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of the digious!_heatre, i
the stage at Rouen, where she remained during three years. Returning to Paris, she was engaged for six months at the Serious Opera; and at last, when she was 16 years old, she appeared at the principal National Theatre, la Comédie Françoise. Her success here was prodigious ! but she was not content with the applause of the pit *. True genius wishes to march on firm ground; and eager to know what had entitled her to the favour which she had procured by mere instinct, she began seriously to study in such a manner, as sustained and increased her fame on the great stage of the capital of her country, during 20 years.
In the course of these studies, she found Dancing necessary for the graceful carriage of her person, and for the different gestures requisite in the various parts which she had to represent; Drawing, for the study of attitudes ; Singing, for'the modulation of voice; Grammar, to ascertain the import, pronunciation, and expression of words ; Versification, to do justice to the metrical art; Geography, Mythology, and, above all, History, to acquire a knowlege of the religion, customs, and manners of the personages of different periods and nations brought on the stage.
This intelligent actress did not confine her studies to the mechanical parts of her profession: she tried to investigate the great and leading passions of the human heart, in order to analyse and seize their several shades; and it was by such studies, as she informs us, that she enabled herself to discriminate irony from disdain, disdain from contempt, warmth of temper from violent passion, impatience from wrath, fear from fright, and fright from terror.'
Mad. Clairon divides her Reflexions on the Dramatic Art under the following heads : natural gift, or Genius, the most indispensable of all; Power of Voice; Memory; and Person : but we are frightened at the importance which she gives to the second article, force or strength of voice. "I was born (says she) strong and courageous; application gave me pleasure : but it is only in braving difficulties, pain, and death, that I have been able to complete the 20 years imposed on an actress t. Let the reader only figure to himself the indispensable necessity of being constantly penetrated with the most afflicting and terrible ideas; and I may venture to assert that more than human strength is necessary to support the life of a tragedian longer than 10 years !
* Le parterre, or pit, at Paris, was formerly occupied by poor critics at less than one third of the price of our pit : but they were allowed *no seats. · + The Comedians at the French theatre were entitled to a pensión for life, after 20 years? servicce.
• By thus studying the great sufferings of the soul, in order the better to feel and express them, or rather, as she says, totally to abandon herself to their tortures, and give them her whole existence, she acquired the melancholy advantage of rendering herself the most miserable Being on earth
. In the course of her memoirs, Mad. CLAIRON reviews the principal parts which she was accustomed to act, points out their most prominent features, and describes her own feelings and intentions in metamorphosing herself into their minds and forms; and even endeavouring to heighten and correct the poet himself, when his ideas seemed to fall short of historical and moral truth.
She insists that theatrical performers, in the capital of a great empire, should constrain themselves to assume a kind of dignity and decorum in private life, in order to render their conduct on the stage in the representation of great personages more easy and natural. The tragic actor (says she) should appropriate, in common life, the style and manners of such characters as his cast of parts most frequently requires :- If I am only a vulgar and ordinary woman during 20 of the fourand-twenty hours of the day, whatever efforts I may make, I shall be only an ordinary and vulgar woman in Agrippina or. Semiramis during the remaining four.' .
In society, she was nick-named the Queen of Carthage, andi she was flattered by the title ; she believed that her appearance and manners should not only be noble and pleasing, but respectable and good.
Thus far we have only detailed the intelligence which we have acquired concerning her professional studies and precepts. We shall reserve the biographical part of these memoirs for future consideration, when we shall be in possession of the entire work.
ART. XXI. DIAETOPHILUGeschichte seiner Siebenjahrigen Epilepsie,
&c. DIAETOPHILUS's Physical and Psychological History of his Seven Years' Epilepsy. Part I. 8vo. Zurich. 1798.. . THE history of a recorcry from a disease .so formidable as
epilepsy, after it had continued during seven years, minutely drawn up by an intelligent patient, is a novelty in medical literature which can hardly fail to interest physicians. The readers of the present work, however, will find some reason for complaining of its prolixity :- The author might certainly have comprised all that is valuable in his statement, in one 8vo volume,
Meditation on his own sufferings bas led him to propose the following project : It composes his dedication to the rich : .. !
• I pre
Rio I present to you, (says he,) for your opinion, a cosmopolitan, wish. Potentates and private founders have formed institutions for the instruction of the deaf and dumb. Establishments for the cure. of the epileptic would be much more useful. 1. Their use, I ap. prehend, would extend to a greater number of individuals." In Bekker's national-zeitung, the number of epileptic patients in Germany is estimated at 10,000 ; and there is reason for fearing that, if feebleness of constitution and mental and bodily exertions should go on regularly increasing together through the 19th century, the number will become much larger. 2. Cured epileptics are returned to the state and to their families in a much more serviceable condition, than deaf and dumb people, however well taught. 3. If, in the treatment of the latter, the gain of psychological and physiological observations is to be taken into account, how much more abundant would be the harvest from institutions for epileptics, when put under the direction of a physician meditating on their symptoms, and under the inspection of attendants capable of keeping a regular journal. The finest part of the human machine, and its relation to the power of thought, may receive illustration ; particularly of the kind which is desireable in the practice of medicine. 4. If my work should evince the great probability that most cases of epilepsy are curable; that the principal obstacles lie in the conduct of uninstructed patients; and that the mere visits and preecriptions of the physician can seldom avail; it will follow that such an establishment would be of the most signal utility. - Six well chosen patients would afford a good beginning for the instruction of surgeons and other attendants — but I will not lose myself in the detail of the institution, till I am summoned by some humane founder.'
