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gogues to give their pupils a very pleasant sort of recreation, relating to them whatever they had found in the course of their reading that was worthy of remembrance, whether in Christian or Pagan authors. Heiric, who was somewhat of an intellectual glutton, and had a craving for learning of all sorts and on all imaginable subjects, made for himself a little book, in which he diligently noted down every scrap that fell from the lips of his masters. This book be subsequently published, and dedicated to Hildebold, bishop of Auxerre, Heiric himself afterwards became a man of letters; he was appointed scholasticus of St. Germain's of Auxerre, and was instrusted with the education of Lothaire, son of Charles the Bald, as we learn from the epistle addressed to that monarch which he prefixed to his Life of St. Germanus, in which he speaks of the young prince, recently dead, as in years a boy, but in mind a philosopher. Another of his pupils was the famous Remigius of Auxerre, who, towards the end of the ninth century, was summoned to Rheims by archbishop Fulk, to reëstablislı sacred studies in that city, and worked there in concert with his former schoolfellow, Hucbald of St. Amand, who attained a curious sort of reputation by his poem on bald men, each line of which began with the letter C. the whole being intended as a compliment to Charles the Bald. Fulk himself became their first pupil, and after thoroughly restoring the school of Rheims, Remigius passed on'to Paris, where we shall have occasion to notice him among the teachers of the tenth century. From his time the schools of Paris continued to increase in reputation and importance till they developed into the great university which may thus be distinctly traced through a pedigree of learned men up to the great Alcuin himself. This genealogy of pedagogues is of no small interest, as showing the effðrts made in the worst of times to keep alive the spark of science, and the persistence with which, in spite of ciml wars and Norman invasions, the scholastic traditions of Alcuin were maintained.

PASCHASIUS RADPERT OF OLD CORBY. The school attached to the monastery of Corby (under Adalhard, a prince of the blood royal), was chosen by Charlemagne for the training of Saxon youth to act as missionaries on their return to their own country. The master chosen for the task of rearing these future missionaries was Paschasius Radpert, one of the most remarkable men of his time. Originally of very humble birth, he owed his education to the charity of the nuns of Soissons, who first received the desolate child into their own out-quarters, and then sent him to some monks in the same city, under whose tuition he acquired a fair amount of learning and addicted himself to the study of Virgil, Horace, Cicero, and Ter. ence. He never forgot the kindness of his early benefactresses, and in after years dedicated his Treatise on the Virginity of the Blessed Virgin to the good puns, styling himself therein their alumnus, or foster-son.

After receiving the tongure in early youth, Paschasius, whose tastes for Terence and Cicero rather predominated at that time orer his relish for more sacred studies, abandoned his first inclination for the cloister, and lived for some years a secular life. Touched at last by divine grace, he entered the abbey of Old Corby, and there made his profession under the abbot Adalbard. All the ardor he had previously shown in the pursuit of profane literature he now applied to the study of the Divine Scriptures. Yet he only devoted to study of any kind those 'furtive hours,' as he calls them, which he was able to steal from the duties of regular discipline, and was never seen so happy as when engaged in the choral office or the meaner occupations of community life. Such, then, was the master chosen by Adalhard for the responsible office of scholasticus, and a very minute account is left us of his manner of discharging its duties. Every day he delivered lectures on the sacred sciences, besides preaching to the monks on Sundays and Festivals. His thorough familiarity with the best Latin authors appears from the frequent allusions to them which occur in his writings Quotations from the classic poets drop from his pen, as it were, half unconsciously, and we are told that he continued to keep up his acquaintance with them, so far as was necessary for teaching others. But his own study was now chiefly confined to the Holy Scriptures and the Fathers; and among the latter, his favorites were St. Augustine, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, St. John Chrysostom, Bede, and St. Gregory the Great. “He did not approve,' says his biographer, 'of the diligence displayed by some men of the time in explaining and meditating on profane authors. In a passage which occurs in the preface to his exposition of St. Matthew's Gospel, he blames those lovers of secular learning who seek various and divers expounders' that so they may attain to the understanding of beautiful lies concerning shameful things, and who will not pass over–I do not say a single page, but a single line or syllable, without thoroughly investigating it, with the utmost labor and vigilance, while at the same time they utterly neglect the Sacred Scriptures.

