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Review.-Frost on the Poor Rates. March, penses of maintaining the prisoners, but what important ameliorations may leares a considerable balance in favour of be effected by good management; the Goveroment. Another gratifying cir- and it is an inestimable document for cumstance, connected with the adminis- all parish officers. tration of that country, is, that in a po- Mr. Frost treats the subiect excela pulation of 2,500,000, only two persons

lently, like a real man of business. have been sentenced to death within the

But there is one consideration which last five years, and even these have not been executed.”

ought always to accompany every Dronery is the thief's principle;

abstract view of the heavy expense and that the Bavarian Plao is the

of the Poor Rates ; viz. that tbe imright one, is evident, from the fol

mense profits accruing from the use

of machinery, and the gains (wbatlowing result: « The introduction of labour into pri.

ever tbey may be) from Corn Bills, sons begins already to manifest itself in

in ought to be deducted, as a set off, the diminution of refractory servants, and

from such expenses. Let this be done, of vagrants. Both these classes bave been

as in equity is but fair; and the badeterred from the commission of offences, lance may show, that the increased by the dread of compulsory and hard la expense, compared with former times, bour, with a restricted diet.” P. xx. is far less than supposed *: but com

Crime is rare in Sweden, through pulsory relief must, though inevilathe religious education of youtb ; no

ble, be bad, because it prompts and persons being allowed to exercise the einboldens abuse and imposition. privileges of citizenship, or even to When the Poor rise from reduc. marry, unless they are at least able tion of wages, it is because they have to read. P. xxxiv.

so much less for the purchase of tea, Upon these excellent grounds of sugar, spuff, tobacco, and spirits, labour, instruction, and classification commodities wbich do not fall, like of offenders, is this very laudable others, with the price of corn, and Society proceeding. In a luxurious by the use of which, the Poor Rates over-populous nation like this, where are vopecessarily augmented, and the Goveroment is not arbitrary, and payers fiod no relief when provisions provisions dearer, the Bavarian suc- are cheap. cess cannot be absolutely insured; but infinite good may still be done ; and 50. Kenilworth, a Romance. By the Au. Magistrates, whö do not acquaint thor of Waverley, Ivanhoe, &c. 3 vols. themselves with the contents of this 12mo. Edinburgh, 1821. important Report, are unworthy of IN iotroducing the productions of their honourable office. It is only a this popular Writer to the notice of pamphlet.

our Readers, it would be superfluous

to occupy much time in canvassing 49. A Letter to Thomas Thompson, Esq. their respective merits. They are all

on the Propriety of equalizing the Poor infinitely superior to ibe Novels and Rales at Hull, by assessing the Shipping Romances of the day. They excel in belonging to the Port, to the Relief of the historical importance and general inPoor. By Cha. Frost, Allorney at Law. terest, in the same degree as the wonSecond Edition, 8vo. pp. 61. Baldwin. derful Tales of Mrs. Ratcliffe eclipsed

NOTHING can be more plainly all contemporary productions in fertiiniquitous, than assessment of the lily of invention, and the glowing Poor Rates by parishes ; because a powers of description. The Author man, who, from his local situation, of Waverley may be considered as the pays 10s. in the pound, can sell his founder of a new school, who has coro for no more than be who pays been frequently imitated, but never only sixpence. It appears, that out equalled. His plan is to fix upoo of 16,0001. paid at Hull, during the some interesting portion of history; year 1819, upwards of 70001. was aod, by a few fictitious embellishpaid towards the support of persons meots, produce a most delightful and who immediately gained tbeir settle- entertaining denouement. On the ment in that towo from their servis other hand, it was the chief object of tode, as marioers, or in trades de Mrs. Ratcliffe, and her crowd of serpendent on shipping. P. 5.

vile followers, to soar on the pinions 'lo 1817, the sum raised was 31,2001.

lo 1819, ..................19,7601. * On this subject, see an excellent LetTbis astonisbing difference shows ter, in p. 195.

