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is toiling over arid burning desarts, while there the feet reindeer bounds over the surface of the snow, which still covers the ground above a yard in depth, and under which he seeks his necessary food, Here the Samoyede lies sleeping through his short and cloudy day in his earthy, covert ; while there his countryman and fellow-citizen, the Kirghise, pastures his fock beneath a sky perpetually cheerful and serene.' · It is well known that, in Russia, there is no proportion between the extent of country and the number of its inhabitants. Among other causes of thiç defect of population, M. STORCH reckons the hard treatment of the children of the common people during their infancy.

• It is true (says he) that they are by this method hardened for riper years against the vicissitudes of climate and weather, against perpetual severities, against pain, and against toil and trouble: but how many of them perish under the experiment, whose weaker exist: ence would even have been of service to the staie! Nor did this re, mark escape the legislatrix of Russia. “ The boors (she says in her Instructions, &c.) have generally from twelve to fifteen or twenty children of one marriage : but seldom do the fourth part of them ar rive at maturity. There must therefore be some fault eithes in regard to nourishment, the manner of life, or of education, by which this hope of the government is defeated. In what a flourishing con dition would this empire be, if by wise institutions we could put a stop to so destructive an evil, and prevent it for the future !”. Against the principal impediments to the progress of population, the govern ment sought the most effective means : but prejudices, abuses, and habits which are grown inveterate by the practice of ages, are not to be destroyed in the space of a few years. No prince in modern times has ever made the article af population so much a concern of government, as Catharine II. From the first day of her reign, this was one of the favourite objects of her grcat and active mind. Not consented with having secured the maintenance of the inhabitant, and weakened or annihilated the impediments to population, she expended millions in attracting useful burghers into the empire, and in aug. menting the population by an increase from abroad.?

M. STORCH has also published, at Riga, in folio, pp. 131, a work intitled A Statistical Survey of the Viceroyalties of the Russian Empire, according to their most remarkable Relations in Culture. This work is precisely what its title indicates, and bears every mark of being executed with accuracy. It consists of fables appropriated to each of the 42 yiceroyalties which were erected by the late empresş, but which in their government have since been subjected to various alterations by the present emperor. At the end of the book, are subjoined reşults drawn from the scyeral tables taken together.

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Art. VII. Griechische Vasengemehlde, &c. i.e. Grecian Paintings - on Vases, with Archæological and Artistical Illustrations. By

C. A. BÖTTIGER. Vol. I. Part II. 8vo. pp. 232. Weimar. 1798. The first part of this work was noticed in our Appendix to

1 the 24th vol. p. 574. From the uninterrupted continua tion of it, we are glad to find that the Continent patronizes an undertaking which must be attended with considerable ex pence, and is undoubtedly of importance to the scholar and the artist.

The present publication contains: I. A Paper on the Cola lection of Vases in terra cotta, in the Grand-ducal Museum at Florence, by Prof. Meyer, of Weimar. II. Extracts from Letters, 1. On the Collection of Vases at Rome, by M. Uh. den, Resident of the King of Prussia at Rome. 2. On the Collections of Vases at Paris, by A. L. Millin, Professor and Keeper of Antiquities in the National Museum. 3. On the glazing of antient Vases, by Dr. Scherer, III.-IX. Illustra. .tions of Paintings on Vases, by the Author..

Our readers being sufficiently apprized of the value of this work, from our review of the first part, we shall content our. selves with a few remarks,

On the wrong sides of many vases, figures are seen coyered with cloaks, and sometimes leaning on a staff, without the appearance of any other object which might lead to a discovery of the characters intended to be represented by those figures. This, in course, has perplexed the antiquaries; who have displayed much research and learning on the occasion. M. RörTIGER himself, in a former publication, maintained an opinicn which he now disclaims as far-fetched and untenable ; substituting another which is much more natural. He now thinks that those figures are an accidental ornament, not correspondent with the painting on the right side; and representing only persons among the common people, in towns in which these yases were manufactured. Dismissing, therefore, an investigation of so little moment, he turns to the contemplation of the figures themselves; on which his learning and ingenuity furnish him with a variety of interesting observations, . The different modes (says he) of putting on the cloak, and thus producing rich and picturesque folds, deserve to be noticed by those who, like a certain French costumier, are at a loss to understand how the antients were able to keep together their flowing, sleeveless, upper garments, without making use of either buttons, hooks, orpins. A glance at these paintings would remove their doubts. I would also remind

them

them that the Grecians *, who paid much more attention to a de cent appearance, graceful attitude, and propriety in dress, thân we generally imagine, were so exceedingly nice in putting on the upper garment, that aukwardness in this respect was considered as an infallible mark of rustic manners and want of good-breeding. Cf. Athenæ. I. 18. p. 21. B.'.

For this reason, a person whose deportment manifested the lowness of his extraction was said to be ignorant even of the manner of putting on the cloak, of bot nito čider ws xpn wiposére Actor Lucian. de Hist. Conscr. c. 20. t. ii. p. 28. Nothing was more indecorous than for a man to drag his garment behind; and indeed he was considered as either intoxicated or mad. Vid. Gronov. ad Senecam de Ira. III. Plutarch expressly mentions of Pericles, that, among other advantages which he derived from the company of Anaxagoras, he acquired 's an easy deportment, and a decency of dress which no vehemence of action ever could put into disorder.” Diogenes Laertius, in the life of almost every philosopher, takes notice of the manner in which they wore their cloaks. The knowlege of this punctilio in dress among the antients becomes in. teresting, also, to the lover and admirer of the antique; as it throws light on that gracefulness of the drapery, which is so

