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separate habitations. In large cities, however, where the poor are extremely numerous, he allows that it would not be so easy to dispense with work-houses : but even here he thinks it possible that the poor might be more beneficially relieved than by the alms of a work-house. The mode adopted in Vienna, Munich, and many other cities of Germany, for preventing mendicity by the establishment of public work-shops, in which all persons who want employment may be daily accommodated with labour, he thinks, might be introduced with the best effects into our larger manufacturing towns. An Establishment for the impotent, he grants, would be necessary along with a public work-shop: but the expence of both,.compared with the burden of the present institution, would be inconsiderable. : Section 2d,, treats of the general construction of a Parish Work-house, its offices, furniture, and regulations. The wretched substitutes, too commonly used for this purpose in the country parts of England, are justly reprobated by the author. Frequently, he says, two or three contiguous hovels are united together in the most aukward and unworkman-like manner; with a clay floor and thatched roof, pervious in many places; the windows broken, and blocked up with old ballads or other papers pasted together, &c. In larger towns, some old ruinous and desolate mansion-house is generally appropriated to the same purpose, and forms a still more exten. sive theatre of wretchedness.-From this ill-judged parsimony, the worst evils result. The benevolent are deterred from en. tering to inspect scenes like these. The business relating to the establishment is transacted at a distance, and with the most imprudent extravagance; and even many who are conscious of the various evils endured, and are able to alleviate them, think them too numerous and complicated for any attempt of the kind to be successful. In many parts of the country, however, there occur honourable exceptions to this general description : among these, the work-houses of Leeds, Nantwich, and Shrewsbury, rank in the first place.
The general directions given in this section, for buildings of this kind, contain little else than common-place matter: for instance, that a healthful site should be chosen, on ele. vated ground, and where water is abundant and pure ;-that there should be a large garden annexed to the house ;-that the rooms should be lofty, and the windows large and opposite to each other ; &c. There is something more appropriate in the advice to form the elevation of the building in a straight line, without the projection of wings, which, as is too common, make the building constitute three sides of a square court; by which means the free current of air is prevented ;-and that its height should be limited to a ground and chamber floor. • The important article of Diet occupies the third section. — After some general observations on this subject, the author gives the dietary of the Leeds work-house, that of the convicts at Portsmouth, of the French and English prisoners during the last war, that of the house of industry at Shrewsbury, and that projected by Mr.Howard for prisoners in houses of correction. They are calculated for twenty persons.-- That of Leeds is lowest in point of expence, amounting weekly to 21. 105.6d.; that of the French and English prisoners is highest, rising to 41. 43. 3:0.-Of these various plans of diet, Mr. G. recom. mends that of Leeds. - It labours, however, in common with the rest (except that of Shrewsbury) under the disadvantage of not containing fresh vegetables :--a defect which prompts the author to suggest a new plan of diet, differing from all the former, as well by the plentiful introduction of vegetables, as by that of baked meat pies instead of stewed or boiled meat. This plan he introduces with the following remarks : .. I don't think, therefore, that the potatoe forms, by any means, á sufficient part of the diet in any of the tables I have drawn out, and animadverted upon above. In several of them it is not at all in. troduced ; and in none of them as a substantial part of the regimen, but only as a wholesome and antiputrescent vegetable. I shall take the liberty, therefore, of exhibiting a new dietary formed upon the doctrine I have thus endeavoured to establish respecting the low price, and substantial nutriment of the potatoe, and interspersed with other alterations which appear to me to be of equal necessity, as constituting both a cheaper and more commodious arrangement. Among these alterations, one of the principal will be found to consist in the frequent use of meat baked in pies, instead of being constantly given either boiled or stewed. Every domestic economist knows how much smaller a quantity of this diet will satisfy the most voracious appetite, than of any other dish whatever.---- Four pounds of mutton," says an ingenious writer, “ were made into a pie with one pound and a half of wheat flour ; this pie, with eight ounces and a quarter of bread, dined eight persons fully; whilst three pounds threc quarters of mutton roasted, with two pounds one ounce of bread, dined only five of the same persons *.” *
In the following table, meat picy are, therefore, introduced twice a week; as Sunday, and Wednesday, for example ; and the crust is made of potatoes entirely, being first boiled and meshed up with milk; from which kind of dish I have frequently dined myself with no small luxury.
The breakfast consists of milk porridge formed from oatmeal; and the supper alternately of potatoes meshed with milk, and of broth and bread, with due allowance of beer when necessary. • * Lettsom's Hints concerning the Distresses of the Poor.' !
an allowance for 20, each day 2d-per week, Five pints of oatmeal, each day 8d-per week,
Total . .