If, by any regulations, well qualified and attentive superintendants could be secured, we should think that such an estab. lishment ought not long to remain among the number of pious wishes :--but how little light has yet fallen from madhouses on the bodily and mental functions of man!
Art. XXII. Annales de Chimie ; i. e. Chemical Annals. Vols.
XIX. and XX. 8vo. Paris. .1797. Imported by De Boffe,
London. W e resume the consideration of a periodical work which
justly ranks among the highest of its kind. The Annales de Chimie were interrupted for three years, during the most distracted period of the French revolution, under the tyranny of the sanguinary Robespierre; the two volumes before us fill up the interval between their discontinuance in 1793, and their resumption three years ago. During this time, the authors were deeply engaged in the improvement or invention of processes subservient to military operations, and all Europe is acquainted with the general suceess of their efforts. These App, Rey. VOL. XXVII. Qa
volumes volumes inform us, in some measure, of the line in which they were directed: but some particulars of the most interesting kind, as is very natural, are still kept secret. Among these latter, we may reckon some great improvements in the fabric: ation of salt petre: for that such improvenients were actually made, we know, partly from the great supply of this necessary. article which the enemy obtained, independently of importa. tion, and partly from the express testimony of travellers.
Art. I. in the 19th volume relates to the operations of war. It is the Extract of Instructions for Workmen in Iron concerning the Fabrication of Steel, by VANDERMONDE, MONGE, and BERTHOLLET; and it contains a practical application of the facts, which have been discovered in modern times, respecting the chemical properties of different modifications of iron. It appears probable that this paper effectually assisted the French artisans, in the manufacture of a commodity for which they were formerly dependent on England and Germany.
Art. II. Notice of a Work by VANDERMONDE on the Fabrication of bright Arms. Towards the beginning of the general war, only one manufactory in France could supply good swordblades; and this was at Klingenthal, in the department of the Lower Rhine. Afterward, a great variety were instituted, and (it would appear) have been continued with perfect success. Their establishment contains the most curious set of facts in the history of the arts.
III. Extract of a Report on different Means of obtaining Mineral Alkali from Sea-Salt. By LELIEVRE, PELLETIER, D'ARCET, and ALEXANDER GIROŅD. The substance of this article will hardly gratify the curiosity which its title is likely to excite. Various means were essayed, but to no purpose in an economical view. The description of these complicated me thods may inform chemical projectors in what direction it is useless to proceed: but we do not know that they will be able to deduce any immediately useful hints from this long and laborious report.
IV. Memoir on the Means of multiplying the Fabrication of Pot-ash in France. By Pertuis.
V. Extract from Instructions concerning the Combustion of Vegee tables, the Fabrication of Pot-nsh (salin), Pearl-ash, and the Manner of saturating nitrated Water or Salpetre-ley. By VAUQUELIN and TRUSSON.
These papers also respect the necessities of war. They contain numerous experiments on the quantity of saline matter obtainable from different vegetables, presented in the tabular form,
VI. Instructions towards effecting the Refabrication (refonte) of: Paper printed and written upon : published by the Commission of Agriculture and the Arts, This paper shews the possible extent of resources among an intelligent people, pressed by urgent want. Many of the works imported from France, during the course of the revolution, demonstrate the low ebb to which the manufacture of paper was reduced. We have not understood that the ingenious project here described afforded much relief, at the time of the greatest deficiency of materials : but it is probable that an active and improved agriculture has amply supplied this deficiency :-for travellers of all descriptions (whether willing or unwilling witnesses) agree in attesting that the cultivation of the French soil is pursued with greatly increased ardour and skill. .
VII. Report concerning the Fabrication of yarious Kinds of Soap; concerning their different Qualities, according to the Nature of the Oils employed in their Composition; 'and concerning the Means of every where preparing them with the different oily and alkaline Materials furnished by Nature in different places. By D'ARCÉT, LELIEVRE, and PELLETIER:
The union of oils and fatty matters with alkalis has long been a great and extensive object of human labour. We consider the present account of processes, conducive to this end, i not only as the best paper in the present collection, but as superior to any thing of the kind existing in any language. It well deserves translation.
The remainder of this volume consists of extracts from Crell's chemical annals: but we find nothing which we have not already communicated to our readers, in our account of the same numbers of that work.
Volume xx. consists of pieces calculated for local and temporary purposes, but having, in some instances, a permanent interest.
The 'first paper is a Report concerning the Trials made at Romilli to separate Copper from Bell-metal. By PELLETIER and D'ARCET.
II. Report to the Committee of Public Safety, on the new Methods of tanning Leather proposed by A. SEGUIN. This report seems to hold the same rank in the present which that on soap occupied in the former volume. The art itself must be considered as of more immediate necessity; and we entertain little doubt that, in consequence of the researches here described, the first great branch of the leather manufacture will undergo a salutary reformation. The change will not merely be con- : fined to economy of labour and of time :-it will reach also to the improvement of leather. Qq2