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two great naturalists :-a considerable portion, however, of these beautiful American Lepidopteræ has never before come under the notice of an European. On the whole, therefore, on account of the selection of rare and interesting objects, the
elegance and apparent exactness with which they are deline·ated, and the able manner in which the editor has performed his office, this work cannot fail to be considered as a highly valuable addition to the materials which we already, possess, towards a general history of the most numerous and beautiful tribe of animated beings.
The observations are given both in English and in French.
Art. XIV. The Sentiments of Philo Judæus concerning the Angor,
or Word of God; together with large Extracts from his Writings compared with the Scriptures on many other particular and essential Doctrines of the Christian Religion. By Jacob Bryant. 8vo.
pp. 29o. 35. sewed. Cadell jun. and Davies, &c. 1797. . W HETHER Philo Judæus was a convert from Judaism to
Christianity, is a question that has often been agitated among Christian critics. By some it has been decided in the affirmative ; yet it is hard to conceive how those, who have perused his works with any degree of attention, can be seriously of that opinion.-- In his writings, which are rather voluminous, we have not found the smallest indication of his being at all acquainted either with Christ or with his disciples; and, indeed, how should we expect it? Philo was an Hellenist Jew of Alexandria, who' was either dead, or in a very advanced age, before we can suppose that Christianity had made any progress in Egypt.
The principal reason for the notion that Philo was a Christo ian seems to have been his encomium on the Therapeuts; who have been imagined, too credulously, to have been Christian Cænobites. A long and warm controversy, on this subject, was carried on about the beginning of the present century, betwcen. Father Montfaucon and the President Bouhier; in which the magistrate had, in our opinion, by far the advantage of the monk.
The English editor of Philo gave up his Christianity, but laboured hard to prove that, in some particular points, he was a Christian by anticipation; and that some of the most important doctrines of Christianity are found in his writings : particularly, the divinity and personality of the Logos: - 50 that Athanasius himself is not more explicit on the subject.
Mr. Bryant places Philo in another point of view. He supposes him to have derived all that he says of the Logos from the
disciples of Jesus; and he even thinks that Philo must have been convinced of the principal truths of the Christian doctrine, while he had not the courage to embrace Christianity. We are far, very far, from being of this learned writer's opinion : but we shall let him fairly speak for himself, with respect to the great point; namely, that Philo believed in Jesus Christ.
• He speaks (says lie, p. 15) at large in many places of the Word of God, the second Person ; which he mentions, as (curreas Oles) the second Divinity, the great Cause of all things, and styles him as Plato, as well as the Jews, had done before, the Logos. His thoughts upon this subject are very just and sublime: such as would do honour to a Christian. But though the Jews in his time expected the Messiah Prince, and flattered themselves, that he would arise among their brethren, and exalt their nation : yet he suppresses every thought to this purpose ; and intimates plainly, that, in his opinion, Hothing human or corporal could be annexed to the Son of God. This prejudice was the great obstacle to his becoming a Christian : though he must have been convinced of the miracles of our Saviour, also of the sanctity of his manners, as well as of his goodness and wisdom. He must likewise have known many of the first proselytes, which were very numerous at Alexandria ; and probably was not unacquainted with some of the Apostles. But notwithstanding these advantages, he could not bring himself to believe, that the Word could be made flesh: and a suffering Messiah, and Christ crucified, was past his comprehension. As to the operations of our Saviour upon earth, they were too notorious to be deniel. He therefore says nothing in opposition : but passes over the whole in mysterious silence. Hence not a word is to be found in him about Christ Jesus the Messiah, nor of his mighty operations : which is extraordinary.
• But of the divine Logos, or Word, he speaks in many places : and maintains at large the divinity of the second Person, and describes his attributes in a very precise and copious manner, styling him,
u duTip #or, os eso debe (08 7WTE) Aorus, the second Deity, who is the Word of the supreme God. 17 puncayoyos csoshis first-begotten Son. Esxwx . The Imuge of God: and Iloilov ong befes agennis The Shepherd of his holy flock."
i In his Treatise upon Creation, he spcaks of the Word, as the Divine Operator, by whom all things were disposed: and mentions him as superior to the Angels, and all created beings, and the image and likeness of God; and says, that this Image of the true God was esteemed the same as God-ic mundo (0:) xatxines. This Logos, the Word of God, is superior to all the world, and more ancient ; being the Productor of all that was produced. The eternal Word of the everlasting God is the sure and fixed foundation, upon which all things depend. He mentions man, as in need of redemption, and says,- What intelligent person, who views mankind engaged in unworthy and wicked pur. suits, but must be grieved to the heart, and call upon that only Saviour God, that these crimes may be extenuated, and that, by a ransom and price of redemption being given for his soul, it may again obtain it's freedom. It pleased God therefore to apsoint his Logos to be a Mediator.
