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own right; in all 186, besides the 16 Scotch Peers *. In these 46 years, therefore, during which had happened the Revolution, and the accession of the House of Hanover, the increase was only 25.
In 1759 it consisted of 2 Dukes of the blood-royal, 20 Dukes, i Marquis, 81 Earls, 10 Viscounts, and 58 Barons, besides 9 Peeresses in their own right, in all 181. During these 31 years, therefore, the Peerage had decreased 5. .
• In 1780 it consisted of 3 Dukes of the blood-royal, 21 Dukes, I Marquis, 78 Earls, 14 Viscounts, 65 Barons, besides 7 Peeresses in their own right ; in all 189. During these 22 years, the increase was 7.
• Át the close of the year 1783 in consisted of 3 Dukes of the blood-royal, 22 Dukes, 78 Earls, 17 Viscounts, 76 Barons, besides 10 Peeresses in their own right ; in all 200; an increase of 17 in about four years.
In 1792 it consists of 4 Dukes of the blood-royal, 19 Dukes, 11 Marquises, 90 Earls, 14 Viscounts, 121 Barons, and 9 Peeresses in their own right; in all 268. During these 13 years therefore, the increase has been 62.
• In point of promotion in the ranks of Peerage, perhaps no minister has ever equalled Mr. Pitt. He has elevated io Peers to the rank of Marquis, 18 to the rank of Earl, and 2 to that of Viscount.
The addition of 62 to the Peerage is within a fraction of a third of the whole number which existed so lately as 1780. I am by no means an enemy to Mr. Pitt. But, if it be doubted whether there be any violent evil from this great alteration of the system of the constitution, yet as there is no apparent good in it, we may surely be allowed to hesitate, and inquire how far it may be wise to introduce such a striking change, without some importunate and decisive cause: at any rate, it may be made an engine of alarming corruption in the hands of any minister. It is a lure for the country Gentleman ; on whose independence before the bauble of a coronet was universally dangled within their grasp, the best hopes of the purity of Parliament were placed.'
We cannot compliment the author's reasoning, by styling it the most conclusive that might have been drawn from such premises. He considers the late additions to the Pecrage as replete with national mischief, not on constitutional grounds as tending to an undue preponderance of one branch of the Legislature, but as alienating the affections of the country gentlemen from the present administration, by exciting the dangerous and hitherto dormant jealousy of those whose hereditary pretensions were originally equal.
• But, while it is impossible to tear our sensibilities from our frame, it becomes a matter of very alarming concern indeed, how profusely this bauble of a coronet is showered down on the heads of improper or undeserving men, and while it makes a few ungrateful and corrupt, makes a thousand disaffected and dangerous.'
In the list of creations and advancements of the Peerage during the present administration, we remark a trifling inaccuracy. Sir T. Egerton is descended from a coheir of the antient Barons Grey De
* Chamberlaine's Present State of England, 1728.'.
Wilton: Wilton :-his claim was indeterminate, or there had been no necessity for a patent dated 1784.-We must also correct the assertion relative to Lord Carrington having assumed the title and arms of a family to whom he had not even a distant agnation. The arms which he bears were legally granted to the brother of his grandfather, High Sheriff of Leicestershire, in 1718; and he has not in any instance assumed those of the former noble family of Carrington.
It will probably be the opinion of many, that no analogy can be formed between the systems of administration in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and of George the Third. The catalogue and characters of her peers and knights, given in this pamphlet, will perhaps convey no censure that is applicable by just comparison to modern men and things. Though the noblemen were very few, they were not immaculate ; and if we may believe Sir Robert Naunton, (Fragmenta Regalia, p. 92,) “ there were of the Queen's council which were not in the catalogue of saints.” Art. 49. Copies of Original Letters recently written by Persons in Paris
to Dr.Priestley in America. Taken on board of a Neutral Vessel. 8vo. pp. 36. Is. Wright. 1798.
We are informed in the preface to this pamphlet, that the letters of which the following are literal copies were found on board of a Danish ship, (The Christiana, Nicholas Albosted, Master,) lately brought into one of our ports by the Diamond Frigate. The originals were inclosed in a cover directed to “ Dr. Priestley in America." They have been exhibited, with the usual attestations, in the High Court of Admiralty, as part of the evidence in the proceedings against the above-mentioned ship, and her cargo, and are now remaining on record in the public registry of that court. Their authenticity is, therefore, (continues the editor,) placed beyond a dispute, and may be personally ascertained by any man who chooses to take that trouble.'
