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PRE FAC E.

TH

HE war between the great Powers on the borders of Europe and Afia, neceffarily demanded, on various accounts, our utmost attention, in treating the Hiftory of the present year. Its importance was not only proportioned to its present magnitude, and the greatness of the parties immediately engaged, but to the general and abundant danger with which it feemed teeming. Having, in the first instance, speedily extended its baleful influence to the northern kingdoms, it was apparently on the point of involving the greater part, if not the whole, of Europe in the calamity; nor would it have been eafy to draw a line in any quarter of the world, beyond which, from its nature, it was not poffibly capable of reaching. This war, in its actual and more confined state, prefented a fpectacle neither common nor incurious. It fhewed the extraordinary exertions which the untaught genius of a fingle man, operating upon the desperate courage of a people fighting for their all, but almost totally deftitute of military knowledge, experience, and difcipline, were together capable of making, when opposed, not only to a vaft fuperiority in number and force, but to the veteran armies of two of the first military Powers in the world, who have long been uniformly endeavouring to carry the art of war, in all its parts, to the highest poffible point of perfection.

In treating this fubject, befides giving the clearest narrative of the tranfactions of the war, which the imperfect and fuppreffed ftate of our information would admit, we have endeavoured to trace those unavowed caufes and motives, which operated upon the contending parties, in urging them to that event. We have likewise endeavoured to point out the different degrees, in which the views and objects of the two great Chriftian empires, in their combination to fubvert the Ottoman, might have affected the political interefts or endangered the fecurity of the other ftates of Europe; and how far this confideration in-, fluenced their conduct in its progress.

We trust our readers will perceive, that neither the magnitude nor generality of these subjects, has at all diverted our attention from our own public affairs, nor caused any relaxation in our endeavours to give a clear and distinct view of them. As they are the objects in which, as a nation, we are most interefted, and upon which all our power and greatness depend, they must ever hold the first place in our thoughts and care.

This multiplicity of foreign and internal bufinefs, has not afforded room or leifure for entering properly into the affairs either of France or the Low Countries; nor were they fufficiently developed, in the year of which we treat, to admit of any thing like a perfect or fatisfactory account being yet given,

THE

THE

ANNUAL REGISTER,

For the YEAR 1788.

THE

HISTORY

OF

EUROPE.

CHAP.

I.

Retrospective view of affairs in the year 1787, which led to, or preceded the rupture between the great powers on the borders of Europe and Afia. Ruined state of the Tartars. Sahim Guerai, their late khan, who had betrayed and fold his country to the Ruffians, flies from their dominion, and Surrenders himself to the grand fignior. Porte makes great preparations for war. Circular letter from the grand fignior to the jeven clajes of the militia. Mauro Cordato, the hofpodar of Moldavia, having escaped, under a charge of treafon, into the Ruffian territories, is re-demanded by the Porte; but the court of Petersburgh refuses to deliver him up, and treats the demand as an infult or injury. Captain Pacha recalled from Egypt, on account of the war, to the great prejudice of the empire. He returns, with great treafures for the public fervice, to Conftantinople. Ruffian minifter, on his return from Cherfon, finds a total change in the countenance and difpofition of the Porte, and a jet of propofitions, which he had left to be adopted as the bafis of a new treaty between the two empires, are rejected with disdain. M. Bulgakow, the Ruffian minifter, being jummoned to a grand aivan, is prefented with a written inftrument, containing a Jet of counter propofitions, [4]

VOL. XXX.

which

which he is required to fign directly, as the only alternative of immediate war. Spirited refufal of the Ruffian minifter occafions his being committed prifoner to the castle of the Seven Towers. Declaration of war against Ruffia. Question of policy difcufjed, as to the propriety of the Porte's precipitating a war at this juncture. Aftonishment of the court of Peterburgh at this unexpected meature. Not prepared for immediate war. Long manifefto against the Turks. Rufian Jhip of the line driven by tempest from the Black Sea into the harbour of Conftantinople, and taken. Ill fuccefs of the Turks in the few attempts which they made, towards the clofe of the year, upon the new Rufian frontiers. New prophet, Sheik Manfour, repeatedly defeated, and his partizans finally ruined, by prince Potemkin's army. Turkish vice-admiral, though a trave and able feaman, being prevented by the diffentions in his fleet from performing any of the actions that were expected, in the Black Sea, lefes his head at his return. Brave garrifon of Oczakow, after feveral gallant attempts to recover Kinburne, are fo nearly cut off in their last attack, that Te Deum is fung for it at Peterfburgh, as if it had been a great and decifive victory. Shabah Guerai appointed by the Porte khan of the Tartars. Deplorable state of that people. Unexampled depopulation of the Crimea. State of that beautiful peninjula. Natives fell their eftates for any price they can procure, in order to abandon the country. A number of English, confiding in the faith of the empress, become purchafers, form fettlements, and have already commenced great and expenfive works for the cultivation and improvement of the country. Dictatorial powers granted by the grand fignior to his minifter and general, the grand vizir, in order to enable him to conduct the war with effect. Indian ambafador from Tippoo Saib treated with extraordinary honours and respect at Conftantinople. Magnificent military spectacle exhibited by the grand vizir, in honour of the Indian embafy. Turkish ambassador at Spain magnificently received. Wavering and equivocal conduct of that court with refpect to the war. Conduct of France with respect to the war: declares he cannot take any other part in it than as a mediator. Her minifter to the Porte ftudiously endeavouring to bring about a reconciliation between her and Ruffia, propofes a ceffation of arms for three months, as indifpenfably neceffary to afford time for negociation; but the divan declare the propofal inadmisible, as being partially favourable to the enemy, and directly the reverfe to them. Emperor of Germany declares his refolution to fupport his ally, Ruffia, with 80,000 men, being the force he was bound to furnish her with by treaty; but offered his mediation, merely to prevent the fhedding of blood.

TH

HE meetings and conferences of great and ambitious monarchs, have ever been deemed dangerous to their equals in power, and terrible to their inferiors. If all former inftances of their nature and effect had been forgotten, the combination which defolated the

kingdom of Poland, might ferve to warn mankind in fimilar cafes. It can therefore be no matter of furprize, that the Ottoman court, which had already received proofs of no very difinterested difpofitions in its great Chriftian neighbours, fhould have been to the last degree alarmed by

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