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narchical principles.'--Connected with them or not, he has delivered a sensible discourse, and offered advice worthy of the attention of the United Lodge (Free-masons, we conclude) and all other persons. Yielding, as he says, a decided preference to the doctrine and discipline of the established church, he expresses himself with liberality and candour 'respecting other denominations of Christians. If he somewhat inclines, as perhaps he may, to Methodism, in concurrence with the articles which he professes to embrace, it is certain that his exhortations to the practice of all virtue are warm and energetic. He remarks that the name which the Society assumes is equivocal and ridiculous: but he recommends a strict regard to the motto which this fraternity have chosen, viz. “ friendship, love, and truth :"_in conformity to which, is added to the sermon an Hymn sung by the brethren at the conclusion of the service. Art. 69. Preached at Lambeth Chapel, March 4, 1798, at the

Consecration of the Right Reverend John Buckner, LL.D. Lord Bishop of Chichester. By John Napleton, D.D. Canon resia dentiary of Hereford, &c. Published by Command of his Grace, the Archbishop. 4to. 18. Robson.

The immediate topic of this discourse is, Jesus said unto him, Feed my sheep, John, xxi. 17. By an ingenious and well-written descant on benevolence as peculiarly the duty of the Christian believer, the preacher is led to the still larger incitements and higher obligations' which attend the Christian minister ; who is supposed to find them enlarge as he advances to more elevated or dignified stations. The writer acknowleges that churches, like states, have been productive of partial evils :'--but, he adds, the good exceeds the evil, in a far greater proportion than we are apt to imagine.'--Respecting the Anglican church and state, it is said, (and happy are we if it be strictly true,). we have preserved our monarchy and episcopacy together; each refined from every tendency to evil, and retaining only the blessed prerogative of doing good.”. · The sermon is accurate and rather elegant in its style, sensible in its plan and execution, and edifying and impressive in its remarks and exhortations.

CORRESPONDENCE. · Y. Z. inquires what volume of our Review contains the account of Mr. Wakefield's translation of the New Testament;—we refer him to our 8th volume New Series, p. 241. He also desires to be in. formed what other English translations have been made of the New Testament, besides that in common use? As it is no part of our pro. vince to answer such questions as are often proposed to us, particularly those which come from anonymous correspondents, we have repeatedly, though in vain, requested that such inquiries should not be transmitted to us. Our frequent compliance with them has indeed so much increascd the evil, that we must still remonstrate against it: we have much more than sufficient employment for the time allotted to us for the discharge of our obligations to the public. As, how. crer, we have replied to one part of Y. Z.'s letter, we will not close this note without adverting to his other inquiry, concerning the vari. ous English translations of the N. T. At present we recollect, 1. That of Rheims, in 1582; since revised by the late Dr. Chaloner, the Roman Catholic Bishop of London, 1750, 8vo. 5 vols. II. One by Dr. Cornelius Nary, 8vo. 1719. III. Another by Dr. Witham, 8vo. 2 vols. 1730. IV. Another from the French of F. Simon, 4to.. 2 vols. 1730. All these are from the Latin Vulgate ; except that the last is a secondary version, through the medium of the French language. The notes are judicious. The only translation from the Greek, since that of Mr. Wakefield, is one by Mr. Scarlett, very re-, cently published ; and not yet reviewed.-- We also recollect the following pamcs of English translators of the sacred volume ; viz. Wyckliff, Tindal, Purver, Doddridge, Wesley, Harwood, and Worsley. Most of these have been reviewed in our work; as will appear on consulting our General Index.

The same correspondent observes that, ' doubtless, astronomers have some particular rule or method by which to measure the distance of one planet from another,--and the size of a particular planet.' _U,' he adds, this rule is to be met with in any work in the English or the French language, I should feel myself much obliged if you would point out the work,' &c.-Almost any astronomical treatise will fur. nish an answer to Y. Zi’s inquiry ; Dr. Vince's late System of Astronomy, for instance: (see Review for October last, Art. I. :) where, in one of the chapters concerning the distances of the planets, the rule may be found. In the same work, likewise, occurs the method of determining the magnitude of a planet, which is easily effected when the distance is known.

We regret that accidents have hitherto retarded our notice of Dr. Underwood's polite letter : in our next number, we hope to pay that attention to it which it deserves.

An article respecting the Delectus Græcarum Sententiarum was written before the receipt of the author's inquiry, and will probably appear in the Review for January.

General Vallancey's polite Communication is received, and will be farther noticed.

We know nothing of the spelling-book mentioned in a letter from Long-Acre ; nor is it now, according to the writer's statement, a proper object of our attention.

Other Letters remain for consideration.

Errata in the Review for November. P. 268, 1. 23, for • preay,' r. prey.

236, 1. 24, for the Modes,' r. the Mode. 349, I. 4, put a turned comma before the words, · In 1759, &c. 351, l. 14, take the turned comma away, after the word this.

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Art. I. Schilderung der Gebirgsvölker der Schweitz, &c. i.e. ADe.

scription of the Tribes which inhabit the mountainous Parts of Switzerland. By John Gottfried Exeļ, M. D. Vol. I. Con. taining the Canton of Appenzell. 8vo. Pp. 478. Leipzig.