The first letter is dated, Paris, 12th February 1798 (25 Pluviose, 6th year), and is signed by Mr. J. H. (John Hurford) Stone, who is described as a traitor in the indictment which was preferred against his brother William Stone, and on which he was tried at bar in the King's-Bench in Hilary term 1796.–This letter contains an account of the French transactions about the period of its datein Venice, Genoa, and the Cisalpine Republic, and particularly of their threatened invasion of this country ; which the writer describes as 'a denrée, or mer. chandice of the first necessity for them; and, I should doubt (continues he) whether any concession on the part of England could now avert the experiment; whether it will be a fatal one to it's government, time only can determine. In the mean time, the government here are putting in work every engine, attempting to engage every passion, to enlist every prejudice ; nevertheless always anxious to discriminate between the Government and the People, flattering the one, as much as they profess to execrate the other.'
It was not necessary that these letters should have appeared, for us to be informed that their writer had cast off his allegiance to his sovereign : but they were necessary to convince us that any Englishman could so totally eradicate from his mind all feelings of attachment
and love for the country in which he had been born and educated, and, had received the high advantages of her protecting government, as to co-operate in every plan of her enemies to subjugate and ruin her: to rejoice in the success of those plans, or to grieve at their overthrow!-Mr. Stone, however, on evidence that has not been disputed, appears to be this character!
of the second letter, the following account is given at the close of the first ; • I enclose a note for our friend M. B. P. ; but as ignorant of the name he bears at present among you, I must beg you to scal and address it. We have heard nothing of him since his departure, and know but vaguely that he is secreted at present at Kennebeck.'
The same principles, and the same proofs of French citizenship, which marked the former letter, appear in this.'
It will not unreasonably be supposed, that the persons to whom these epistles are addressed entertain the same sentiments with those which actuated their correspondents. This, however, is but presund. tive evidence, and may be resited by testimony of a contrary description : but, with regard to Mr. Stone, it may be remarked that “ out of his own mouth is he condemned.”-A preface and notes accompany these letters, to heighten their effect;—which was scarcely necessary.
AFFAIRS OF FRANC E. Art. 50. Remonstrance, addressed to the Executive Directory of the
French Republic, against the Invasion of Switzerland. By John Caspar Lavater, Rector at Zurich. 8vo. 15. 6d. Debrett, &c.
This letter, which is dated May 10, 1798, contains an animated, just, (but guarded,) and pathetic expostulation with the rulers of France, on account of their treacherous and tyrannic treatment of subdued Switzerland, especially the canton of Zurich: for example;
• We were promised, (says the venerable and patriotic physiognomist,) at least verbally, by the agents of the great nation, that no French troops should enter our canton, that not a sou should be de manded from us. Yet the very reverse happened. They had the impudence to exact from us three inillions of livres. They had the cruelty to march troops into our canton, without the least previous application, to exhaust our poor innocent country! In other words, they forced upon us the liberty of suffering ourselves to be stripped of all rational freedom.'-' Three millions ! --and for what? To exact millions, is millionfold injustice. It is the demand, not of a civilized nation,~I know of no other appropriate expression,mache demand of a band of robbers, ill organized, grown overbearing by success in war, and in their own opinion entitled to whatever they chuse to claim.'_Three millions!! from 200 burghers * of a small town, while the 2,600 burghers, of whom it consists, would not be able to raise that sum.-Great Nation, if any sense of shame and humanity remains in thy bosom, blush !' &c. &c. – The freedom of the few
* The weight of this fine seems to have fallen on this select number of the inhabitants, on the pretext of subverting and punishing an aristocracy which was no more.'
lines which we have transcribed is nothing to the vehement upbraid. ings and execrations * which the good rector of Zurich ponrs out against the French government, in the course of this reproachful address, in reference to the whole of their arbitrary treatment of poor unhappy HelveTIA!
What effect was produced by this letter, which was addressed to • Citizen REWELL' in particular, we have not learnt : but the Eng. lish Editor, who signs his preliminar; advertisement, “ H. NEWMAN," and dates from Lombard-strect, observes that an answer was returned by the DIRECTOR :-of its contents, however, he only says, ita complexion may be judged by the subsequent proceedings of his brother-in-law, Citizen RAPINAT, the wanton barbarity and injustice of which far surpass even the atrocity of those which form the proper objects of this address.'
