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Prudential motives would prevent me : because such interdiction serves only to excite the restless curiosity of mankind; and the te straints of law give fresh vigour to circulation.

Motives of philosophy would prevent me: because enquiry and discussion are hereby provoked ; and sparks of truth, which would otherwise have been concealed for ever, are elicited by the collision of debate ; to the unspeakable emolument and illumination of mankind, in the promotion of mutual forbearance and esteem, in the furtherance of valuable knowledge, and in the consequent propagation of all happiness and virtue. Truth can never suffer from argum ment and enquiry ; but may be essentially injured by the tyrannous interference.of her pretended advocates. Impede her energies by the pains and penalties of law; and, like the Fame of Virgil, she will creep along the ground, diminutive in stature, and shrunk with apprehension : give free scope to all her tendencies; and she will soon collect her might, dilate herself to the fullness of her dimensions, and reach the stars.

• Parva metu primo ; mox sese attollit in auras,

Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit. Motives of justice would deter me. Why should I refuse another that privilege of thinking and writing, which I claim and exercise myself?

Motives of humanity would deter me. I should think with horror en the punishment of any man for his belief : in which he has no discretionary power, but is necessarily swayed by the controlling despo. tism of arguments and reasons : and at what licence or patent shop shall I purchase a gag to silence him? Or what shall hinder him from forming the same unfavourable judgement of my opinions, and purs suing in his turn the same measures of intimidation and coercion with myself?

Heu! heu! Quam temere in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam ! • Thus the fair and goodly creation of the Almighty is to be con. verted into a howling wilderness of savage beasts, alternately hunting and worrying each other.

• Lastly, MOTIVES OF RELIGION would deter me from molesting any writer for the publication of his sentiments. No proposition in nature is more luminously depicted on the pages of the Gospel by the sun-beam of Revelation, than this before us. When the servants of the householder came to inform their master that tares were sprung up among the wheat; and enquired, whether they should go and pluck them up : he replied in these memorable words; words of in. telligible purport and indisputable application : NAY ; lsst, while ye gather up the tares, YE ROOT UP ALSO THE WHEAT WITH THEM. LET BOTH GROW TOGETHER UNTILL THE HARVEST: and, in the time of harvest, I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them; but gather the wheat into my barn,' · Mr. Wakefield proceeds to give other reasons for a perfectly unre. strained liberty of the press, on all possible topics of investigation and debate; and he concludes with observing that


..By the late decision at Guildhall, (Mr. Johnson was found guilty, I have become, alas ! the involuntary accessory to a complete annihilation of the liberty of the press in this country, as far as an oppce sition to the measures of the present administration is concerned; because your object is accomplished ; and no bookseller of established fame and fortune well choose to interfere in future with publications of this complexion ; nor indeed can a writer of humanity solicit such interference with satisfaction to himself. Our rulers must now be consigned, in silent hope or expectation, to the gradual, but unfail. ing, process of dissolution from innate radical depravity; a dissolu. ·tion as sure, as the tendencies of vice and virtue to terminate reci.

procally in prosperity or ruin under a divine administration of the universe. What I most cordially lament, as an evil for which compensation lies beyond my power, is the serious inconveniences, too pro. bably impendent over those, who are totally guiltless of this ill-starred transaction in all its relations and dependencies.

Me, me! adsum qui feci; in me convertite ferrum,

0! Rutuli! Moa fraus omnis :--nihil iste nec ausus,

Nec potuit From these specimens, the reader will be enabled to form a compce tent idea of the nature and contents of this publication. Art. 42. Cory's New Itinerary; or an accurate Delineation of the

Great Roads, both Direct and Cross, throughout England and

Wales ; with many of the Principal Roads in Scotland. From an · actual Admeasurement made by Command of his Majesty's Post

master General, for Official Purposes ; under the Direction and · Inspection of Thomas Hasker, Esq. Surveyor and Superintendant

of the Mail-Coaches. By John Cary, Surveyor of the Roads to the General Post Office. To which are added, at the End of each Route, the Names of those Inns which supply Post-Horses and Carriages; accompanied with a most extensive Selection of Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Seats; a List of the Packet-Boats, and their Times of sailing ; copious Indexes, &c. &c. 8vo. 8s.

