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3. French and German.
the war schools. Besides a large number of pupils who receive their education gratuitously, and are selected by the war ministry, others are admitted on payment of an annual sum of 321. 48. for board and instruction.
Instruction is given in the following subjects :1. Religion,
8. Natural history and physiology. 2. Russian language and literature.
9. Writing, landscape and geometrical draw.
ing 4. Mathematics, including plane trigonometry. | 10. Singing. dnncing, gymnastics, fencing, and * 5. Geography, especially Russian geography.
11. Drill. 7. Natural philosophy and physical geography.
After a pupil has passed through the highest class in the school, he enters the war or cadet schools, if physically fit for military service; those who are not considered physically fit receive certificates, which are regarded as of equal value to those granted by the civil upper class schools; or, if they prefer it, are appointed as officials of the 12th class in the government service. Those pupils who fail to qualify are sent back to their parents. II. THE SCHOOLS FOR THE TRAINING OF OFFICERS FOR THE ARMY.
(1.) The War Schools. These are four in number, viz:
The Paul's war school at St. Petersburg.
The Nicholas war school at St. Petersburg. The first three are for infantry only, and accommodate 300 pupils each ; the Nicholas war school is for cavalry, and has 200 pupils.
The course occupies two years. These schools, with their 900 pupils of infantry and 200 cavalry—total 1,100—furnish annually, about 400 officers to the infantry, and from 80 to 90 to the cavalry. Students are admitted between the ages of 16 and 20, on producing satisfactory certificates from one of the military schools, or a civil upper class school, or on passing an entrance examination.
The object is to train thoroughly efficient regimental officers, and to pave their way to the higher ranks of the profession. The stu. dents have the rank of cadet. A great many of them are on the foundation; the remainder have to pay an aunual sum of 641. 88. each, for board and instruction.
Instruction is given in the following subjects:1. Religion. 2. Composition in Russian, French, and German. 10. Landscape, artillery, and plan donwing. 3. General history. 5. Natomi philosophy and chemistry.
13. Dnncing, gymnastics, fencing, and swim6. Tnclirs. 7. Science of arms.
14. Drill, practical training on the ground.
9. Military geography.
11. Elements of military ndininistration.
In the Nicholas war school the students are also instructed in riding and hippology.
Those who, at the termination of the course, receive the certifi• cate excellent,' are appointed sub-lieutenants; those who receive
the certificate . very good,' as ensigns or cornets, and those who obtain 'good' certificates as cadets, in the various branches of the service; the latter, after six months' satisfactory service are promoted to the rank of ensign.
(2.) The Finland Cadet Corps. ! This corps or school, established at Helsingfors, consists of eight
classes, viz.; one preparatory, four general, and three special classes, and admits in all, 120 cadets.
The pupils must be natives of Finland, and must pass an element'ary entrance examination; they are received into the preparatory class up to twelve years of age. · The object of the school is to train men for officers of infantry, cavalry, and rifles. The course of instruction in the preparatory class is the same as in the elementary military schools ; in the general classes, the same as in the military schools; in the special classes, the same as in the war schools. A large number of the students are on the foundation; the remainder pay 221. 108. annually.
The cadets enter the army on the same conditions as the students from the war schools. Abont 12 men pass out every year.
(3.) The Imperial Corps of Pages. This school is established at St. Petersburg for the education of 150 court pages; it is divided into five general and two special classes, the pupils of the former receiving a general, those of the latter a military education. Only sons of old families of the nobility and of court chamberlains are adınitted; they must be between 12 and 17 years of age. The course of instruction includes the subjects taught in the military and war schools. The successful pupils are appointed as ensigns or sub-lieutenants in the guard, and as ensigns in the army, according to their precedence on the list of qualifications. This establishment furnishes annually, about eighteen officers.
Candidates under 18 years of age are allowed to enter the 5th (1st special) class at once, on passing a very good entrance examination in general subjects.
(4.) The Cadet Sthools. Each military district bas its own cadet school with the following number of pupils :
Vilna, (for infantry and rifles)......... 200 | Riga, (for infantry and rifles) ............
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200 for all arms of the service.
Each cadet school has two classes. Candidates for admission must either have passed through an elementary military school, or must pass an entrance examination. Non-commissioned officers who are still serving are allowed to enter these schools, in order to enable them to qualify for promotion to commissioned rank.
These establishments, as organized in 1864, resemble the Austrian cadet schools. The object in view is to educate a body of thoroughly efficient regimental officers, the system of instruction being of an essentially practical character.
