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whatever parts are affected, if the situation will admit, these super, ficial suppurations put on a circular form, with their edges more ele. yated than their centre, and of a colour distantly approaching to blue. Absorption takes place, and tumours appear in each axilla. The system becomes affected; the pulse is quickened ; and shiverings, with general lassitude and pains about the loins and limbs, with vomiting, come on. The head is painful, and the patient is now and then even affected with delirium. These symptoms, varying in their degrees of violence, generally continue from one day to three or fout, leaving ulcerated sores, about the hands, which, from the sensibility of the parts, are very troublesome, and commonly heal slowly, frequently becoming phagedenic, like those from whence they sprung. The lips, nostrils, eyelids, and other parts of the body, are sometimes affected with sores ; but these evidently arise from their being heed. lessly rubbed or scratched with the patient's infected fingers. No eruptions on the skin have followed the decline of the feverish symp. toms, in any instance that has come under my inspection, one only excepted ; and in this case a very few appeared on the arms: they were very minute, of a vivid red colour, and soon died away without advancing to maturation : so that I cannot determine whether they had any connection with the preceding symptoms.
• Thus the disease makes its progress, from the hors to the nipple of the cow, and from the cow to che human subject.' · In consulting the publication for the details of cases in which the grease is said to occasion the cow-pox, we only find some instances of the cow-pox breaking out soon after the appearance of the grease in farms, in which the milkers attended: horses as well as cows. If this species of evidence could be adduced in every instance in which the cow-pox prevailed, we would willingly admit it as circumstantial and probable proof, although not as conclusive : but, as in many cases of the cow-pox no grease was noticed to exist, we apprehend that few persons will receive much satisfaction from this kind of evidence : though Dr. J. expresses his own conviction that the disease never appears in the cow, without originating in the horse. More conclusive evidence might be expected from inoculating the cow's teats with grease-matter; and in these trials Dr. Jenner failed to produce the cow-pox ; yet he is not willing to surrender his opinion; because he imputes the failures either to the grease-matter not being in a proper state, or to the cow's nipples not being in a state adapted to in. fection. There was also another sort of evidence which the author did not neglect to call forth ; namely, the inocula. tion of the human subject with grease-matter : but in all these cases, except one, the persons inoculated still remained suscepte. ible of the small-pox. i It is with much pleasure that we turn from this to other parts of the work, in which we find satisfactory information,
and in which the author is not, as in the former, like Achilles, vulnerable in the heel.
In whatever way the cow acquires the variola vaccine, it is im. portant to observe that the disease is not propagated by effluvia, but by matter evidently applied ; and that neither the cow nor the human subject has ever been known to die in conse. quence of the disorder. The grand point, however, of this distemper is, that persons who have had the cow-pox, and who have not bad the small-pox, are rendered incapable of taking the latter. If the cases related by Dr. Jenner be not sufficient to convince strict reasoners, and to satisfy timorous minds, they are at least more than suficient to render the fact extremely probable, and to justify other inquirers in the farther investigation of it.