1821.]
Review.-Kenilworth.

247 of Imagination, and delight her asto- bere on the occasion, and spent a pished Readers by her glowing de week with the Koights and Ladies in scriptions, and brilliancy of language. feastiog, martial touroaments, dancThe present unknown Author may be ing, and other amusements. considered in the light of an histori. Kenilworth Castle frequently chang. cal painter, whose works will always ed its possessors, aod twice reverted maintain their value; though the pro- to the Crown. ductions of the Ratcliffe school must John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, ever present their beauties and al. greatly enlarged the Castle, by adding Jurements. The writer of Kenilworth various buildings to it; particularly converts the crudest materials to gold the tower, with three stories of arches, with an art peculiar to himself; and at the North end of the ball, which the manners of former ages, however still bears bis name; and be very obsolete, are rendered inexbaustible much increased the strength of it, by funds of amusement. But notwith. adding turrets to the outer walls. standing the fertility of this writer's He died in 1399, and leaving issue, genius, it is evident that he does not Henry, surnamed Bolingbroke (from possess the same powers of happy de. the place of his birth), who was afterliacation in describing the character. wards Heory the Fourth, this castle istics of theinhabitants of Old England, came a third time into the hands of as when his talents have had full scope the crown, and continued so through in pourtraging the ecceutricities of several successive reigos. Henry the bis own dative characters; such as Seventh voited it to the Dukedom of the Ferguses, the Oldbucks, &c. of Cornwall; and his son Henry the the North.

Eighth was al a considerable expence As Kenilworth Castle, which is one in repairing and ornamenting it. He of the most picturesque and interest- removed the Plaisance en Marais (apjag ruins in the kingdom, is the grand parently a building for little parties theatre of this Romance, we may gra- of pleasure) from the low marshy tify the curiosity of our Antiquarian grounds where it stood, to where the readers, by introducing a few histori. remains of it now are, within the walls cal particulars; after which we will near the Swan Tower. After the death detail some of the principal incidents of Henry VIII. it descended to his of the Work.

son Edward the Sixth, Queen Mary, Kenilworth Castle, in the times of and her sister Elizabeth; who, in 1563, our warlike Baroos, was renowned for granted it, with all the Royalties besuperior strength; and in later days, longing to it, to Robert Dudley, fifth when security rendered its use as a son to the Duke of Northumberland, fortress unnecessary, after being en- whom she soon afterwards created Earl larged and greatly ornamented by the of Leicester. This icdividual is the Earl of Leicester, it became the scene pripcipal hero of the Romance. It of one of the most sumptuous enter. was under this haughty favourite, taipments that was ever offered by a that Kenilworth reached the summit subject to his Sovereign. The beauty of its grandeur. He, in 1571, erected and grandeur of the remaining ruins, the large pile of building on the South correspond with the maguificent ideas side of the inner court, which bears one has been led to form of this his pame, and the great gatehouse on Castle, and bear jodisputable testi. the North ; tbis he made the princimony of its ancient splendour. It pal entrance, and changed the front was built about the year 1120, by of the castle, wbich before was toGeoffry de Clinton, a Norman, who wards the lake. He likewise built a Was Lord Chamberlain and Treasurer tower at each end of the tilt-yard, to King Henry the First, of whom he from whence the ladies had an oppor: obtained a grant of land for this pur- tunity of seeing the noble diversion of pose.

tiltiog and barriers; and greatly enlo 1279, there was a great resort of Jarged the lake, the chase, and the noble persons to this castle, consisting parks, which now exteoded over near of an hundred Knights and as many twenty miles of country. He is said ladies, wbo formed a round table (a to have expended sixty thousand custom of great antiquity, to prevent pounds (an immense sum in those disputes about precedence). Many days) in these magoificent improvenoblemen from foreign countries caine menis.

