Materials of engineering

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John Wiley & Sons, 1906 - 383 páginas
 

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Índice

Latent Heat
12
Alloys defined Qualities
14
Specific Heats of Metals
15
Expansion of Metals
17
Application of Principles
19
STRENGTH OF IRON AND STEEL
20
CHAPTER II
21
Valuable Qualities of Metals
23
Calcination and Roasting
26
Smelting
27
Fuels
29
CHAPTER III
31
Wrought Iron of Ancient Times
32
Greek
34
Egyptian
35
Direct Process
37
Catalan Forge Blast Furnace
41
Puddling
44
Six Epochs of Metallurgy
45
New England Ironworks
49
Ironmaking in the Middle States
52
Later Statistics
56
CHAPTER IV
58
Meteoric Iron
60
Telluric
61
Magnetic ores
64
Brown
67
Spathic Ores
71
Iron Pyrites
73
Chrome Iron Ores
75
Wolfram 7 8
77
Deleterious Elements
78
abt a 57 Assaying
80
Determination of Value of Ores
82
Mushets Classification of Ores
83
Value of Ores
84
Intrinsic
86
Commercial
87
Dressing Ores
89
CHAPTER V
91
Methods of Roasting
92
Roasting in Heaps
93
Kilns
94
Making up the Furnace Charge
95
Composition of Charges
96
Making up Charges
100
Shape of the Furnace
102
Costs
106
Putting Furnace in Blast
107
Chemistry of Reduction
109
Charges in the Furnace
113
Size of Blast Furnace
114
Height
115
Blast
117
Losses
121
Cinder or Slag
122
Casting
124
Hotblast Stoves
125
AST PAC 93 Blowing Engines
130
Air Supply
131
Hoists
134
Air Hoists
138
Steam
139
Stock Houses 14
140
General Arrangement
141
Bookkeeping
142
Locating the Blast Furnace
144
Value of a Furnace
146
Managing the Furnace
147
Grades of Cast Iron 15
151
American
152
Siemens Process
153
CHAPTER VI
155
Forge Process
156
Refineries
157
Puddling Processes
158
Theory of Puddling
162
New Methods
165
Rotating Puddling Machines
166
The Puddle Ball
172
MillWork
173
Rolling
179
Rolltrains
182
Rail and Beam Mills
183
urr pagi 129 Threehigh Mills
184
Reversing
185
Distribution of Men
186
Power demanded for Rolls
188
Rate of Cooling
189
Efficiency of Rolls 19
190
Rolled Iron
196
Resistance in Wiredrawing
201
Peculiar Shapes 23
203
Malleableized Cast Iron 25
205
Tinplate
206
making
208
weights 28
209
CHAPTER VII
210
ART PAGE 235 Resilience of Steels 422
215
Steelmaking Processes
216
Direct Processes
217
Carbonization of Iron
221
Steel of Cementation
223
Cast Steel
226
Crucible Steel
227
Openhearth Steels
231
Siemens Direct Process
235
Fluxing Steels
239
Pneumatic or Bessemer Steel
241
Plant and Apparatus
246
Operation of the Bessemer Process
254
ART PACK 164 Dephosphorization
259
Qualities of Steel
261
Decarbonization of Cast Iron
263
Chrome and Tungsten Steels
270
CHAPTER VIII
272
Effect of the Elements on Iron
273
Chemical Composition of Irons
280
Analyses of Cast Irons
282
Ordnance Irons
285
Cold and Hotblast Irons
287
Analysis of Wrought Iron
288
Chemical and Physical Tests
313
Physical Properties of Iron
314
Cast Iron
316
Steel
317
Working Steel
322
Tempering
323
Theory of Hardening and Tempering
328
Durability
331
Preservation
332
Paints
333
Special Preservative Compositions
335
at agh 198 Forms of Resistance
339
Factors of Safety
340
Limiting Values of Stress
343
Methods
345
Equations of Curves of Resistance
346
Series of Elastic Limits
347
Strain Diagrams
349
Effect of Shock
355
Resilience
356
Proportioning to resist Shock
359
Value of Iron and Steel
360
Effect of Composition on Strength
361
an Conditions Modifying Strength
364
Internal Stress and Strain
365
Methods of Test
366
Testing Machines
368
Gills
370
Olsens
371
Emerys Fairbanks Machine
372
Impact Tests
375
Fairbanks Transverse Machine
376
Thurstons Autographic
379
Form of Test Piece
384
Methods of Testing
390
Record
391
Records of Test
393
400 227 Tenacity of Irons 4
400
Commercial Irons
404
variable with Size
407
Chain Iron Strength
409
Wire Tenacity
413
Strength of Long Bars
416
Tenacity of Ingot Irons and Steels
417
Tenacity of Bridge Steels
423
Steel Rails
425
Steel Boiler Plate
426
Bessemer and SiemensMartin Steels compared
427
Tenacity of Steel Wire
428
Special Steels
430
Steel Castings
431
Tests of Steel in Tools
433