DINNER. Meat. Potatoes. Peas. Milk. Sunday olb. 15ib. - Monday
- I gal. Tuesday 15lb. buls 15lb. olb.
locks heads Wednesday rolb. ditto
Beer. Iį gal. ditto
ilb. with sugar. *
151b. bulditto Saturday locks heads
195 2d Is 8d 38 4d 4d Is 8d 2s 6d 100
Total 1 96 SUPPER. Potatoes. Broth. Milk. Beer Bread. Sunday 20lb. - 2 pints
20 pints of Monday
Tuesday's Thursday ditto - ditto
ditto of Friday
ditto Thursday's Saturday ditto
ditto - : Is iod os od 2d os od 38 9d .... 59
Total expence for 20 persons per week £2 1 1
This section, which appears well worth the attention of those who are engaged in the management of the poor, cond cludes with a table stating the comparative quantity of food produced by an acre of good ground under diff.rent crops, particularly potatoes and wheat, and the respective expences of the
• * The rice on these days is designed for rice-milk, of which a gallon is ordered for twenty, and is supposed to have an equal quan. tity of water mixed with it.' Rev. Sept, 1798.
acre when occupied by each kind. The result from the whole is, that an acre of potatoes will produce 16,875 meals-an acre of wheat only 2745. The total expence of cultivating an acre of wheat is inl. 158.; that of an acre of potatoes 121. 13 s.
The author proceeds to the consideration of a work-house infirmary, and the care of the sick. Little that is worthy of particular observation occurs under this head. He merely urges the obvious necessity of having the edifice designed for this use distinct, if possible, from the work-house; that it should be airy and kept clean; and that, as ultimately most ceconomical, a liberal compensation should be given for medical attendance.
The fourth section treats of · Employment and labour!' a subject of the first moment in the ceconomy of a work-house. Mr. Good suggests that great care should be taken to employ the poor in a manner adapted to their situation, and that it should be such as may afford them, when discharged from the work-house, the means of comfortable subsistence. Hence he prefers for their employment those manufactures which are generally cultivated in the neighbourhood; and hence, too, he excludes the finer needle-works and tambour, on which the females in Scotch work-houses are employed.-For the old and infirm, he recommends the picking of oakum, of horse-hair, and of wool : but, as these modes of employment are not very lucrative, he would provide them for the old and infirm only:
The rest,' he says, “especially on the male side, should be accustomed to hardier, and more uiseful engagements. If there be a garden of any considerable extent, and, for the growth of potatoes, and other vegetables there certainly should be, it will employ the labour of a few for the greater part of most days. And if cois are kept, and pigs bred, and fattened, both which may be done very advantageously, and which actually are done at the pocr-house in SHREWSBURY, and many other places, the care of these will occupy the unemployed hours which remain fiom gardening.
For the rest, the simpler b:anches of the woollon manufactory, as scribbling, carding, and spinning, or the making of lint from old linen ; by proper, and simple machines, may be introduced advantageously, and with no small profit.
If it be found desirable from the number of paupers, and the extent of the institution, to introduce more regular, and elaborate trades ; leoms, of a variety of kinds, as those for stockings, trapes, broad cloth, or-shalloons, according to the general trade of the adjoining country, sliculd, then, he erected ; and a master engaged, and allowed for his trouble in the instruction, and necessary attend. ance, a due proportion of the conmon profits. By means like There might be manufactured at home all the woollen articles necessary for clothing, as lin-vy-woolscy, serge-stuffs, flannels, and baizes. And, if the spinning of fiax were', likewise, to be introduced among
the children of both sexes, they would not only be employing their time to future advantage, but there is scarcely any article of clothing of any kind they could stand in need of, that might not be manufactured in the house itself: and it might be said of them with literal truth that
• The russet cloathing o'er their shoulders thrown,
'Twas their own la jours did the fece prepare *. • The late Mr. Barton of Carlisle invented a very useful, and ingenious instrument for the spinning of bemp, wool, or fax. It is a horizontal wheel at which twelve lictie children can spin at one time; and without interfering with each vihers work. Its expence is about five guineas; and no pocr-house, where there are children, should be without it.
• Much of what I have here advanced will apply to females as well as males. The former, as well as the latter, may be engaged in the different branches of thu linen or woullen manufactory, which it may be judged expedient to introduce into a work-bouse : still sedulously attending to a constant separation of the sexes. But as the younger children should all of them be liited for servants, and donestic occupations, they should early be instructed in plai, needle-work; and, by turns, attend to the cleaning, washing, and cooking, which must necessarily take place, every day. A suficient knowledge of the latter, therefore, may be easily acquired from the necessary occurrences at home. And, I am persuaded, if the overseers, or directors, were to use a small quantity of exertion and research, they might easily obtain, from wholesale salesmen, and regimiental clothieri, sufhcieat orders, upon terms of moderate gain, to keep the female department in a constant supply of work.'
Section fifth, on Moral and religijus ceconomics,' concludes the work, and contains several hinis well worth attention, for exciting the industry and promoting the instruction and mo. rality of paupers. Indeed, on a consid rition of the whole of this trace, we think that it deserves the attentive perusal of every man who is engaged in the superintendence of parochial institutions.
Art. X. A View of Agricultural Oppressions : and of their Effects
upon Society, By Tiomas Marsters, jun. 8vo, 28. Priated
at Lynn Regis ; and sold by Robinsons, Londyn. 1795. W E perused the introductory pist of this periori nce with
w much saiisfaction; and indeed a vein of bonevulence runs through the whole, which cannot inil to interest the reader: but, viewing it in a general light, there is an evident want of data to support the argument, or declamation,