Cary, No. 181, Strand, 1798. · The utility to travellers, of publications of this nature, is universally acknowleged ; and the peculiar circumstances of accuracy and au. thenticity, which recommend Mr. Cary's new Itinerary, are sufficiently made known in the title-page. The names of inns, and lists of the packet-boats, are (we believe) additions to be found only in this book; and the distances from town to town are computed to the accuracy of furlongs over a mile: but of this we do not see the use to the traveller, as different parts of the town or village will sometimes make the alteration of a furlong or more. Another deviation from the usual computation of distances is, that all the roads from London are measured from the General Post-office in Lombard-Street : but when the traveller bears this circumstance in mind, it cannot be of any inconvenience ; and as some standard must be taken, from which to compute the distances of roads leading from the metropolis, it is better to take one as a centre for all, than to reckon from various stations.


* The volume is neatly printed, and has the farther illustration of a small general map of England ; on which the mail-coach roads throughout the kingdom are seen at once distinct from others, by being marked with double lines. It appears to us that the book will be found eminently serviceable to those who employ their time in travelling, whether for the purposes of business, health, or pleasure ; although, in such a multiplicity of statements, room for future corrections and additions will doubtless be observed ; and in every such case, the observer would do well in transmitting his corrections to Mr.Cary, in order to render the work as perfect as its nature will admit. Art. 43. Esielle, Pustorale. Par M. de Florian. 12mo. pp. 244.

Dulau. 1798. Of this pleasing and'ınoral production, Mr. Dulau has here given a neat edition. It has already appeared in an English translation, by a young lady of eighteen; whose performance was duly noticed in our Review for February, p. 213.

Art. 44. Eleonora. Novella Murale scritta sulla traccia d'un Poemetta '. Inglese tradotto del Telesco. Trattenimento Italico di Mrs. Taylor.

12mo.. Clarke, Edwards, &c. · Of Mr. Spencer's version of Bürger's Lenore *, this is an Italian Prose translation by an English lady'; whom we cannot better praise than in the words of Dante :

Io non ho lodi onde il tuo nome fregi: ..
Basta che a pochi, e non al volgo piaci;
Che pochi intendon i tuoi veri pregi,
E i bei lumi del dire, e quelle faci
Onde l'ingegno uman s'avviva e accende;

Di sublime virtu semi veraci.
Art. 45. Thoughts on the Necessity of Hloral Discipline in Prisons, as

preliminary to the religious Instruciion of Offenders, &c. &c. . By Thomas Bowen, M. A. Chaplain of Bridewell Hospital, and

Minister of Bridewell Precinct. 8vo. 13. Rivingtons. · 1798.

Among the many charities which reflect honour on the present age, the attention paid to the distresses and sufferings of those unhappy persons who are confined in our prisons is not the least meritorious. The name of Howard is never mentioned but with re: spect and admiration ; and inany have been led, by his example, to pursue the same course of active benevolence. Much has been done for the regulation of our prisons, and the amelioration of the condition and morals of the prisoners: but every abuse is not yet rectified; and the great art of rendering criminals, by salutary punishment, useful members of society, is not yet discovered. At the same time, no one will deny that the reformation of the offender is the object of the greater part of our penal laws. We may, therefore, consider every person, who offers any new thoughts on this subject, as a friend 'to his country. • The author of the tract now before us, whose situation must render him well acquainted with the misery which he compassionates, * See M. Rey. N. S. vol. xx. p. 453.

and and wishes to mitigate, recommends a strict observance of religious duties in our prisons; and he is of opinion that a peculiar form of prayer, appropriate to the situation and circumstances of the prisoners, might have a striking and salutary effect.

Idleness he conceives to be the source of numberless evils in our prisons, particularly as it frequently disqualifies a man, on his enter. ing again into society, from procuring a subsistence by his labour. He likewise thinks that it would contribute to the reformation of manners, if discharged convicts of a particular class should be ba. nished from the metropolis ; which he terms the source and sink of corruption.