1798. The smaller cantong of Switzerland are the only states in

Europe which, for a period of about five centuries, have preserved both their constitutions of government, and the lic mits of their country, unaltered. It may therefore appear rather singular that, while numerous travellers are repair. ing to the distant regions of the globe for the purpose of making discoveries, more should not have directed their inquiries to a part of the world which, besides its situation in the very heart of Europe, is in every respect an object of the greatest curiosity. Switzerland is indeed visited by almost every tourist; and from the number of accounts respecting it which have been published, we might infer that it must have been completely described :-yet the present performance has fully convinced us of the reverse.

Dr. EBEL, who is well known by his useful work, intitled Directions for Travellers through Switzerland, must have been extremely industrious in the course of his inquiries concerning the canton of Appenzell ; and, on whatever he treats, his in formation seems to rest on the best authorities. He commenced his journey from the lake of Constance : but, though his observations during the first part of it are neither trite App. Rev. VOL. XXYII.


nor uninteresting, we shall pass them over, in order to exhibit a few specimens of his more curious remarks.

Among the various modes of industry in Innerooden, Dr. EBEL mentions that of feeding snails. In the little garden grounds along the river Sitter, such numbers of snails are kept during the summer season, that the sound caused by the motion of their denticulated jaws, while they are eating, is distinctly heard at several paces from the spot. Young snails are collected in the adjacent parts, and are placed in these gardens; where the owner supports them, tili, on the approach of winter, they enclose themselves. In addition to the food which they find on the grounds, and which a cherry-tree, planted in every garden, affords them, they are supplied with leaves of lettuce, colewort, cabbage, and other vegetables, by which they grow and fatten surprisingly. Some time before Lent, the owners pack up the closed snails in casks, and carry them for sale to the convents of Suabia, Bavaria, and Austria, and even as far as Vienna, · where they are purchased as delicacies. By this traffic, some have acquired a handsome fortune.

Pasturage being the principal employment in the interior part of the eanton, whatever respects the breeding of cattle, the management of dairies, and the making of cheese, is carried 'to a high degree of perfection among these mountaineers; who present us with the portrait of a true pastoral nation. Here both the rich and the poor are cow keepers; though many of the latter do not grow so much hay themselves as they require for their cattle during the winter season, or have no grass Jands at all. To supply this deficiency, they employ agents throughout the canton, who are to inform them where good hay may be obtained, which farmers made it in favourable weather, &c. and then the Senn, or the great cowkeeper, who is in want of fodder, makes his agreements for the winter with the wealthier farmers, to whom he successively drives his cattle as soon as they return from grass. Thus the itinerant Senn, with his cows, often visits five different places during the winter season. He who sells the hay furnishes the Senn not only with stabling for his beasts, but boards and lodges him as well as his whole family. In return, the Senn, besides paying the stipulated price for the hay, allows to his host as much milk, whey, and Zieger (a kind of lean cheese) as may be used in the house, and leaves him also the manure of his cows. In the middle of April, when Nature revives, the Senn again issues forth with his

* The canton of Appenzell is divided into Innerooden or the interior part, and Ausserooden, which comprehends the tracts situated near the borders.


berd to the meadows and fertile Alps, which he rents for the summer. Thus the life of these men is a constant migration, affording the most pleasing variety, and blessing them with health, content, and cheerfulness.

The manner in which the farmers of Appenzell turn to profit the urine of their cattle, by making saltpetre from it, is very simple. In so hilly and mountainous a country, most houses and stables are built on slopes, one side of the edifice resting on the hill, and the other being supported by two strong posts, elevated two or three feet above the ground; so that the air has a free current under the building. Immediately under the stable, a pit is dug, usually occupying both in breadth and length the whole space of ground covered by the building; and instead of the clayey earth which is dug out, the pit is filled up with sandy soil. This is the whole process, and all the rest is done by nature. The animal water, which is continually oozing through the planks of the floor, having drenched the earth contained in the pit, for the space of two or three years, the latter is emptied, and the saltpetre is refined and prepared in the usual manner.

The original breed of cattle in the canton of Appenzell is of a black and brown cast : but the Senns, preferring a motley herd, compose it of black, brown, and some bay cows : to complete which set, a black cow with a white belly and a stripe of the same colour along the back, is required. The animals are curried, dressed, and tended with the utmost care; and they thus have an appearance of sleekness, cleanliness, and health, superior perhaps to that of any other cattle in the world.

The following passages, we think, deserve a literal translation: ; . The mountaineer lives with his cows in a constant exchange of reciprocal acts of gratitude: the latter affording him almost whatever he wants; and the Senn in return providing for and cherishing them sometimes more than his own children. He never ill-treats his çattle, nor makes use of a stick or a whip: a perfect cordiality seems to prevail between both; and the voice of the keeper is sufficient to guide and govern the whole herd. The cow, in the canton of Apo penzell, enjoys more of that regard which is due to every useful creature, and is altogether more comfortable, than millions of human be. ings in Europe ; who, placed under the influence of the cudgel and the knout, have too much reason to curse their existence. Is it possible that, at the end of the eighteenth, or (as it is termed) the philosophical century, this parallel should be correct to such a revolting de gree! Shocking reality!

• Fine cattle are the pride of the cowkeeper who inhabits the Alps:--but, not satisfied with their natural beauty, he will likewise Liz


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