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please his vanity. He adorns his best cows with large bells suspend ed from broad thongs ; and the expence in such bells is carried even to a luxurious excess. Every Senn has an harmonious set of at least two or three bells, chiming in with the famous ranz des vaches. The inhabitants of the Tyrol bring a number of such bells, of all sizes, to every fair kept in the canton of Appenzell. They are fixed to a broad strap, neatly pinked, cut out, and embroidered; which is fastened round the cow's neck by means of a large buckle. A bell of the largest size measures upwards of a foot in diameter, is of an uniform width at top, swells out in the middle, and tapers towards the end. It costs from forty to fifty gilders; and the whole peal of bells, includa ing the thongs, will sometimes be worth between 140 and 150 gilders, while the whole apparel of the Senn himself, when best attired, does not amount to the price of twenty gilders. The finest black cow is adorned with the largest bell, and those next in appearance have two smaller. These ornaments, however, are not worn on every day, buť only on solemn occasions, viz. when, in the spring, they are driver up the Alps, or removed from one pasture to another; or when they descend in the autumn, or travel in the winter to the different farms, where their owner has contracted for hay. On such days, the Senn, even in the depth of winter, appears dressed in a fine white shirt, of which the sleeves are rolled up above the elbow ; neatly embroidered red braces keep up his yellow linen trowsers, which reach down to the shoes; a small leather cap, or hat, covers his head; and a new milk bowl, of wood skilfully carved, hangs across the left shoulder.

Thus arrayed, the Senn precedes singing the ranz des vaches, and followed by three or four fine goats; next comes the handsomest cow with the great beị; then the two other cows with smaller bells; and these are succeeded by the rest of the cattle walking one after another, and having in their rear the bull with a one legged milking stool hanging on his horns; the procession is closed by a traineau, or sledge, on which are placed the implements for the dairy. It is surprising to see how proud and pleased the cows stalk forth when ornamented with their bells. Who would imagine that even these animals are sensible of their rank, nay touched with vanity and jea. lousy! If the leading cow, who hitherto bore the largest bell, be deprived of her honours, she very plainly manifests her grief at the disgrace, by lowing incessantly, abstaining from food, and growing lean. The happy rival, on whom the distinguishing badge of superiority has devolved, experiences her marked vengeance, and is butted, wounded, and persecuted by her in the most furious manner ; until the former either recovers her bell, or is entirely removed from the herd. However singular this phænomenon may appear, it is placed beyond all doubt by the concurring testimony of centuries.

• The cows, when dispersed on the Alps, are brought together by the voice of the Senn, wlio is then said to allure them (locken). How well the cattle distinguish the note of their keeper appears from the circumstance of their hastening to him, though at a great distance, whenever he begins to hum the ranz des vaches. He furnishes that cow which is wont to stray farthest with a small bell, and knows by her arrival that all the rest are assembled..

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« The famous pastoral song of the Swiss mountaineers, known by the name of Kuhreihen, or ranz des vaches, is very frequently heard in Innerooden. It neither consists of articulated sounds, nor is it ever sung by the cowherds with words to it : all the tones of it are simple, and mostly formed within the throat. Hence the tune produces very little or no motion of the jawbones, and its sounds do not resemble those which commonly issue from the human throat, but rather seem to be the tones of some wind instrument ; particularly as scarcely any breathing is perceived, and as the cowherds sometimes sing for minutes together without fetching breath.'

The food of the inhabitants is exceedingly simple, consisting chiefly of milk, cheese, whey, oatmeal, and potatoes. Bread is not in common use, except among the rich. Their dress is equally plain, Fashion having not yet extended her sway over these mountains. There being no such disparity of fortunes among them, as in almost every part of Europe, a great uniformity prevails, in diet, dress, and manners, and constitutes the great support of their civil and political equality. From the crowds of beggars often seen in the canton of Appenzell, travellers have sometimes been led to draw erroneous inferences concerning the prosperity of the people: but the fact is that hosts of beggars, attracted by the charitable disposition of the Appenzellers, Hock thither from Syabia, and other neighbouring provinces of Germany.

The inhabitants of Innerooden are entire strangers to whatever comes under the description of taxes, oppressions, constraint, arbitrary power, and the various modes of ill-treatment which the poor and dependent elsewhere experience from their superiors' and rulers. With the manifold sufferings and cares which, like torrents, rush forth from these sources over the nations of the earth, the mountaineer of Appenzell is totally unacquainted. Undisturbed and content in the bosom of surrounding mountains, he is solely occupied with his cows and the Alps on which they graze. No other wish agitates him than that of a plentiful growth of grass in his meadows, and for the health of his herd; he feels no other desire, after the completion of his work, than to enjoy the society of his fa. mily in quiet and comfort, refreshing himself with milk and cheese ; or sometimes to pass an hour or two with an acquaintance at the inn, over a glass of wine. The government of this republic confines itself merely to granting protection, and to providing for the security of persons as well as of property. The people have no desire for instruction and knowlege, which they deem very unnecessary for them; and they are so ignorant, that the majority of the inhabitants of Innerooden cannot read pod write. Nothing urges them to attain even that humble



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degree of scholarship; nor are they anxious to provide better opportunities of acquiring knowlege for their children, than they themselves have enjoyed: hence they have either no schools at all, or such as are in the most lamentable state.