With a view of superseding inoculation for the small-pox, Dr. Jenner inoculated several persons with cow.pox matter, in a way similar to the usual mode of inoculation for the smallpox. From these cases, he learned that a fever arose from about the 7th to the oth day after inoculation, and continued one or two days only; and that a pustulous eruption is produced in the parts inoculated : which is a more slight affection than the cow-pox in the hands when produced in the natural way. In course, not one died of the inoculated cow-pox. Neither were any of the persons who had been so inoculated found capable, after repeated trials, of taking the small-pox by inocu. lation, nor in the natural way: but it was found that persons were still susceptible of the cow-pox, whether they had gone through that disorder already in the natural way, or by inocula. tion. Hence, then, appears one of the most curious and perhaps most important facts relative to the animal constitution; namely, that, by having had a disease produced in it by a given specific infection, viz. the cow-pox matter, it is so altered as to be incapable of having a disease produced in it by another specific infection, namely, the variolous; and yet the former specific infection, that of the cow-pox, can again and again produce the cow-pox. Physiologists will doubtless attend to this new fact; especially to observe whether there be in Nature other analogous facts: but, be that as it may, this one discovery opens a new field of inquiry into the animal constitution, of which various uses may hereafter be made. The immediate application of it is, plainly, to inoculate for the cow-pox instead of the small-pox; and the advantages of this new mode are, i. No person dies of the cow-pox ; 2dly, It produces no eruption except on the parts • inoculated ; 3dly, The fever is slighter, for the most part, than in the inoculated small-pox; 4thly, It is not probable that any other disease is excited by the cow-pox, as is the case in certain constitutions after the small-pom- it must be confessed, how
erer, that much more experience is required than we have hitherto had, to determine the truth of the last stated advantage; especially from inoculation of infants ; on account of the irritability of their skin rendering them liable to very extensive erysipelatous inflammation.
That the infectious matter of the cow-pox is a specific poi. son, and not (as some suppose) merely putrid animal matter, seems proved from the disease being the same, when produced by inoculation with matter from the human subject, as that which is produced by matter from the cow; and the same as that which is produced by cow-pox matter from the third, fourth, or fifth human subject in succession from the cow. Indeed, the difference in the appearance of the local pustulous eruption in the cow-pox is sufficient to shew the spea cific nature of the infectious matter.
As the cow-pox is not propagated by vapour, nor by efflue via, nor by minute particles of it adhering to cloaths, furniture, the paper of letters, &c. the happiest consequences may result from its diffusion in society instead of the small-pox': but, while it appears that persons who have gone through the former are incapable of taking the latter, the converse does not seem to be true, or at least is not constantly the case: for although it seems probable that those who have had the small-pox are not so susceptible of the cow.pox as those who have not had the former disease, yet they are not exempt.
Cows are liable to the disease oftener than once, but they usually have it more slightly on the second infection.
Dr. Jenner's work contains four elegant coloured plates, representing the eruptions of the cow-pox. The first delineates the hand of a girl, with three pustules occasioned by matter ap. plied to a part scratched with a thorn, and to a part which had suffered abrasion of the cuticle ; designed to shew the distemper in its early as well as in its advanced stage. The ad plate represents the pustules after inoculation of the upper arm, as in the inoculated small-pox. The 3d plate shews the pustules of the inoculated arm in the cow-pox, produced by matter taken from a human subject; and the 4th plate exhibits the appearance of the inoculated arm in its last stage. Experience now tells me,' says the author, that almost the only variation which follows consists in the pustulous fluids remainia ing limpid nearly to the time of its total disappearance; and not, as in the direct small-pox, becoming purulent.'
Another work on this interesting subject has appeared, from the pen of Dr. George Pearson ; of which we shall shortly fake farther notice.
For DECEMBER, 1798.
MILITARY AFFAIRS. Art. 17. The Light. Horse Drill ; describing the several, Evolutions
in a progressive Scries, from the first Rudiments to the Mancirvres . of the Squadron : (illustrated with Copper plates :) designed for
the Use of the Privates and Officers of the Volunteer Corps of Great Britain. Part I. 410. pp. 13. Ten Plates. 75
Egerton. The late general arming of the people has given rise to sgyeral usa
ful military publications, to which the work before ys forms a valuable addition. The instructions, as well as the plates, are the most clear and minute, and, in course, the test for young soldiers, that we have seen. One or tiro inadvertencies occur, which we shall point out,
The definition of filing (Note 2. Section 4. Page 2.) might have been better expressed. “ File,” or “ Rank and File," are not synonimous terms. A file signifies as many men as there are ranks; that is, three men if the division be furined three deep; two men, if formed two deep; and one man, if formed in rank-entire : but a runk and file invariably signifies one man. Thus when we read in the Gazette • 12 Rank and File killed,” we are to understand that we have lost 12 men who were below the rank of serjeant : but, if we are told that the troop consisted of twelve files, we are to understand that it contained twenty-four men ; the cavalry being generally formed two deep. Why the longer phrase should express the smaller number, is pot for us to determine.