The theoretical course commences at the beginning of September, and closes at the end of March; the examinations take place in April, and in May the practical exercises, namely—sketching and pioneer duty are performed. The cadets then join their respective regiments, and take part in all drills, manæuvres, &c., until the end of August. The ministry of war, in making these arrangements, considered that the students ought to pass three months, in each of the two years they spend at the school, with their regiments, so as to afford them an opportunity of applying and practically testing the theoretical knowledge which they have acquired whilst at the school.
The subjects of instruction are the following:In the fir«t year :-Religion, Russian, arithmetic, geography, history, the orders and regulations
of the service. In the record year :-Religion, composition in Russian, algebrn, elementary geometry, tartics,
science of arms, elementary field fortificntion, plan and landscape drawing, principles of
military administration, principles of military law, the duties and regulations of the service. Drill, musketry, gymnastics and fencing, and (in the scbools for cavalry officers) riding and
vaulting are carried on during each year's course. .
In order to pass from the first to the second year's course, a student must obtain 3 as an average figure of merit; this figure signifies 'good.' At the termination of the final course, those students who obtain 4 as their figure of merit, (very good) are appointed ensigns at once, on the conclusion of the manœuvres, without regard to the number of vacancies there may be. Those students who are classified as "good,' are appointed as vacancies occur. No student can be appointed to officer's rank, uuless he is classified as good.'
The cadet schools are under the superintendents of the staff of the military districts in which they are established. The examinations at the termination of the second year are conducted by a commission appointed by the general in coinınand, and copsisting of one general, one officer cominanding a regiment, one field or regimental officer on the general staff not holding any appointment in the school, the head of the school, and the instructors. The latter are selected from amongst the best qualified officers stationed in the district, without regard to rank or arm..
On an average from 600 to 800 students leave the cadet schools every year, and enter the army as officers.
(5.) The Michael Artillery War School. This school is established at St. Petersberg, and consists of three classes, with 160 students.
Admission is open to candidates who hare completed their 16th year, aud who have passed through a war or military school with the certificate 'good,' or failing this pass a prescribed entrance examination.
The following subjects are comprised in the instruction given at the schools :
19. Military geography.
· The men, horses, and guns required for drill and artillery practice are furnished by the artillery in garrison at St. Petersburgh. Instruction is also given in gymnastics, fencing, riding, and swimming.
. The students on completing the third year's course are classified in three divisions, with reference to their scientific qualifications, and receive appointments accordingly. Those who obtain a certificate of excellent'are appointed sub-lieutenants, and those of very good,' ensigns in the field artillery; those of 'good' are appointed cadets in the infantry or cavalry of the line, and after having served satisfactorily for six months, are promoted to the rank of ensign.
(6.) The Nicholas Engineer War School. This school is also established at St. Petersburgh. It admits 120 students, divided into three classes. The conditions for entrance are similar to those in force in the artillery school detailed above.
The subjects of instruction are the following:
On the conclusion of the course, the students receive appointments on the same conditions as those who pass out of the artillery war school. Those who obtain the certificates of excellent' and very good' are appointed to the engineers, those who qualify as 'good' to the infantry or cavalry. This school supplies annually, about 20 officers to the engineers.
III. TRAINING SCHOOLS FOR SPECIAL BRANCHES.
(1.) The Military Schoolmasters' Seminary. This school, established at Moscow, admits 75 students, divided into three classes. The best pupils of the clementary military schools are adınitted on completing their course of study, and also any other candidates, on passing a competitive examination; they are educated at the expense of the State. Extra students are also allowed to attend the course.
The object of the school is to educate a body of men to act as schoolinasters in the elementary military schools.
At the expiration of the period of tuition, the students are subjected to an examination, when those who pass with excellence' are appointed teachers at the elementary military schools. If they have received their education, both at the elementary military school and at the schoolmasters' seminary, at the expense of the State, they bave to sign an engagement for six years; if they have received a free education at the latter, only for a period of three years. Extra students on receiving appointments are not subjected to such conditions.
(2.) The Technical and Pro-technical Schools. These schools, at St. Petersburgh, admit 100 pupils each, divided into four classes. Youths between the ages of 14 and 18, who have received an elementary education, are allowed to enter. Board and instruction are provided at the public cost. The schools are intended to train a body of efficient foremen and foremen instructors for the technical artillery. The students of the 4th class, after passing a satisfactory examination, are appointed foremen instructors of the 2d, or foremen of the 3d class.
(3.) The Military Drawing School. This school, also at St. Petersburg, contains 200 students, divided into seven classes. Youths of from 14 to 18 years of age, who