gallant General is prefixed to the

A brass plate, since removed, pointwork, engraved from a paigting takened out the burial-place of Dr. Thoa few weeks before he left England.

mas Short*. He was a palive of Scot: A chart of the Mexican territories is

land, but settled at Sheffield early in also given. "

life, where he soon gained considerThe Author enters into a critical

able practice, not only in the town, examination of the different routes to

but among the gentlemen of the surthe Pacific Ocean, and expatiales, at roundupg country. la 1732, he marconsiderable leogth, on the import

ried Miss Mary Parkib, or Parkins, ance of a passage through the Isth

sister of William Parkins, of Mora mus of Darien. Por our parts we are

tenley, esq. by wbom he had two firmly persuaded that so desirable an

sons and two daughters, lo 1769, be object could be effected during a pe

lost his wife, and soon after retired to riod of peace, if the goveroments of

Rotherbam, where he died Nov. 28, Europe aod America would co-ope

1772. rale in the undertaking; but we

lo the chancel is an elegant monu. really despair of such an eolerprize

ment to the Rev. James Wilkinsont, ever being entertained, whilst the

vicar of Sheffield. The bust, which preseot deplorable system of priesli

is å striking resemblance, was the craft and tyraony pervades the whole

hole work of Francis Lesgitt Chantrey, extent of the American Isthmus;

esq. R.A, and F.R.S, whose birth will « the day that makes man a gaye bereafter give celebrity to Norton takes half his worth away."

his native village, and whose extraor."

... i dinary powers were first noticed and 63. Hunter's History of the Parish of fostered by gentlemen of the neigh.

Sheffield, continued from p. 332.
WE resume with pleasure our re- Anecdotes," vol. I. p. 451.'

* of whom see Nichols's “ Literary port of this truly valuable Work. + The death of tbis respected Clergy

Io Chapter VIII. underneath tbe man is recorded in rol. LXXV. P. 93.,; head" Modern History of Sheffield,”. See also po 705."1501*****

bourhood

REVIEW.-Hunter's History of Sheffield.

1821.]

431 bourhood of the place of bis pativity. be met with, who was deservedly looked Id vas his first work. He had never up to and consulted upon every occurring before this commission offered or eta occasion, whether for the relief of the tempted to chisel marble i avd when poor, the defence of his country, the probe oudertook it, had no more cér

tection of every useful institution, the en.' taioty of being able to complete it,

couragement of merit in any situation, or

of any plan calculated in any way to ithan that self-confidence with which

prove or benefit society in general, but true genius, though modest as bis, more particularly the town and neigh. never fails to be inspired. It bears bourhood of Sheffield whether we conthe following inscription : '

template him in any or all of the above * This monument was erected by a sub. points of view, there will be abundant seription of the nobility, genlry, clergy,

reason to admire the excellence of his un.. and others, to the memory of the Reverend derstanding, the integrity of his conduct. James Wilkinson, A.M. Vicar of Sheffield, and the zeal which he displayed in ac.. Prebendary of Ripon,' and one of his Ma: complishing all his purposes. jesty's Justices of the Peace for the West "Such was Mr. Wilkinson. The fourth and North Ridings of Yorkshire, whose of seven sons of Andrew Wilkinson, of life had been pre-emiyently distinguished Boroughbridge, esq. many years Mem.. by unaffected piety, inflexible integrity, ber of Parliament for Aldborough, and aod unwearied zeal in the service of the principal store. keeper of the Ordnance public during a period of half a century, he was early designed for the Chureb.. He died the 18th of January, 1805, aged and received a 'most excellent classical 74 years.”

education under Mr. Clarke of Beverley.. A beautiful plate of the monument,

School. From under his care he was re.. drawn and engraved by Blore, accom

moved to Clare Hall in Cambridge, and

was admitted to the degree of B. A. in panies the Volume, We cannot re

1752, and M. A. 1754. Sheffield, the fa. sisl extractiog at full length the me

mily living, becoming vacant in 1753, it moir of this amiable divine :

was reserved for Mr. Wilkinson, till he The death of Mr. Wilkinson was con. was of age to take it. This, and a prebend sidered as the greatest public loss the in the collegiate church of Ripon, was all towo of Sheffield had been known to sus- the preferment be enjoyed, nor did he tain, and all were inclined to hail 'him seek or wish for more. - At Sheffield he • Father of the town of Sheffield and its had sufficient scope for the exercise of neighbourhood. To the joftuence arising bis benevolence, and of that desire of use from his office were added the influence fulness which entered so largely into his which the possession of magistracy gives; moral constitution, He undertook very the influence of a noble income, and of early in life the office of a Magistrate for a hereditary respect, for he was the repre- the West and North Ridings, tbe duties sentative of the family of the Jessops of of which, as he executed them, were most Broomball, and resided in the house of laborious. In the ļatter part of his life his forefathers; and the iofluence of the he enjoyed great affluence, all his brotbers most gentlemanly address, combined with having gone before him. He then speol a' a tall and graceful person, which could portion of his time at his family mansion 1 not fail of commanding respect. Whet at Boroughbridge, but much the largest ther, se regard him," said a contemporary portion was still passed at bis favourite i and frieod, as a divine labouring by his and quiet retreat Dear Sheffield. At Bo. ? example as well as precept, to inculcate roughbridge he died, after a long and the great and sacred truths of Revealed painful illness, on Friday the 18th of Jan.. Religioo; or as a Magistrate executing 1805, and was buried in the church of that, those laws of bis country which were town, where a handsome monument was framed by the Legislature for the protec, erected to his memory by his relative and tion of everything valuable in society, exccutor, the late Rev. Marmaduke Law and with a most patient attention to every son, bearing this inscription: minute particular from every person, but “Sacred to the memory of the Rev. more particularly from the poor, the ig. James Wilkinson, A. M. fourth and last borant, and unprotected, to enable him to surviving son of Andrew Wilkinson, esq. adainister justice with the most serupu: He held the Vicarage of Sheffield fifty lous impartiality, but at the same time to years, and for nearly the same leagıb of blend, it with mercy, whenever it was in time discbarged the duties of a Magis..ving his power ;-whether we consider him as trale; for the execution of which import. a friead ever ready with his purse, as' ant trusts, extensive and accurate knows well as with his adyice or jnterest, to do ledge, uncommon discernment, superior any good or generous act; or as a great talents, and conciliating banners, emin public character commanding respect by Dently qualifier bim. He was candid, a dignity in person and manners rarely to modest, voassuming, yet of steady cou.

rage :

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