To his Word, the chief and most ancient of all in Heaven, the Great Author of the world give this especial gift, that he should stand as a medium (or intercessor) between the Creator and the created. And he is accordingly the Advocate for all mortals. The same Word is the Intera ressor for man, who is always tending to corruption : and he is the apa pointed Messenger of God, the Governour of all things, to man in subjection to him. He therefore exhorts every person, who is able to exert himself in the race, which he is to run, to lend his course without remission to the divine Word above, who is the Fountain of all wisdom: that by drinking at ihis sacred Spring, he, injlead of death, may obtain the reward of everlasting life.
• He repeats continually, that the Logos is the express image of God. "The Word, by which the world was made, is the image of the supreme Daity. As we perceive the sun's light, though the sun is not ita self seen ; and behold the brighness of the moon, though its orð may not appear to the eye ; so men look up to, and acknowledge, the likeness of God in his minister the Logo, whom they esteem as God. He attempts to describe his nature by representing him as not uncreated, like God; nor yet created as man: but of a divine substance. For the Word of God, which is above all the host of Heaven, cannot be comprehended by human vision, having nothing in his nature, that is perceptible to mortal sense. For being the image of God, and the eldejt of all intelligent beings, be is seated immediately next to the One God, without any inierval of separaticn. This in the language of Scriptures is-silting on the right hand of God. He adds--For not being liable to any voluntary or involuntary change, or falling off, he has God for his lot, and portion, and his residence is in God. The like is mentioned in another place, where he is repre. sented again as sipless, and as the great High Priest of the world. We maintain, that by the (true) High Priest is nol meant a man; bui the divine Word; who is free from all voluntary, and involuntary transgrese sions--being of heavenly parentage ; born of God, and of that divine Wise dom, by which all things were produced.' He speaks to the same pur. pose in another place, where he makes mention of the word e n Argrepev, ó ocuroyovos out! (0 ) 00:05 Aoyo:--), which presiiles that High Priest, the Holy Word, the first-born of God;-at other times styled opeo Utatas vies 0:8.The Son of God, antecedent to all creation. Ττον μεν γαρ τ:εσβυτατον υιον και των αντων ανέτειλε Πατης, ον ετερωθ. πρωτgouin wroperos. It is manifest, that every article, which the Sacred Writers have given to Christ in his mediatorial capacity, Philo has attributed to him in his divine character anteccdent to creation.'
From this extract, the learned will be able to form a just opinion of the merit of the present work. To the common reader, neither the book itself, nor any critique that we might make on it, could afford any considerable satisfaction.-- We shall therefore only repeat that, in reading the works of Philo, we have ourselves found much of Plato and the Platonists, but scarcely any thing of Christianity properly so called.
Rev. Dsc. 1798.
hure, tha dispute o longer nat
Art. XV. Poetic Trifles. By Elizabeth Moody. 8vo. 56. Boards
Cadell jun. and Davies. 1798. The polished period in which we live may be justly deno.
minated the Age of ingenious and learned Ladies ;-—who have excelled so much in the more elegant branches of literature, that we need not to hesitate in concluding that the long agitated dispute between the two sexes is at length determined; and that it is no longer a question, - whether woman is or is not inferior to man in natural ability, or less capable of cz. celling in mental accomplishments.
To the list of distinguished Poetesses of our own country, not to mention those fair foreigners who, perhaps, merit equal celebrity, we have now the pleasure of adding the name of the author of the elegant pieces before us, which she modestly denominates Trifleso
The productions of the muse of Surbiton * may briefly be characterized as exhibiting a lively and natural flow of wit, and of strong sense, expressed in easy and harmonious numbers :
in a moral view, they are entitled to higher praise. They are introduced to the reader by a very sensible preface, fraught with a degree of vivacity not often found in such preliminary dis. courses :-to which, in general, no more regard is paid than to the great man's porter, who opens the gate that the visitors. may enter.-As a few specimens may be more satisfactory to our readers than merely the critic's verdict, however just and jmpartial, we shall transcribe the following poems :
Source of innocence and trath,
* A pleasant rillage near Kingston on Thames, whence this lady dates
• Nature brings her purest fires,
· Genius gives the tuneful quire,
• To A FRIEND; « On her having suffered a dangerous Illness in the Winter, and
recovered from it in the Spring.
Sickness hovers round her bed ;
Painful sorrows force her sighs.
Stella the breath of health inhales :
The blush of health her cheek renewe.
Warm to my heart I feel thy ray!
Not that Philomela sings :
Not that fragrant zephyrs blow :
That am'rous songsters chaunt their loves :
Nor that its beams expand my flowers;
But that my friend—my Stella lives !
That valu'd face, and sunk that head !