Tenacity of Cast Iron
439
Strain Diagrams of Cast Irons
444
Stayed Surfaces
447
Cylindrical Boiler Shells
448
CastIron Cylinders
450
Resistance to Compression
456
as determined by Structure etc
457
Straindiagrams Cast Iron in Compression
460
Long bars in Compression
461
Wrought Iron in
462
Flues and Cylinders in Compression
463
Columns and Struts
465
Formulas for Columns
468
Geometrical Moment of Inertia
475
Practical Applications
477
Transverse Strength
482
Methods of Resistance
485
Theory of Rupture
486
Formulas for Beams
488
Modulus of Rupture
489
Sections of Beams
495
Theory of Elastic Resistance
496
Experiments on Beams
502
Strength of Beams Constants
505
Tables
509
Shearing
517
Riveted Work
518
Shearing of Nuts
521
AST PACE 275 Punching
523
Strength of Shafts
526
Strain Diagrams of Metals
531
Wrought Iron
533
Inspection of Wrought Iron Test Pieces
537
Strain Diagrams of Mild Steels
539
Tool
542
Inspection of Steel Test Pieces
544
Fractures of Surfaces in Tension
547
CHAPTER X
550
Experiments of Styffe and Sandberg
556
other Investigators
559
Conclusions as to Change of Temperature
566
Stress Produced by
568
Effect of Sudden
571
Age and Exposure
576
Crystallization
578
Flow of Metals
585
Relief of Internal Stresses by Rest
588
Effect of Time under Stress
590
Velocity of Rupture Shock
592
Rate of Set
594
Variation of Normal Elastic Limits
600
Evidence of Overstrain
604
Effect of Orthogonal Strains
608
Conclusions Relating to Elastic Limits
610
Cold Rolling
615
Effect of Varying Load WShlers Law
618
CHAPTER XI
628
for Boiler Work
631
ART PAGE
632
Bridge Work Specifications Remarks
642
for Various Classes
648
Construction Iron
655
Cooper Lines
661
Corrosion of Iron
667
Manganese Steel
674
Strength of Steel Balls
682
Analyzing Ores 80
715
Whitwells 129
717
Protection of Steam Boilers 337
725
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Página 698 - The inspector representing the purchaser, shall have all reasonable facilities afforded to him by the manufacturer to satisfy him that the finished material is furnished in accordance with these specifications.
Página 701 - Plates under 12^ pounds per square foot, when ordered to weight, shall not average a greater variation than the following: Up to 75 inches wide, 2^ per cent, above or 2^ per cent, below the theoretical weight. 75 inches wide up to 100 inches wide, 5 per cent, above or 3 per cent, below the theoretical weight.
Página 50 - ... that, from and after the date hereof, no mill or other engine for slitting or rolling of iron, or any platingforge to work with a tilt-hammer, or any furnace for making steel...
Página 691 - For the purposes of this specification, the yield point shall be determined by the careful observation of the drop of the beam or halt in the gauge of the testing machine.
Página 697 - Up to 75 inches wide, 2| per cent. below the theoretical weight ; 75 inches wide up to 100 inches wide, 5 per cent. below the theoretical weight ; when 100 inches wide and over, 10 per cent. above or 3 per cent. below the theoretical weight.
Página 687 - PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. 1. Steel shall be made by the open-hearth process. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. 2. There shall be three classes of open-hearth...
Página 701 - Up to 75 inches wide, 2$ per cent, above or z\ per cent, below the theoretical weight. 75 inches wide up to 100 inches wide, 5 per cent, above or 3 per cent, below the theoretical weight. When 100 inches wide and over 10 per cent, above or 3 per cent, below the theoretical weight.
Página 689 - For fire-box steel a sample taken from a broken tensile test specimen shall not show any single seam or cavity more than one-fourth...
Página 702 - For all plates ordered to gauge there will be permitted an average excess of weight over that corresponding to the dimensions on the order equal in amount to that specified in the following table: TABLE OF ALLOWANCES FOR OVER-WEIGHT FOR RECTANGULAR PLATES WHEN ORDERED TO GAUGE.

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