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fetched, and impossible etymologies. His vagaries
are bad enough when restricted to "Anglo-Saxon” CONTENTS.-No 79.
etymologies, but when he embarks on the quest NOTES :- Records of Celtic Occupation, 1-'Fame's Memo for “Celtic" traces, he seems to divest himself of rall,' 8-Ale-Tasters, 4-Cure for Whooping Cough-Chalcedony Bibliography of School Magazines, 5-A Century the last rag of common sense.
Forthwith everyOld — Price of Tobacco - St. Erkenwald—“Woman” or thing assumes a Celtic tinge, and traces of "Female"-Bouter, 6.
Celtic occupation are found in every field. It is QUERIES :-Ranting, Roaring Willie'-Horton--Source of a question whether these frantic endeavours to Quotation Wanted-Bolognian Enigma-Feast of St. George -Jubilee of George IIl-Marson of Holborn - Creature prove that we English are not ourselves, but someDrink, 7-West - Lee, King of the Gipsies - Society of body else, as Mr. Freeman puts it, arise from Friendly Brothers—La Russie Juive'-Scotland and Liberalism-Mackenzie's Manuscript-Pre-Existence-Matemans
a natural love of paradox, or from an indiscrimiSiege of Bolton-Westminster Abbey Tenor Bell, 8-Clai- pate attachment to the principle nullius addictus borte, of Westmoreland-Galileo-Extirp-Stocks and the jurare in verba magistri. The consideration that Plllory-Irish Privy Council Records—Reprint of the First Folio-Orestes Brownson - John Frost -- Cargo-Country not one in a hundred of these “Celtic" claims is Box,' 9-King's End Car-Authors Wanted, 10.
ever substantiated does not seem to discourage REPLIES :-Religions Orders, 10_Bunhill Fields, 11– De their manufacture. The fact that the people who fence, not Defiance," 12-·Plea for the Midsummer Fairies' dabble in these so-called “ Celtic” etymologies -Goldwyer, 13-Jacob the Apostle-Earthquakes-Sur: almost invariably choose Teutonic words to work Erpingham, 14-Brougham-Precedence in Church-Huguenot Families-Owner of Coat of Arms-Orpen-Yam-Anti- upon, disposes one to believe that there are no gugler-Jordeloo-Bluestockingism-Pycroft's. Oxford Me: Celtic elements in English local names. If there moirs,' 15—"Another guess Wordsworth - Nocturnal de plume " - Arabella Churchill-Arms of Sir Francis Drake, elude the grasp of the army of “Celtic" etymoNoises-Sitwell, 16– Baroness Bellasts-To Rally-** Nom be, it is singular that they should so successfully 17-First Principles of Philology-A Pair of Kidderminster SsannsMotto of Waterton l'amily-Scarlett : Anglin, 18 logists who so persistently dig for them. - Eddystone-Hampshire Plant-Names, 19.
MR. ADDY's offences are not so grave as those NOTES ON BOOKS :-Lumby's Ranulphi Higden Poly- of the average “ Celtic” advocate. He wisely
chronicon, Vol. IX.-Burrows's Family, of Brocas of lets Welsh alone. But it is, nevertheless, a phonoBeaurepaire-Benham's Dictionary of Religlon '—Brand's logical offence to derive the surname Bright from * London Lifo seen with German Eyes.' Notices to Correspondents, &c.
the A.-S. Bryt, a Briton. This A.-S. Bryt is a very exceptional designation for a Welshman. He
is mostly a Wealh; sometimes, to distinguish him Potes.