Few were more keenly alive than he to the charms of polite literature, neither did he at all condemn its use within proper limits, even among cloistered students. It would, indeed, have been a difficult matter to have eradicated the love of the beautiful from the heart of Paschasius. He possessed it in every shape, and was not merely a poet, but a musician also. In one of his writings he lets fall an observation which might be taken for a prose rendering of a verse of Shelley's, although the Christian scholar goes beyond the infidel poet, and does not merely describe the sentiment which all have felt, but traces it to its proper source. Shelley complains that

Our sincerest laughter

With some pain is fraught;

Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought. Paschasius explains the mystery: There is no song to be found without a tone of sadness in it; even as here below there are no joys without a mixture of sorrow; for songs of pure joy belong only to the heavenly Sion, but lamentation is the property of our earthly pilgrimage.' His musical tastes were perfectly shared and understood by his master St. Adalhard, whiose sensibility to the influence of melodious sounds is spoken of by his biographer, Gerard. Even during his residence at the court of Charlemagne, it is said of him that he was always so full of a sweet intention towards God, that if while assisting at the royal council he heard the sound of some chance melody, he had it not in his power to refrain from tears, for all sweet music seemed to remind him of his heavenly country. In fact, it can not be denied that the men of the dark ages had a singular susceptibility of temperament, and that the monastic type in particular exhibited a remarkable union of strength with tenderness, or practical sense with poetic sensibility.

The importance they attached to music as an essential branch of education is not, however, to be attributed so much to any peculiar sensitiveness of or. ganization as to the fact that they inherited the traditions of the ancients, and with them had learned to look on music as a science intimately associated with the knowledge of divine things. They were the true descendants of those holy fathers of oldin time, concerning whom the Son of Sirach tells us that

they sought out musical tunes and published Canticles of the Scriptures, and were rich in virtue, studying beautifulness, and living at peace in their houses.'

The narrative of the early English schools which counted it their chief glory to have been instructed in sacred chant by a Roman choir master, will sufficiently have illustrated the fact that music held a very prominent place in the system of education wbich held sway in the early centuries; and the theory on which this high esteem was based will nowhere be found better explained than in the writings of Rabanus. 'Musical discipline,' he says, 'is so noble and useful a thing, that without it no one can properly discharge the ecclesiastical office. For whatsoever in reading is correctly pronounced, and whatsoever in chanting is sweetly modulated, is regulated by a knowledge of this discipline; and by it we not only learn how to read and sing in the church, but also rightly perform every rite in the divine service. Moreover, the discipline of music is diffused through all the acts of our life. For when we keep the commandments of God, and observe His law, it is certain that our words and acts are associated by musical rhythm with the virtues of harmony. If we observe a good conversation, we prove ourselves associated with this discipline; but when we act sinfully, we have in us no music.'

ANSCHARIUS OF NEW CORBY. Anscharius was one of those chosen to colonize the monastery of New Corby, the mention of which requires a few words of explanation. The foundation of this daughter-house was the great work of St. Adalhard, who so soon as his young Saxons were sufficiently trained in learning and monastic discipline, consulted them on the po:sibilities of their obtaining a suiti.ble site for a foundation in their native land. After many difficulties had been raised and overcome, ground was procured, and the building of the abbey was begun. Adalhard repaired thither to superintend operations in company with Paschasius and his own brother Wala, who, brought up like himself as a soldier and courtier, had in former years held military command in Saxony, and won the affections of the people by his wise and gentle rule. When the Saxons saw their old governor among them again in the monastic habit, nothing could exceed their wonder and delight; they ran after him in crowds, looking at him, and feeling him with their hands to satisfy themselves that it was really he, paying po attention whatever to the presence of the abbot of any other of his companions. The first stone of the new abhey was laid on September 26, 822; Old Corby made over to the new colony all the lands held by the community in Saxony; the Emperor Louis gave them a charter, and some precious relics from his private chapel, and in a few years that great seminary was completed which was destined to carry the light of faith and science to the pagan natives of the farther north. It would be hard to say which of the two Corbies held the highest place in monastic history; a noble emulation existed between them, each trying to outstrip the other in the perfection of monastic discipline. New Corby, in her turn, became the motherhouse of a vast number of German colouies.

ST. BRUNO AT COLOGNE. St. BRUNO was the younger brother of the Emperor, Otho the Great, and like him a pupil of Heraclius of Liege. His education began at Utrecht, wliere he was sent at the mature age of four to commence his studies under the good abbot Baldric. Utrecht had never entirely lost its scholastic reputation since the days of St. Gregory. Only a few years before the birth of Bruno, the see had been filled by St. Radbod, a great-grandson of that other Radbod, duke of Oriesland, who had so fiercely opposed the preaching of St. Boniface. Radbod the bishop, however, was a very different man from his savage ancestor; he was not only a pious ecclesiastic, but an excellent scholar, for he had been educated in the Palatine school of Charles the Bald, under the learned Mannon, whose heart he won by his facility in writing verses, and the cares of the episcopate never induced him altogether to neglect the Muses. Besides a great number of poems which he wrote during his residence at Utrecht, we have a Latin epigram, wliich he improvised at the moment of receiving the Holy Viaticuin, and which is perhaps as worthy of being preserved as the dying epigram of the Emperor Hadrian.*

Esuries Te, Christe Neus, sitis atque videndi

Jam modo enroules ne vetnt e-se dapes.
Da mihi Te vesci, Te ptum haurire salutis,