: MISCELLANEO U S. Art. 51. The Gentleman's Guide in Money Negociations; and Banker's, Merchant's, and Tradesman's Counting-House Assistant. 12mo. Is. Low.
This neat little book contains tables for calculating interest at five per cent. from 1 to 1000 pounds for 1 to 31 days; for reckoning the elapse of bills ; for valuing leases, lives, and annuities; and for comparing English and Irish currency. It also includes tables of weights and measures, and of expenditure : a list of the days of election to public establishments, of the prices of stamps, and of the London bankers. The whole forms a compendious and convenient pocket. book, not for men in business but for gentlemen of business. Art. 52. A rapid View of the Overthrow of Switzerland. By an
Eye-witness. Translated from the French. 8vo. 28. 6d. Hatchard, &c. 1798.
The eloquent original of this translation was noticed by us at sufficient extent, in our last Appendix t, p. 546. The translation is provided with an appendix, containing the protest of the sincerely patriotic Zeltner against the detestable conduct of the French in. vaders. How melancholy a proof does Helvetia present, of the incurable mischief of having too long delayed the reform of its depraved borough constitution ! Art. 53. Passages selected by distinguished Personages, on the great
literary Trial of Vortigern and Rouma; a Comi-Tragedy; “ Whether it be or be not from the immortal Pen of Shakspeare ?” Vol. III. 12mo. 25. 6d. sewed. Ridgway. 1798.
The design and the execution of this satirical composition have been already manifested to our readers, on the appearance of the former volumes. (See Rev, vol. xviii. p. 233. and vol. xxii. p. 356-7.)
* Some expressions and phrases, however, seem rather too complaisant to the Great Nation, and inconsistent with the general strain of M. Li's reproachful expostulation with the tyrannical invaders: but allowance must be made for the delicacy and personal hazards of his peculiar situation while he was writing.
f Published with the Review for September, 1798. .
The writer still protests against the dismission of this cause from public notice, in the following terms :
IRELAND, versus SHAKESPEARE!!! By the Court.
• It having in our sapiency been discovered, through the course of the present important Cause, that more evidence may sometimes be given, where much has already been received
It is ordered, for the furtherance of strict poetical justice in said Cause, that no solemn ADJUDICATIOŇ be made therein, until final default of testimony extractive be made appear by due proclamations through our trusty, and well beloved, FILAZER, the EDITOR of those Diurnal Records, ycleped the MORNING HERALD! (Signed)
POLONIUS. Die Martis 11€, 1798.
Whether the public voice will join in this determination of the selfcreated court, we know not : but we shall subjoin a few specimens of its proceedings, that it may be seen whether any of that wit remains which formerly enlivened the pretended evidence on this ques: tion :
CCXXXVI.--Mr.Sec. R-E. « Upon my honour, Sirs, I am condemned most unjustlie ! $$ a serving man o’the State, I have drudged too harde for scantie picka ings, to be thus hardilie entreated. To no one breathinge owe I aught on the score of friendshippe, or goode-wille - yet doe they cause hue and crie against me, as though I were the worlde's de. faulter! -Nay, since the regalle treasurie hath somewhat runnie to waste, mennes eyes inquisitivelie do search, as if the losse were to be found beneathe my humble goodes; and chatels ; when “ I can take my God to witnesse,” (and he will come along with me) that I am as poore a creature as any in his Highnesse realme !"
•Page 10.-Genuine, CCXLV.- Lady H-1-D. " At her first enlaunchment, she was as trim a barque as ever Hoated on Love's billow ! but her head-strong pilotte, clapping his helm too hard a weather, when she was light of ballast, the vessel was upsette, and soon drifted, sans reckoning or compasse, to a neighbouring Coaste, where, liberated from British Vassalage, she did be. kome a leakie droit of Batavian Hollande !"
• PAGE 35.-Not Genuine." <CCLXIV.-ADMIRAL LORD D-NC-N. “ If that be not a man of stature high In deeds of valour, as in mien--no more I'll trust this intellectual eye of mine To pick me out a hardie-moulded Britton! Upon Batavia's danke, and sullen coaste, I sawe his weather-beaten pennants flie, Taunting their sluggish barques to battel !
At length in ructhful moment gave they saile, Ret. Nov. 1798