1 * Besides the general terms súrafici, supuôjica, šupérsia, ecoótrs, &c. the Greeks had also a particular word, evo genucrivn, for gracefuhess in wearing the upper garment, which even the Latin language cannot express with one synonimous word. Ciceró, in that remarkable passage de Ofi. I. 36. calls it only decorum in vestitu. In the old Italian idiom of Petrarca, Boccaccio, &c. it is rendered by garbo, di bel garbo. Exõua is, properly, the manner of holding the garment, being derived from ogênio It formed the characteristic of the different stations and conditions in life; hence the exõuce dorescere xe 7. vid. Fabric. ad Sext. Empir. p. 308. Hence also stoxicav, evo xmparei, suo x inuocórn, vid. Foesius in Oecon. Hippocr. s. v. In the celebrated passage of Xenophon K. ll. iv. i. p. 425. Zeun. I explain evoyna mooirn in the same manner; notwithstanding that the aitients generally expounded it by feminine decorum and bashfulness, as appears from an undoubted imitation of this passage in Polyb. x. 18. t.ii. p. 218. Schweigh. In the more skilful attitudes and postures of dancers, much care was taken as to the folds of the garments. Exiping therefore, in common with its derivatives, was transferred to Orcheatics. See the examples quoted by Spanheim ad Aristophan. Plut, 329. Luxemplosúvr, in consequence, was also used for propricty in carriage and dress on the stage. Vid. Pollux IV.95. and Hesychius s. v. Ev+modores. I have somewhat enlarged on this point, since even Hemsterhuys seems to have mistaken the original meaning of the word oxrirla: v. ad Lucian. Somnium, c. 8. p. ll. This etymological pedigree, too, evinces how faithfully the spirit of Hellas expressed itself in its language.'

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striking in antient statues, and which has hitherto baffled the most indefatigable efforts of modern statuaries. When, with the gradual neglect of gymnastic exercises, the truth and beauty of the naked figure disappeared in the arts of design, dress also was either loaded with Oriental luxury, or straitened to excess by Northern fashions; and it contracted, under the hands of the artist, a bloatedness or stiffness which is altogether inconsistent with true taste.

In the explanation of the fourth painting, we meet with new and ingenious ideas on the origin of the caduceus. According to M. BÖTTIGER, the Deity called Hermes by the Greeks, and Mercury by the Romans, owed his imaginary existence entirely to the commercial intercourse of the Phoenicians with the Greeks. At some period, of which scarcely any monuments are left, the former had mines and factories in a considerable number of places in Greece. There Hermes was worshipped as the tutelary deity of the industrious Phoenician ; and all the arts, by which the articles of trade are produced, were ascribed by the Greeks to his invention. The Phænicians, of course, in order to converse with the rude natives, employed interpreters. Hence Hermes was considered as the inventor of articulate sounds, and of numeral figures and signs. The interpreters and heralds were called his sons, and the race of xypumes were said to be descended from him. The Phænician traders, wherever they first approached the rude Pelasgic inhabitants of the Grecian coasts, found it necessary to make use of some manifest token of their having arrived with peaceful intentions; not as pirates, but as merchants and barterers. In such instances, the most natural sign of peace among all nations, even among the inhabitants of the Friendly Islands in the South Seas, has ever been a green branch, The Phoeni. cians, however, soon found it more convenients, as well as more ornamental, to carry with them a decorticated or even a gilt staff; and, as occasion required, to wind round it green leaves. Such is the wand of Mercury in Homer, Hymn, in Mercur. 529-532.

Though we cannot dwell any longer on this work, we must acknowlege that we have perused the present part of it with as much satisfaction as was afforded us by the former ; and we can assure the classical reader and the artist, that the publication answers all the purposes for which it can be supposed to have been written.

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se between nde views of its leading of the Convent who,

nce of a and views of itsd Girondist, many differences

ART. VIII. Histoire de la Revolution de France, &c. i.e. A His

tory of the Revolution in France. By two Friends to Liberty. Vols. XI. and XII. 8vo. pp. 400 in each. Paris, 1798. Im..

ported by De Boffe, London. Price 1os. THE preceding volumes of this work (attributed by a

rumour, which we have not the means of ascertaining, to Mess. REGNIER and TROUVÉ, the editors of the Moniteur,) were noticed in our 8th'vo). N.S. p.548. and 24th vol. p.500. As every successive year appears to furnish the authors with matter for one or more additional volumes, this history may be considered as filling up, in French literature, a place analo. gous to that of the narrative portion of our Annual Registers. Generally speaking, it is conducted with impartial calmness, and with an affection for order, for liberty, for religion, and for justice.

'The tenth volume returns to the first meeting of the Con. vention, and circumstantially describes the early differences that arose between the party called Girondist, (which, from the superior talents and views of its leaders, soon conciliated the confidence of a considerable majority of the Convention,) and the party headed by the representatives of Paris ; who, envious of the real superiority of the provincials, whom they thought it 'degrading to obey, employed their local influence first to thwart and finally to exterminate the most brilliant and most truly patriotic men of France. Metropolitan vanity seems to have been the original cause of the subordination of the Parisians to the majority of the Convention. The ama bition of Danton and of Marat, at least, appears never to have tended to the first places : of Robespierre, indeed, there is too much reason to believe that he loved the republic for the sake of power, and not power for the sake of the sepublic.

'Of Fagette these writers speak harshly (vol. x. p. 60). They describe him as a deserter of the party of the people, and as conniving, for the purpose of strengthening the court, at the approach of the foreign enemy. To us, this appears improbable. Yet a man of whom so much has been said, and whose character has been so much attacked, would do well to ex. plain the questionable parts of his conduct, if they will bear to he explained.--Of Dumouriez, opinions yet more unfavourable are here advanced. He is suspected of having never cared for the republic; and of being at all times the secret friend of Philip Duke of Orleans, and willing to cashier the Convention itself in order to smooth the passage of this prince to supre

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