This ignorance must necessarily be attended with gross and wretched superstition; of which the author mentions a striking instance. Parents, when their children are taken ill, seldom seek medical assistance, but have masses read for the purpose of obtaining from heaven their speedy dissolution. Thus, many children, who might easily have recovered, lose their lives ; and this unnatural wish is engendered by the firm belief that children, as innocent beings, go directly to heaven; an idea which is deeply rooted in their minds, and fostered by the priests. There have even been among them Mothers who conceived the murder of their children to be a meritorious action, and which they would actually have committed but for their dread of the law; as afteryard has appeared from the confession made by them to their priests. They are inconsolable on the loss of a stillborn child, from the supposition that, not having been baptized, it goes immediately to hell. On the death of little children, tears are scarcely ever shed: on the contrary, the parents are joyful, and their friends say to them by way of congratulation: « Now you have an angel in heaven.”

Though many travellers, and even Professor Meiners, (who is rather severely treated in this publication,) have been indignant at the freedom enjoyed by young females in this canton, both by day and night, it is manifest to every unbiassed observer that the natural simplicity of manners, for which they are remarkable, does not expose their innocence to those dangers by which they would be surrounded in any other country, where public opinion is a less powerful guardian of virtue than in the canton of Appenzell. The punishment inflicted on incontinence, indeed, is not very severe; the transgressing parties only paying a fine of five gilders each, provided that both be unmarried : but if any female commits the same fault three times, she is sentenced to be publicly whipped. Yet popular opinion requires that he who violates a virgin shall make her his lawful wife; and if they be not joined in marriage, both of them, especially the ravisher, are branded with indelible shame. The girl, in such a case, is prohibited from wearing the badge of virginity, which is a metal pin stuck into the braided hair, and is obliged to cover her head with a black or brown hood. The male offender is virtually divested of those privileges which belong in common to all citizens; an Wimuliation, than which there is none more grievous in de


mocratical states ; for the man so stigmatized is civilly dead in his own country,-having lost what is most dear to him, the advantages of a free man.

The remarks which we have extracted principally relate to Innerooden, the inhabitants of which are Roman catholics : we shall now' take notice of the author's observations on Ausser. caden, or the outer parts of the canton of Appenzell, where the reformed religion has been established since the middle of the 16th century. From that period, the manufacture of linen, muslin, and cotton cloth, has constituted the chief branch of industry among the reformed Appenzellers. From the first establishment of those manufactures, he who, in the course of the year, had produced the finest piece of linen cloth, was greeted with the distinguishing title of king, and would carry his workmanship about the principal parts of the outer canton, attended by his fellow-manufacturers : a custom which has not yet entirely ceased. Such a piece of linen cloth, esteemed to be the finest of those made within the year, has sometimes fetched from two to three hundred gilders. The manufacturers of Appenzell have now attained to such a degree of skill, as to be able to spin, out of half an ounce of flax, a thread measuring from nine to ten thousand feet in length: whence the cambricks are in great demand on the continent, especially in France: but, since the revolution, this trade has suffered several checks and interruptions, and the manufacturers have been obliged to seek a market for their commodities in remoter parts of the world. The muslin manufactories, established some years since in Ireland and Scotland, cause considerable uneasiness to the Swiss; as the machines used in those countries for spinning cotton considerably lessen the expence, and consequently enable the Scotch and Irish to under-sell the Swiss. The latter already draw a great deal of cotton yarn from Scotland and Ireland ; and the author thinks it not improbable that, whenever a general peace shall have given full scope to industry and trade, the Swiss muslin manufactories, being then no longer able to cope with those of Scotland and Ireland, will entirely be superseded by them. The Appenzellers, anticipating such an event, and desirous, if possible, of preventing its destructive operation, have lately begun to introduce maehines for spinning and carding wool, invented by an inhabitant of Rebetobel.

Since the increase of industry and population, pasturage on a larger scale, such as is practised in the interior parts of the canton, has greatly diminished in Ausserooden ; the pasture grounds, which formerly were very extensive, being now frit


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tered away into small meadows, each sufficient only for two or three cows.

The people of Appenzell are industrious and persevering, in common with other Swiss : but their distinguishing feature is quickness of apprehension. They manifest particular inge. nuity in inventing, imitating, and improving machines, as well as other branches of mechanics, without any assistance, in. struction, or books. Besides some exceedingly skilful weavers, several among them have acquired reputation by the manufacture of watches, clocks, and fire-engines. We have already observed that an inhabitant of Rehetobel has invented machines for spinning and carding wool, to which the British cotton manufactures in a great degree owe their eminence : but the village of Teufen especially boasts the honour of having given birth to an excellent mechanical genius. The wooden bridges of Ulrich Grubenmann are very generally known on the continent. That which is thrown across the Rhine near Schaffhausen is a fabric contemplated with astonishment by every traveller ; and it is extolled in all modern works which treat of Switzerland, as one of the first of the curiosities which deserve to be visit ed in that country. Indeed, the boldness and beautiful simplicity, as well as the apparent simplicity and intrinsic strength of the wooden bridges constructed by Grubenmann, cannot be sufficiently admired. Consisting only of one arch, they stretch and bend as if suspended by huge cables; they rock and tremble even under the feet of the passenger; and when loaded wag, gons pass over them, the shaking of the bridge increases to such an alarming violence, that those who are unacquainted with the principle of its construction dread every moment that it will give way, and plunge them in the waves. This sort of bridge, aptly styled banging work, was first brought to per, fection by Ulrich Grubenmann. All the wooden and stone bridge, which had been laid across the Rhine near to and at the expence of the city of Schaffhausen, being washed away by the impetuosity of that river, it became necessary in the year 1754 to erect a new one; when, among the architects who delivered in their plans, Grubenmann, then a common carpenter of Teuffen, presented himself with a proposal for building a bridge which, resting on no pillars in the bed of the Rhine, should be supported only by the river's opposite banks. On producing his model for the first time to the committee appointed to examine the plans which might be offered, he was asked, with a scornful smile, whether he really thought that a bridge, built on the proposed principle, would not break down as soon as any considerable burdens were brought in



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