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talking, laughing, and all the modern gymnastics of the voice-dancing, wrestling, scourging the top, leaping, swimming, riding, shooting, and playing the ball--all the games and exercises, of the systematized gymnasium, the playground and the field.
PROJECT OF TRAINING SCHOOLS FOR TEACHERS: "SEMINARY OF MASTERS."
There is no diverting to any profession till the student depart from the college of Philosophy, thence he that will go to Divinity, to Law, to Physic, may, yet with great choice, to have the fittest according to the subject. He that will to the school is then to divert. In whom I require so much learning to do 80 much good, as none of the other three, (honor alway reserved to the worthiness of the subject which they profess) can challenge to himself more; either for pains which is great, or for profit which is sure, or for help to the professions, which have their passage so much the pleasanter, the forwarder students be sent unto them, and the better subjects be made to obey them, as the schooling train is the track to obedience. And why should not these men have both this sufficiency in learning, and such room to rest in, thence to be chosen and set forth for the common service? be either children or schools so small a portion of our multitude ? or is the framing of young minds, and the training of their bodies 80 mean a point of cunning? be schoolmasters in this Realın such a paucity, as they are not even in good sadness to be soundly thought on? If the chancel have a minister, the belfrey hath a master; and where youth is, as it is eachwhere, there must be trainers, or there will be worse. He that will not allow of this careful provision for such a seminary of masters, is most upworthy either to have had a good master himself, or hereafter to have a good one for his. Why should not teachers be well provided for, to continue their whole life in the school, as Divines, Lawyers, Physicians do in their several professions? Thereby judgment, cunning, and discretion will grow in them; and masters would prove old men, and such as Xenophon setteth over children in the schooling of Cyrus. Whereas now, the school being used but for a shift, afterward to pass thence to the other professions, though it send out very sufficient men to them, itself remaineth too naked, considering the necessity of the thing. I conclude, therefore, that this trade requireth a particular college, for these four causes. First, for the subject being the means to make or mar the whole fry of our state. Secondly, for the number, whether of them that are to learn, or of them that are to teach. Thirdly, for the necessity of the profession which may not be spared. Fourthly, for the matter of their study which is comparable to the greatest professions, for language, for judgment, for skill how to train, for variety in all points of learning, wherein the framing of the mind, and the exercising of the body craveth exquisite consideration, beside the staidness of the person. ...
But to turn to my bias again which was the mother and matter to my wish, this college for teachers, might prove an excellent nursery for good schoolmasters, and upon good testimony being known to so many before, which would upon their own knowledge assure him, whom they would send abroad. In the meantime till this come to pass the best that we can have, is best worthy the having, and if we provide well for good teachers, that provision will provide us good teachers.
There remaineth now one consideration in the admitting not of these whom I admit without any exception, for all sufficiency in religion, in learning in discretion, in behavior, but of such as we daily use, and must use, till circumstances be bettered which are in compass of many exceptions. The admitter or chooser considering what the place requireth must exact that cunning, which the place calleth for; the party himself must bring testimony of his own behavior, if he be altogether unknown; and the admission would be limited to such a school in such a degree of learning, as he is found to be fit for. For many upon admission and license to teach in general, overreach too far, and mar too much, being unsufficient at random, though serving well for certain by way of restraint. Thus much for the trainer, which I know will better my pattern if preferment better him; with whom I shall have occasion to deal again in my grammar school where I will note unto him what my opinion is in the particularities of teaching.
BRINSLY. - WEBSTER.-WASE.
PEDAGOGY OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
Tas upbreak of English Society in the period of the Great Rebellion; the Commonwealth and the Restored Monarchy was attended with much discussion of the principles of education, and the reconstruction of old, and the establishment of new institutions and studies—which, however, did not get consolidated into a permanent and beneficent growth, owing to the rapidity of the political changes, and the almost general settling back of the old foundations, which had been for a time disturbed. Nearly all the educational reforms of the nineteenth century in Great Britain, now known as the New Education, were suggested in the treatises and discussions of the seventeenth century, by Milton, Hoole, Briusly, Hartlib, Petty, Cowley, Webster, and others. To several of these we have already devoted special chapters, and we will here briefly notice others.'
Joun BRINSLY, the author of Pueriles Confabulationculæ in 1617, Consolations for our Grammar Schools in 1622, Ludus Literarius in 1627, and Vocabularium Metricum in 1647, and several religious tracts, was born in Leicestershire, about the year 1587. He was educated in the Grammar School, and for a time was at Oxford, but left before taking his degree, and became schoolmaster, and a non-conformist minister, in which relation he resided in 1636 at Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. He died in 1665.
CHRISTOPHER WASE was born near London in 1645, and was a man of considerable learning, and the author of several books.
