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Professor Morse and his assistants had expended twenty-two thousand dollars, and all in vain. Measures were taken to reduce the expenses, and Mr. Cornell was appointed assistant superintendent, and took entire charge of the undertaking. He now altered the design, substituting poles for the pipe. This may be regarded as the commencement of air lines of telegraph. He commenced the erection of the line between Baltimore and Washington on poles, and had it in successful operation in time to report the proceedings of the conventions which nominated Henry Clay, and James K. Polk for the presidency.

Although the practicability of the telegraph had been so thoroughly tested, it did not become at once popular. A short line was erected in New York city in the spring of 1845, having its lower office at 112 Broadway, and its upper office near Niblo's. The resources of the company had been entirely exhausted, so that they were unable to pay Mr. Cornell for his services, and he was directed to charge visitors twenty-five cents for admission, so as to raise the funds requisite to defray expenses. Yet sufficient interest was not shown by the community even to support Mr. Cornell and his assistant. Even the New York press were opposed to the telegraphic project. The proprietor of the New York Herald,' when called upon by Mr. Cornell, and requested to say a good word in his favor, emphatically refused, stating distinctly, that it would be greatly to his disadvantage should the telegraph succeed. Stranger still is it, that many of those very men, who would be cxpected to be entirely in favor of the undertaking, viz., men of scientific pursuits, stood aloof, and declined to indorse it. In order to put up the line in the most economical man. ner, Mr. Cornell desired to attach tlio wires to the city buildings which lined its conrse. Many house-owners objected, alleging that it would invalidate their insurance policies hy increasing the risk of their buildings being struck by lightning. Mr. Cornell cited the theory of the lightning-rod, as demonstrated by Franklin, and showed that the telegraphic wire would add safety to their buildings. Some persons still refused, but informed him that could he procure a certificate from Professor Renwick, then connected with Columbia College, to the effect that the wires would not increase the risk of their buildings, they would allow him to attach bis wires. Mr. Cornell thought the obtaining of such a certificate a very easy matter, as certainly all scientific men were agreed upon the Franklin theory. He therefore posted off to Columbia College, saw the distinguished savan, stated his errand, and requested the certificate, saying it would be doing Professor Morse a great favor. To his utter consternation, the learned professor replied, "No, I can not do that,' alleging that 'the wires would increase the risk of the buildings being struck by lightning.' Mr. Cornell was obliged to go into an elaborate discussion of the Franklin theory of the lightning-rod, until the professor confessed himself in error, and prepared the desired certificate, for which opinion he charged him twenty-five dollars. This certificate enabled Mr. Cornell to carry out his plans.

In 1845, he superintended the construction of a line of telegraph from New York to Philadelphia. In 1846, he erected a line from New York to Albany in four months, and made five thousand dollars profit. In 1847, he erected the line from Troy to Montreal, by coutract, and was thirty thousand dollars the gainer by it, which he invested in western lands. He also invested largely in telegraphic stock generally, other lines baving been put up by other parties, being confident in the ultimate success of the magnetic telegraph. These investments have so increased in value as to make Mr. Cornell one of the “solid men' of the country.

Mr. Cornell took an active interest in the efforts to improve the farming interest of the section of the State in which he resided, and in 1862 was made president of the State Agricultural Society. In the same year he was elected to the Assembly, and in 1864, to the State senate. Here he distinguished himself by his steady and intelligent support of all measures calculated to advance the cducational interests of the State.

29 (To be continued.)

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HARVARD COLLEGE.
(1.) Condilion of Productive Property, Aug. 31, 1872.
UNIVERSITY FUNDS.

LAW SCHOOL FUNDS.
Stock Account (so called)...............$154,016 08

5154 016 08 | DANE Professorship ..................... $15,000.00 Insurance and Guaranty Fund (so called). 74,730.61

BussEY

.. 13.837.92 SAMUEL D. BRADFORD Fund... .. 5,000.00 ROYALL

7.43.63 ISRAEL MUNSON Fund......

15,000 00

. Total......................836,781.55 LEONARD JARVIS Fund.....

16.757.11

MEDICAL SCHOOL FUNDS.
P. C. BROOK: Fund for President's house 4,921 9.5
Tuomas COTTON Fund.....