Section 31. is sufficiently intelligible to persons who are conver, sant on the subject : but those who are totally unacquainted with military evolutions, for whom the autlior professes to write, would find some difficulty in understanding it ; particularly as in the plate (Fig 26.) the movement to the front is laid down full two horses' length too much to the right. Having made this remark, we will give the section as it stands in the book, and afterward show how we should have written it; marking the principal variations in italics.
• Section 31st, From the Right File to the Front.-March. ..The rear rank closes up as directed in the last section :- The right frank man advances strait forward, his covering file a breast of him, (Fig. 26.) all move off to the front, leading and covering files a-breast, as they come up to the ground which the first man quitted.' Page 8.
Here we should have proposed to write as follows:--the rear rank closes up as directed in the last section, the right flank man advances strait forwards, his covering file spring's up obliquely to the right to get a-breast of him; the rest all turn, and move off, to the right : (as in Sect. 30. Fig. 25.) and as they come to the ground wliich the first man quitted, they wheel by files to the left, and move on.
This takes us back to the author's definition of filing (Note 2, Scet. 4. Page 2.) in which he tells us that the two ranks are turned
into two files, and the twelve files into twelve ranks. This is not strictly correct. The files, indeed, when turned to the right or left, may be called ranks, but they are files still.--The 43d Section, we think, might also have been more clearly, expressed.
The references to Figures 30, 31, 32, and 34, are misprinted in the text 29, 30, 31, and 35; and the distinguishing mark of the rear rank is omitted in the 5th and 6th men in Figure 25 and Figure 26.
These are trilling defects : but in pointing them out we have at once done our duty, and shewn how small the faults are that can be found by us in this useful work.
We shall be glad to see the second part. Art. 18. Considerations of the Reasons that exist for reviving the Use
of the Long Bow, wiih the Pike, in aid of the Measures brought forward by bis Majesty's Ministers for the Defence of the Country. By Richard Oswald Mason, Esq. 8vo. Pp. 50. 35. 6d. Boards. Egerton. 1798.
This work was composed during the late crisis of danger, and ca. titles the author to praise for the warmth and anxiety which he has shewn, to give energy and effect to the public force. A defensive war, he thinks, could not be better maintained than by numerous bodies of bowmen; and the instructions for the exercise, which he proposes for them, are short and clear, and are illustrated by several neat plates.
Mr. Mason dwells con amore on the exploits of the antient English archers, evinces his extensive reading on the subject, and earnestly urges the revival of the long-bow and pike. He even prefers these weapons to the musket and bayonet, and supports his preference with much ingenuity : but we do not imagine that he will succeed in' extending the use of his favorite implement beyond the purposes of amusement. His book, however, will always afford entertainment, mingled with instruction ; and had it been published six years ago, when Toxophily was so much the rage, it would have been read with additional avidity and applause.
NOVEL 8. Art. 19. Caroline. By a Lady. 12mo. 108. 63. sewed. Hook.
ham and Carpenter. 1798. Elegance, vivacity, or accurate delineation of manners, can hardly be expected in the general overflowing mass of the novels of the times; and the volumes before us are certainly not entitled to rank among the capital works of this branch of literature. Freedom from vulgarisms, from gross improbabilities, from licentious descriptions, and from tedious narrations, may be mentioned in favour of this production; and to how few of the novels of the day can even this negative praise be justly given ? Art. 20. Colaf, a Persian Tale. 12mo. 2 Vols. 75. sewed.
Hookham and Carpenter. 1798. In the prefatory address to the public, we are informed that these volumes are the work • of a girl of seventeen.' What may be reasonably expected from the generality of young ladies at this aze, we