Of Jo. WEBSTER, the anthor of Examen Academiarum, I have found no account, and infer from the manner in which he speaks of himself, that this was not his real name. His citations and references show extensive acquaintance with classical and university authors and reading, and his strictures on the studies of his day are eminently sound, and his suggestions are now acted upon.
JOUN BRINSLY.-1587-1665. LUDUS LITERARIUS: or THE GRAMMAR SCHOOLE; showing how to proceede from the first entrance into learning to the highest perfection required in the Graminar Schooles, with ease, certainty, and delight both to Masters and Schollers; intended for the helping of the younger. sort of Teachers and of all Schollers, with all others desirous of learwng; for the perpetual benefit of Church, and Common-wealth. London: 1627.
This excellent Treatise of Mr. John Brinsly, of 339 pages, in which “two schoolmasters discourse concerning their functions,” is dedicated “to the High and Mighty Prince Henrie, and to the most noble and excellent Duke of York," and has a Coinmendatory Preface by Joseph Hall, D. D. The latter dwells on the skill of the author “in making the way unto all learving both short and fair! Our grandfathers were so long under the ferule, till their beards were grown as long as their pens; this age hath descried a nearer way; yet not without much difficulty both to the scholars and teacher: now, time, experience and painfulness, which are the means to bring all things to their height, hath taught this author to yet further how to spare both time and paius unto others, without any change of the received grounds.”
The following “ Contents in general of the chief points aimed at and boped to be effected by this work," shows a pretty comprehensive survey of the field of linguistic school instruction:
1. To teach Scholars how to be able to read well, and write true Orthography, in a short space.
2 To make them ready in all points of Accidence and Grammar, to answer any necessary question therein.
3. To say without book all the usual and necessary rules to construe the Grammar rules, to give the meaning, use, and order of the Rules; to show the examples, and to apply them: which being well performed, will make all other learning easy and pleasant.
4 In the several Forms and Authors to construe truly, and in propriety of words and sense, to parse of themselves, and to give a right reason of every word why it must be so, and not otherwise; and to read the Euglish of the Lectures perfectly out of the Latin.
5. Out of an English Grammatical translation of their authors, to make and to construe any part of the Latin, wbich they have learned to prove that it must be so: and so to read the Latin out of the English, first, in the plain Grammatical order; after, as the words are placed in the Author, or in other good composition. Also to parse in Latin, looking only upon the Translation.
6. To take their lectu 'es for themselves, except in the very lowest forms, and firsi enterers into construction; or to do it with very little help, in some more difficult things.
7. To enter surely in making Latin, without danger of making false Latin, or using any barbarous plirise.
8. To make true Latin, and pure Tully's phrase, and to prove it to be true and pure. To do this in ordinary moral mutiers, by that time that they have been but two years in construction
9. To make Epistles imitating Tully, short and pithy, in Tully's Latin, and familiar.
10. To translate into English, according to propriety both of words and senge: and out of the English to read the Latin again, to prove it, and give a reason of every thing.
11. To take a piece of Tully, or of any other familiar easy Author, Grammatically translated, and in propriety of words, and to turn the same out of the translation into good Latin, and very near unto the words of the Author; so as in most you shall hardly discern, whether it be the Author's Latin, or the scholar's.
12. To correct their faults of themselves, when they are but noted out unto them, or a question is asked of them.
13. To be able in each form (at any time whensoever they shall be opposed, of a sudden, in any part of their Authors. which they have learned to construe, parse, read into English, and forth of the translation to construe and to read into the Latin of their Authors; tirst, into the natural order, then into the order of the Author, or near unto it.
14. In Virgil or Horace to resolve any piece, for all these points of learning, and to do it in good Latin:
Construing to give propriety of words and sense.
Scanning the verses, and giving a reason thereof.
| Observing the elegancies in tropes and figures.
| Noting phrases and epithets. 15. So to read over most of the chief Latin Poets, as Virgil, Horace, Persius, &c., hy that time that by reason of their years, they be in any measure thought fit for their discretion, to go unto the University : yea, to go through the rest of themselves, by ordinary helps.
16. In the Greek Testament to construe perfectly, and parse as in the Latin, to read the Greek back again out of a translation Latin or English; also to construe, parse, and to prove it out of the same. To do the like in Isocrates, or any familiar pure Greek Author; as also in Tbeognis, Hesiod, or Homer, and to resolve as in Virgil or Horace.
17. In the Hebrew to construe perfectly, and to resolve as in the Greek Testament; and to read the Hebrew also out of the translation. Which practice of daily reading somewhat out of the translations into the Originals, must needs make them both very cunning in the tongues, and also perfect in the texts of the Originals themselves, if it be observed constantly ; like as it is in daily reading Latin out of the Translation.