Jackson Medical Fund..................$18.278.71

GEO.C. STATTOOK Fund......
Tulal..................

und............... 13.579.64

WARREN Fund for Anatomical Museum. 7.441 80 COLLEGE FUSDS.

| Boylston Fund for Medical Prizes....... 3,529.76

Buoks.... 1.167 90 ALFORD Professorship................... $26,427.28 Medical Library Fund........

1.478.33 BOYLSTON

.... 26,988 00 Tolal..................... $45,476.14 ELIOT

21,000.00 J. PIILLIPS's gift). J0.000.00

DIVINITY SCHOOL FUXDS. ERVING 3333.34 General Fund

........827.487.58 FISHER 34,277.13 BUSSEY Profossorship.........

35,794 04 HERSEY 16,677.J3 PARKMAN

15.253.15 HOLLIS (Mathematics).... 3,568 9 HANCOCK

5,722 31 McLEAN 41,01231 | DEXTER Lectureship.....

19.314.05 PERKINS 20.000 09 DEVRY LIENOW Fund......

8.747.32 PLUMMER 23, 28 75 MARY P TowSSEND Fund.

5,000.0.) Pope 50.000 WINTHROP WARD

2.000.00 RUMFORD 51,31.3.46 SAMUEL HOAR

1.000.00 SMITI 22.037.91.3 ABRAHAM W. FILLER

1.000 00 Fund for Permanent Tutors .. 15.467.03 | CAROLINE JERRIAM

1.000 00 LEE Fund for the Hersey Professor....... 11.92: 66 | JACKSON Foundation......

18.10) 39 Class SUBSCRIPTION Fund ....

! CLAPP. POMEROY, and ANDREWS Funds.. 5.487.33 Hollis Professorship of Divinity ........ 17,630 10 J. HENRY KENDALL Fund..

2.000.00 PAUL DUDLEY Fund for Lectures......... 1,040.55 NANCY KENDALL

2.000.00 JONATHAN PHILLIPS Fund (unrestricted). 30,000 110 Lewis Gol LD

867.94 HENRY FLYNT's Bequest...... 3:35.14 ADAMS AYER

1.000.00 JOHN THORNTON KIRKLAND Fellowship.. 6,313.30

Total ..., ........$152,374,71 HARRIS Fe lowship.

10.576.72 ABBOT Scholarship......

2.33 14 LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL FUNES. ALFORD ".

634.51) BIGELOW

Professorship of Engineering.............$36.959.21 11.979.72 Professorship of Chemistry.....

2,724.29 Bow DITCH

90.310 41
JAMES LAWRENCE Fund.....

50,000.00 BROWNB

2,426.32
ABBOT LAWRENCE ..

58.606.12 CLASS OF 1802 Schubarshup...

6,518.36

Gray Fund for Zoological Museum, ..... 51.750.00 1*14

2,873.98

Tulal....
1815
(KIRKLAXD) 4,346 45
3,311.57

LIBRARY FUNDS.
1835

2,381.16 1341

Subscription for Library.................$11.268.27 2,156.40 Bow DITCH Fund.

1,835 85 GRADUATES' 2.975.96

76.23 BOYDEN

4.166 38 HOLLIS

FARRAR

5,465,49 MOREY

7,37581
HALL

1.97 PENNOYER

....... 5.831 26
IAVEN

2.349.96 SALTONSTALL " (Mary & Leverett) 4.103.47

HAYWARD

5 032.61 (Dorothy).... 326 70 Ilollis

2.295.39 SEVER

2.765.84
HOMER

2.227.41 SEWALL

8.261.60
LANE

4.988.59 SHATTUCK

23,82932
MINOT

63,424.03 STORY

2,445 09
SALISBURY

4.983.16 GoRHAM TOMAS

3,665.10
SHAPLEIGH

3,363.15 TOPPAN

5.425.19
WARD

5.065.63 Tow SEXD

22.987.64
WALES

474 87 WALCOTT

3,374.74
Total....

sü12,912.61 B. D. GREENE & Bequest for Scholarship.. 1,775.96 Exhibitions....

10,321 89

OBSERVATORY FUNDS. Senior Exhibition...

1,345.50

EDWARD B. Phillips Fund............8104,292.13 SAMUEL WARD Fund........

1,200.00
JAMES HAYWARD

20.000.00 Joux GLOVER ,

544.23
SEURS

15,595.45 REBECCA A. PERKINS Fund.....