Here,

248
Review.- Kenilworth.

[March, Here, in July 1575, having com. His Lordship died Dec. 15, 1786, pleted all things for her reception, leaviog this Castle and his estates in Lord Leicester entertained Queen Eli. Warwickshire to his eldest son, the zabeth for the space of seventeen present Earl of Clarendon. days, with excessive cost, and a va. Having briefly traced the history of riety of delightful shews, as may be Kenilworth Castle, from the founda. seen at large in a special discourse tion to the present time, we will dithen printed, and entitled " The rect the Reader's attention to the anPrincely Pleasures of Kenilworth nexed engraving, (see Plate III.); for Castle.” -“ At her first entrance, the use of wbich we are indebted to there was a floating island upon the the proprietors of “ The London Li. pool, bright blazing with torches; terary Gazette." upon which, clad in silks, were thé The entrance, from the North, is Lady of the Lake, and two nymphs by the side of the great Gate-house waiting on her; who made a speech (No. 13), built by Lord Leicester. The to the Queen in metre, of the anti- wall and ditch formerly joined it, and quity and owners of the castle; which the Castle was entered under an arch. was closed with cornels and loud mu. way, between four turrets; but it has sic. Within the base-court there was since beeu walled up. The large pile a very goodly bridge set op, of twenty of building, called Cæsar's Tower (9), is feet wide and seventy feet long, over the strongest and most ancient part of which the Queen did pass. On each the castle, and served as a kiod of forside thereof were posts erected, with tress to it in times of daoger; three presents upon them unto her, by the sides of the wall are entire, the fourth gods; viz. a cage of wild fowls, by side was pulled down by Oliver Crom. Silvanus; sundry rare fruits, by Po. well's soldiers, in order to make use mona; of coro, by Ceres ; of wipe, of the materials. The great staircase by Bacchus; of sea-fish, by Neptune ; was in the South-west angle of the of all the habiliments of war by Mars; building. Some of the paintings on and of musical instruments, by Apollo. the walls are still visible. The three And for the several days of her stay, kitchens lie beyond it, and reach various rare sports and shews were nearly from Cæsar's Tower to Lancasthere exercised; viz. in the chase, a ter Buildings; they were very large: sa vage man with satyrs ; bear-bait. some traces of foundations on The ings, fire-works, Italian-tumblers, a greenswerd is all that now remains of country bridal, with rouping at the them, and only serves to shew their quintin, and morris-dancing. And situation.— Lancaster Buildings (7) that there might be nothing wanting come next, they were very strong. The that these parts could afford, bither three ranges of arches one above ancame the Coventry men, and acted other are still to be seen. the ancient play, long since used in of the range of aparlments that that city, called Hock's Tuesday, set formed the South-side of tbe inner. ting forth the destruction of the court, consisting of the White-ball, Danes in King Etheldred's time; with the Presence-chamber, and the Privswhich the Queen was so well pleased, chamber, nothing remaios but the that she gave them a brace of bucks, fragments of walls and staircases, and and five marks in money, to bear the a part of two large bow windows; the charges of a feast.

ioner one is, like those of the hall, « Besides all this, he had upon the hung with ivy in a very picturesque pool a Triton, riding on a Mermaid way. Indeed the ivy that covers these eighteen feet long; as also an Arion ruins, forms one of the greatest on a Dolphin, with rare music. And ornaments.—Leicester Buildings (6), to honour this entertaioment the though the last erected, seem likely more, there were then knighted here, to be the first part that will totally Sir Thomas Cecil, son and heir to the fall to decay. Time bas already made Lord Treasurer, Sir Henry Cobham, great havoc with this poble pile, and brother to Lord Cobham, Sir Francis some part or other annually inoulders Stanhope, and Sir Thomas Tre- away under his ruthless hand. The sham."

light arch fronting, leads through After various changes in the pog. what was formerly called Plaisance sessors, the Castle came into the pog. (10), to the garden, which is modernsion of Lord Hyde, Earl of Clarendon. ized into an orchard.

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