18. To answer most of the difficulties in all Classical School Authors; as in Terence, Virgil, Horace, Persius, &c.
19. To oppose scholar-like in Latin, to any Grammar questions necessary, in a good form of words; both what may be objected against Lillies' rules, and how to defend them.
20. To write Themes full of good matter, in pure Latin, and with judg. ment.
21. To enter to make a verse with delight, without any bodging at all; and to furnish with copy of Poetical phrase, out of Ovid, Virgil, and other the best Poets.
22. So to imitate and express Ovid or Virgil, as you shall hardly discern, unless you know the places, whether the verses be the Authors' or the scholars'; and to write verses ex tempore of any ordinary Themes.
23. To pronounce naturally and sweetly, without vain affectation, and to begin to do it from the lowest forms.
24. To make right use of the matter of their Authors, besides the Latin; even from the first beginners : as of Sententiæ and Confabulationculæ Pueriles, Cato, Esop's Fables, Tully's Epistles, Tully's Offices, Ovid's Metamorphosis, and so on to the highest. To help to furnish them, with variety of the best moral matter, and with understanding, wisdom and precepts of virtue, as they grow; and withal to imprint the Latin so in their minds thereby, as hardly to be for. gotten.
25. To answer concerning the matter contained in their Lectures, in the Latin of their authors, from the lowest forms, and so upward.
26. To construe any ordinary Author ex tempore. 27. To come to that facility and ripeness, as not only to translate leisurely, and with some meditation, both into English and Latin, as before in the Sections or Art.c.es 10 and 2, but more al o, to read any easy Author forth of Latin into English), and out of a translation of the same Grammatically translated, to read it into Latin again. As Corderius, Terence, Tully's Offices, Tully's de natura D20rúm, Apthonius. To do this in Authors and places which they are not acquainted with, and almost as fast as they are able to read the Author alone.
28 To write fair in Secretary (style of penmanship), Roman, Greek, Hebrew; as they grow in knowledge of the tongues.
29. To know all the principal and necessary radices, Greek and Hebrew; and to be able to proceed in all the learned tongues of themselves, through ordinary helps, and much more by the worthy helps and means to be had in the Universities.
30. To be acquainted with the grounds of Religion, and the chief Histories of the Bible. To take all the substance of the Sermons, for doctrines, proofs, uses, if they be plainly and orderly delivered, and to set them down afterwards in a good Latin style, or to read them ex tempore in Latin, out of the English; to conceive and answer the several points of the Sermons, and to make a brief repet tion of the whole sermon without book.
31. To be set in the highway, and to have the rules and gronnds, how to attain to the purity and perfection of the Latin tongue, by their further labor and practice in the University.
32. To grow in our English tongue, according to their ages and growths in other learning. To utter their minds in the same both in propriety and purity; and so to be fitted for Divinity, Law, or what other calling or faculty soever they shall be after employed in.
33 Finally, thus to proceed together with the tongues in the understanding and knowledge of the learning, or matter contained in the saine. To become alike expert, in all good learning meet for their years and studies; that so proceeding still, after they are gone from the Grammar schools, they may become most exquisite in all kinds of good learning to which they shall be applied.
These things may be effected in good sort, through God's blessing, in the several forms, as the scholars proceed, by so many in each form as are apt and industrious, only by the directions following, if they be constantly observed. If the Makers being of any competent sufficiency, will take meet pains, and if the scholars being set to school so soon as they shall be meet, may be kept to learning ordinarily, having books and other necessary help and encouragements. That so all scholars of any towardliness and diligence may be made absolute Grammarians, and every way fit for the University, by fifteen years of age; or by that time that they shall be meet by discretion and government. And all this to be done with delight and certainty, both to master and schol. ars, with strift and contention among the scholars themselves, without that usual terror and cruelty, which hath been practiced in many places, and with. out so much as severity amongst good natures.
How greatly all this would tend to the furtherance of the public good, every one may judge; which yot it will do so much the more, as the Lord shall vouchsafe a further supply, to the several means and courses that are thus begun, by adjoining daily the helps and experiments of many more learned men, of whom we conceive good hope, that they will be ready to lend their helping hands to the perfecting of so good a Work.
The little treatise of Mr. Cootes (The Schoolmaster) is highly commended by Mr. Brinsly in his Grammar School, as profitable in teaching to spell and read English, and relieving the granmar master of much tedious work--which should be well done before the pupil enters on foreign tongues. This should be followed by the Psalms in metre, then the Testament, the School of Virtue, and New School of Good Manners. He dwells on a glaring deficiency in the grammar schools in neglecting to train their pupils in the