1.161 34
QUINCY

10.748.28 LEE Prizes for Reading ..........

14.124 M3

Anonymous Observatory Fund..... 14,00.00 Boylston Prizes for Elocntion.....

4,011.73 Bow DOIX Dissertations... 7,937.62

Total...................$160,635.86 HOPKINS Gift for * Deturs,".....

400 13

FUNDS FOR THE ALUMNI HALL. Botanic Garden Fund.. . 20,237.83 CHARLES SANDERS Gift.

... $20,000.00 Mass. Fund for Botanic Garden..... 15,126.01

" Bequest.............. 33,417.20 Herbarium Fund................: 12.550.07 Gift of CLASS or 1807.......

7.817.01 Total...... .......$833,227.04

Tural.......................$61,234.21

2.62

1817

LEX PRO Prizes for Dissertations

265

Scholarship Fund......*3281.225.00

FUNDS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES.

(2.) Expenses for year ending Aug. 31, 1872. BUSSEY Trust (Bussey Inst.).........$410,709.18 1. President's Salnry, &c........... $22,185 Bussey Institution....

2. Professors' Salaries..... .............. 2,654.10

93,399 Bussey Building Fund... 28.456.07 Scholarships, Prizes, &c...

24.020 JAMES ARNOLD Fund (Arboriculture)... 101,022.68 Botanic Garden, &c........

4,239 GRAY Fund for Engravings............. 19.008.84

Gymnasium....

1.345 GORE Annuity Fund................... 19.882.54 3. Divinity School........

19.007 Osgoop Fund (charged with an Annuity) 6,247.75 4. Law School..

27,286 GOSPEL CHURCH Fund......

. 1,295.17
5. Medical and Dental,....,

42.626 FOSTER Fund (Law, Div., Med, in turn) 3,020 48 6. Lawrence Science School..

36,27 Sundry Special Purposes.... 92.282.63 7. Observatory ...........

13,419 Total.... ..............8614,639.44

8. Library................

22,738 9. Busses Institute, building, &c.

52,165 FUNDS FOR NON-COLLEGE PURPOSES.

10. Gray Engraving Cubinet.

1,823 WILLIAMS Fund, conversion of Indio ng..$15,657.85

11. Arnold Arboretum.... Winslow Fund, Minister at Tyngsborogh 4.698.30 | 12. Annuity..............

9.953 Total.....................820,356.15

13. Repairs ....

22,243 GRAND TOTAL...........$2,508.254.01 Total EXPENDITURE.........$392,989

YALE COLLEGE
(1.) Productive Endowments-May 31, 1873. -
1. ACADEMICAL DEPARTMENT.

7. General Fund, used for any purpose.. 8.308,036.13
Less unproductive real estate

87.182.20 1. Endonped Profesor hips.

Totul..................... $220,853.93 Professorship of Divin ty.............. $50,000 00

II. SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. STREET Professorship of Morlern Languages........... 31,390.47 General Fund....

....$132,925.00 CLARK Professorship of Murul Philoso

Trust Fund, held by the Sunte of Conphy and Metaphysics..... 20,000.00 necticut........

........... 135,000.00 MUNSON Professorship of Nutural Phi

Library Fuod...

........ 12,000.00 losophy and Astrono ny............. 15,000 00 Benner Fund, Agricultural Museum... 300.00 SILLIMAN Professorship of Geology, etc. 10,486.25

1.000,00 KENT Professorship of Law........ 6,500.00

Total.................... 8281,220.00 DUNHAM Professorship .....

11.760.86 Total..................... $145,137.58

III. UNIVERSITY FUNDS.

Professorship of Sanskrit and Compar2. Funds, the income of which is payable as Prizes Ative Philology....

850,000.00 ar Scholarships. Professorship of Botany....

. 24.000.00 Family Scholarships.................. $24,167.51

Sulter Fund.....................

..... 3,700.00 Beneficiary Funds, for nid of deserving

IV. THEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT.

54.652.12 students of smnll menns............. 54,632.12 Undergraduate Prize and Scholarship

1. Endoroed Professorships. Funds, in reward of excellence... 20,597.80 Dwight Prof. of Didactic Theolngy.. $27,049.45 Gradunte Scholarship Funds, payable

Professorship of the Pastornl Charge... 21.906.37 after graduation......

Professorship of Sacred Literature..... 13.819.67 Total ..................