Unicus ignotæ Tu cibus estu vie;
Et quem longa fuines errantem ambedit in orbe

Hunc satin vuitu, Patris Im go, Tuo. In consequence of the encouragement given to learning by so many of its bishops, Utrecht became the fashionable place of education, and it had grown a sort of custom with the German sovereigns to send their sons thither at an early age. Little Bruno made rapid progress both in Greek and Latin l.terature; he particularly relished the works of Prudentius, which he learnt by heart; never let himself be disturbed by his noisy companions, and took great care of his books. Indeed, the only thing that ever moved him to anger was the sight of any one negligently handling a book. His reading included something of all sorts; historians, orators, poets, and philosophers—nothing came amiss. He had native Greeks to iustiuct him in their language, and became so proficient in it as afterwards to act as interpreter for his brother to the Greek ambassador who frequented the German court. With all this he did not neglect the s..cred sciences, and a certain. Isaac, a Scotch, or rather Irish professor, who taught at Utrecht, spoke of him as not merely a scholar, but a saint. The monk Ditmar, one of his school-fellows, himself afterwards celebrated in the literary world by his chronicle of the royal house of Saxony, bears witness to the habits of piety which adorned the very childhood of the young prince. “Every morning,' he says, 'before he left his room to go to the school, he would be at his prayers, while the rest of us were at play.' A cer. tain tone of exaggeration is not unfrequently indulged in by early writers when extolling the subjects of their biographies as prodigies of every literary excellence, but the description left us of Bruno's intellectual achievements does not admit of being understood as mere figures of speech. His love of reading was almost a passion. He read every thing, even comedies,' says his biographer, who seems a little scandalized at the fact, but explains that he ato tended only to the style, and neglected the matter. To complete the picture

• Christian Schools and Scholars, Vol. I., p. 346.

of Bruno's school-days, it must be added that he was an excellent manager of his time, and always made the most of his morning hours, a good habit be retained through life. I will say nothing of his early career as the reformer of Lauresheim Abbey; he was still young when his brother Otho succeeded to the throne, and at once summoned Bruno to Court, charging him with the task of erecting there a Palatine academy, after the model of that of Charlemagne. Nothing was better suited to Bruno's wishes and capacity, and he began at once lo teach the entire curriculum of the liberal arts to a crowd of noble pupils. Whatever was most beautiful in the historians and poets of Greece or Rome, he made known to his disciples, and not content with the labor entailed on him by his own lectures, he did not allow the professors whom he chose to assist him, to commence theirs till be had previously conferred with them on the subjects they were about to explain.

In 953, Bruno, in spite of his youth, was demanded by the clergy and people of Cologne for their archbishop, and being consecrated, he at once entered on a career of gigantic labors, everywhere re-establishing ecclesiastical discipline and social order throughout a province long wasted by war and barbaric invasions. His political position, moreover, imposed on him yet more extensive cares; for Oiho, who called him his second soul, when summoned into Italy, created his brother duke of Lorraine, and imperial lieutenant in Germany. The dukedom of Lorraine at that time included all the country from the Alps to the Moselle, which now, therefore, acknowledged Bruno as its actual sov. ereign. But these multiplied dignities and the accumulation of business which they entailed, did not quench Bruno's love of study. Whenever he traveled, whether in the visitation of his diocese, or when accompanying his brother's court, he always carried his library with him, as if it had been the ark of the Lord,' says the monk Rotger, who, moreover, remarks that this library was stored both with sacred and profane authors, for, like a good householder, he knew how to bring out of his treasury things new and old. Nothing ever prevented his finding time for reading, and he excited every one about him to cultivate similar tastes, specially his nephew Otho, who was for some time his pupil. Indeed, Rotger goes so far as to say that the archbishop felt a certain want of contidence in those who had no attraction to study; meaning probably to those unlettered clerks, who cared not to acquire the learning proper to their sacred calling. Of these there was to lack in Lorraine; but Bruno effected a great change in the condition of that afflicted province, by appointing good bishops, healing feuds, reforming monasteries, and making men love one another in spite of themselves. In all these good works he was assisted by the learning and martial valor of Ansfrid, count of Lorraine, who was well read both in law and Scripture, and who used his sword exclusively to repress pillage, and defend the helpless. This feudal poble of the Iron Age spent all his leisure hours in study, and when at last he embraced the ecclesiastical state, and at the entreaties of the emperor accepted a bishopric, he was able to lay his sword on the altar, and render witness that it had never been drawn in an unjust cause.

BOPPO OF WURTZBURG.-WOLFGANG. Bruno's example made a great stir in Germany, and moved many bishops to exert themselves in the work of reform. Boppo, bishop of Wurtzburg, sent to Rome for a celebrated master named Stephen, and with his belp the episcopal

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