These and several other opinions here advanced are descrving of consideration; and we cannot but applaud the good intentions of the benevolent author, the justice of his observations, and the modesty with which he delivers his sentiments. Art. 46. Sentimental and Humorous Essays, conducive to Economy i and Happiness. Drawn from Common Sayings and Subjects, which are full of Common Sense, the best Sense in the World. By Noah Webster, Author of The Effects of Slavery *, &c. In the Manner of Dr. Franklin. 12mo. 15. Half bound. Arch.


- As the shadow resembles the substance which creates it, so does the manner of Mr. Webster resemble that of Dr. Franklin ; there is something of the form, but nothing of the substance.

In our Review for July 1797, p. 356, we announced two miscelJaneous volumes of Mr. Webster's productions. The collection of Observations and Maxims now before us, by the same author, (as well as the Effects of Slavery mentioned in the above title-page,) were originally printed at New-York, and are now reprinted for more general circulation : but, we apprehend, the wise and the prudential counsels which they contain are more happily adapted to American circumstances and manners, than to those of the common people of this country. We need not enlarge on the present article, as we gave a character of the original edition in our Number for September 1795, p. 105. Art. 47. Moral Contrasts ; or the Power of Religion exemplified

under different Characters. By William Gilpin, Prebendary of Salisbury, and Vicar of Boldre, in New Forest. - Small 8vo. pp. 234. 35. 6d. stitched. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1798.

Mr. Gilpin is well known to the public by several ingenious and useful works: among others, his small tracts, such as the histories of John Trueman and Richard Atkins, and his funeral sermon for a day labourer of the name of Baker, &c. &c. all intended chiefly for the lower ranks of society, have been well accepted, and have probably proved not the least valuable. The present little volume takes a dif. ferent line, and is intended principally for those in higher stations, though all persons may derive benefit from it. The memoirs of Mr. Willoughby and Sir James Leigh, both young men of rank and for

* See M. R. vol. xxiv. N. S. P: 444.


tune, are happily contrasted. The latter is educated according to the more prevalent mode ; going first to a public school, thence to the university, and thence to travel abroad. The former is trained more directly under the eye of a wise and religious father, seconded by the tuition of a pious and learned clergyman; who, excepting the care of a parish, has no other charge. Impiety, profusions, imorality, and ruin, attend Sir James; while Willoughby appears, amid añuence, with honour and usefulness of the truest kind : integrity, benevolence, and virtue adorn his life, and accompany him with satisfaction and enjoyment to the end of his days.

To the above, which are fictitious characters, two others are added taken from real life. One of thein is that of the Earl of Rochester, well remembered for the wicked course which he ran in the licentious court of Charles the Second, and also for the bitter compunction and horror which signalized his latter days. The accounts formerly published by Mr. Parsons and the Bishop of Salisbury are abrilged, and they are improved by Mr. Gilpin's language and manner.--The last narrative in the book is very interesting and very extraordinary. Naimbanna, an African prince, was (with the consent and at the de. sire of his father) brought over to England by the Sicrra Lcone company. The treatment which he received, and the assistance and instruction which he obtained, reflect great honour on that respecto able body : being made acquainted with the Christian doctrine, he heartily embraced it; not according to those farcical conversions which a mercenary policy has sometimes dictated and proclaimed: bnt, persuaded of the truth of Chrisiianity, he in an edifying and distinguished manner inade it the rule of his practice. This promising young inan died just as he had again reached his native shore. For other particulars, we must refer the reader to the volume; which we close with that hearty approbation, and those good wishes for its success, which it so justly merits.

We shall conclude this article by quoting the apology, which Mr. Gilpin supposes may be due for mixing fiction and reality in the same work :

• In real characters (says Mr. G.) we cannot always procure the several circumstances and positions in life we wish to exhibit. Aud as to the impropriety of mixing them, (here) in fact, I am inclined to consider them all of the same species. The two first of these memoirs do not mean to recommend themselves under the idea of fica tion, but as pictures drawn from the life. If indeed they had been embeliished with romantic or unnatural circunistances, they could not certainly have united with real life. In thai case

--Nec pes nec caput uni

Relldatur forme. But I suppose there is not a single incident in these fictions which hath not been exemplified at different times in a thousand instances in real life ; though perhaps they never all met together in any two persons. They differ therefore, I conceive, from real life no otherwise, than as a landscapc composed from selected parts of various countries differs from the portrait of some real scene. Both are Rev. Sept. 1798.


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