Holmes Professorship of Hebrew...... 25,000.00

LYMAN BEECHER Lectureship...... .. 3. Fellowship Finds.

10.000,00 Douglas Fellowship Fund........... $6,000.00

Total...................... 897,775.49 4. Fund for the increase of the Library 8:38,852.33

SR152 23 | 2. Scholarship Funds for aid of Students, $37.27.03 3. Library Fund.....

$500.00 5. Miscellaneous Finds.

4. Titus STREET Professorship Fund, For musical instruction...

$10.000 (0 income not now available.......... $47,865.00 For religious objects...... ... 8.500.00 | 5. General Fund, the income for any

purpose of the Department.........$126,576.55 6. Accumulating Finds, the interest of which is added to the principal.

V. MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.
Ellsworth Fund ................. .... $13.450 00 General Fund........................ $21,332.57
Bnilding Fund (for a new Chapel)..... 64.902.63

VI. ART SCHOOL
Macy Gradunte Scbolarship Fund..... 5564.31
Total....

.........$83,923.94 | The Funds amount to................ $11,017.70

(2.) Income and Expenditures of Academical Department—1872-3. Income froin termi bills of students....... $64,801.11 | Expended for instruction, continued. General tund...

15.000 53 .................

Maintaining and increasing Library. 3.325.30 Professorship funds...... 9.104.12 Music in Chapel........

1,062.11 Scholarship and gratuity funds ....... 11.623.58 Commencement.

1.689.11 Library fund.. 2.204.68 Physics .............

2.328.63 Rending Room..... 1.362 82 Printing......

1,519.616 Gvinnasium .... 717 57 Reading Room .....

1,137 22 Other surces...... 2.612.79 Gymnasium........

995.95 Total .................... $107,427,20

Fuel and light ............

4.951.83

Fingging, and street assessments... 3,035.91 Expended for instruction, viz:

Boiler House, pipes and radiators.... 11.457.25 Salaries of President and Professors,. $32.691.75

Repairs.....

6,010 66 Salaries of Tutors...........

7.504.00
Sweeping and cleaning....

3.730.03 Special outlnys...

1,676.50
Care of College square......

1.994.01 Salaries of Treasurer, Librarian, etc.. 9.428 00

12. 134.82 Gratuitous aid, scholarships and prizes and prizes

Other purposes............ 10.538 91

0.18 Natural history.....

$5,168.711

Total.....

***.......... 8106.217000.00

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.

TROM "THE UNIVERSITY," BY EDWARD KIRKPATRICK, M. A.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREECE.

1. The paramount importance assigned to the subject of education in all the noblest states of antiquity, and the earnestness with which their most celebrated lawgivers exerted themselves to carry out the principle of mental and moral advancement to the utmost conceivable perfection, are everywhere conspicuous at the earliest period at which Hellenic genius and culture assume their distinct historic character. The existence of a complete, and minutely organized system of educational arrangements, is from the first observable in those communities which exhibit the most strongly expressed, and consistent examples of the Greek conception of the state. The education of the youth of the country was considered as the basis of all the future influences of the state, the ground and warrant of its best anticipations from the citizen. Far from abandoning this subject to the possible inattention, or excentric fancies of individuals, the state conceived that, as the common parent, its most sacred duty, and most vital interests, would be equally neglected, if the highest mind of the whole community were not directly, and constantly, brought to bear upon a question of such inconceivable importance to the individual, and the nation. In Sparta the workings of the whole educational machinery were placed under the supervision of an especial minister of state, the maidovóuoc, and the individual appointed to this office was selected from amongst those who had previously been invested with the highest political dignities. A similar degree of attention was directed to this subject by the Pythagorean statesmen of the Greek cities in Italy, and even in Athens as we learn from Plato, parents were compelled to provide for the instruction of their children’ in gymnastics, and povoukh—a subject including what we

1. This sentiment is most emphatically expressed in Plato's Euthyphron, p. 2. See also Legs. VI, p. 765 etc.

2. Xenoph. de Rep. Lac. II, 2. 8. Crito, p. 50, cited by Graefenbahn, Geschichte der Class. Litterat, im Alterthum. See also passage from the Comic Poet Alexis in Meinecke, Fragm. Com. LXXXI. “Qui Athenienses ait ideo oportere laudari, quod omnium Graecorum leges cogunt parentes ali a liberis, Atheniensium non omnes, nisi qui liberos artibus erudissent."

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