from the Wealas of Cornwall and Strathclyde, he
is a Bryt-Wealh. In one or two cases only is he RECORDS OF CELTIC OCCUPATION IN LOCAL a Bryt. No argument can be founded upon the NAMES,
Middle-English Brut, a Briton, for the use of this I am sorry to see that MR. ADDY (76 S. iii. 421) form arose from the erroneous derivation of Bryt is infected with the craze for discovering traces of from the Trojan Brutus, one of Geoffrey of MonCeltic occapation in English local names. MR. mouth's inventions. The phonological evidence is ADDY comes to the astounding conclusion that even stronger than this. Any one studying Middlethere existed, side by side with the English and English must be struck with the permanence of the Danish villages, settlements inhabited exclusively Teutonic guttural spirant and its distinct notation. by Celts, who kept themselves entirely distinct from Though it seems to have evaporated from the the Teutonic invaders. This is as difficult to be modern pronunciation, it was a distinct sound, liete as Mr. Coote's conception that the Anglo- not produced without an effort, in M.E. I believe
Saxons were simply a foreign standing army living there is no instance on record of this guttural | entirely separate from the, of course, purely Celtic spirant being forced into a word. It is in all
population, who would have been, apparently, still cases original. No phonologist will, therefore, bedrawn up in line resting on their weapons had not lieve that it was inserted in Bryć in the cases the Normans annihilated them at Hastings. Some cited by Mr. Addy, and every phonologist would of Mr. ADDY's evidence is derived from field-names. hold that Bright is identical with the adjective Oi late years a great deal of nonsense has been bright. And phonology, as usual, is right. The written about what we can learn from the study of instance of Brighton from Brighthelmston at once field-names. This study is not without its value; explains the origin of the surname Bright and its bat I must protest against the notion that we are use in local names.* Bright is here a shortening to revise our early history by the light it yields of the personal name Bright-helm=A.-S. BeorhiBefore we can derive any lessons from these
helm. There are many A.-S. names beginning they will have to be studied in accordance with, with the stem Beorht=bright. It is well estaband not in direct contravention to, the laws of philology. This latter method is in great favour (see · Cart. Sax., ii. 72, 37; 595, 32), that is, the well of
* Similarly, Bright-well, Oxfordshire, is Beorhtan-wiell with the ordinary local etymologist, who has a man named * Beorht-a or a woman named * Beorht-e usually an intense passion for picturesque, far- | (the same name as Bertha).
lished that Teutonic and Aryan pet-names were nationality of the settlers of one village recorded, formed, amongst other means, by using the first why should we not find other nationalities simistem of the compound or full name. Hence we larly recorded? Let us see whither MR. ADDY'S expect to find an A.-S. Beorht the origin of the method of evolving history from local names will name Bright. This name does occur in its North- lead us. We will test our local names by some umbrian form Bercht, Berct, Berecht, no fewer other pational names besides Wealh. We are not tban fourteen times in the 'Liber Vitæ Dunel surprised to find the Saxons (A.-S. Seaxe) recorded mensis. It is Latinized as Berctus in Bede, 'H. in Sax-by, Sax-ton, Sax-ham,* but it rather E.,' iv. 26. There are many Middle-English ex- astonishes us to find them in the purely Anglian amples of compound dames wherein Beorht occurs districts. And we may expect to find the name of in its correct M.E. form as Bryzt, &c. So that the Danes (A.-S. Dene) recorded, as we do in such local names in Bright contain no evidence what names as Den-by, Dens-ton, Denaby, &c., for we ever of Celtic occupation.
are well aware that the Danes did settle in EngMR. Addy next finds traces of Welsh settle-land. But what is the meaning of the gen. sing. ments in the local names Wales and Waleswood. in Dens-ton? In the light of our accepted history There are many similar names, such as Walesby, we bardly expect to find the Suevi, the Huns, the Waleston, Walsham, Walsall (* Weales-heall), on Franks, or the Vandals established upon English the English maps.* There is a Wales-burna soil. Yet we find distinct traces of their names in mentioned in 872 (“Cartularium Saxonicum,' ii. our local nomenclature. The name of the Suevi 152, 19). There is also a Vals-gard and Vals-bol occurs in Swaves-ey, Swafield, the two Swoff-hams, in Denmark; here it is plain that Val (=0.N. and in the Domesday Sueves-bi and Suave-torp, *Valr (pl. Valir), A.-S. Wealh) cannot refer to and in Swefes healh or heall, in 'Cart. Saxon.,' ii. the Welsh.t Mk. Addy is no doubt correct in 490, 15. These names come clearly enough from deriving Wal from the A.S. wealh, gen. weales ; the A.-S. *Swa'f, pl. Swee'fas, or the correspondbut the deduction that he draws is wrong. This ing O.N. *Sváfr. The name of the Huns is preA.-S. wealh means a foreigner generally (specialized served in Hun-shelf, Hun-cote, Huns-bury, Hunsin England as a “ Welshman”), and also a slave. coat, Hun-worth, &c., and in Húnes-cnoll (Cart. Indeed, the corresponding fem. wielen is applied Saxon.,' ii, 603, 33) and Húnnes-wiell (id., i. 559, almost exclusively to slaves or handmaids. So 20). The name of the Franks is recorded in far we see that it is far from certain that Wealh Frank-ley and in the two Frank-tons. I
The in these names means Welshman, for it is just as Vandals (A.-S. *Wendel, gen. *Wendles, pl. likely to mean “slave.” But it does not mean Wendlas) are commemorated in Uuendles-clif either. MR. Addy cites in support of his view (Cart. Saxon.,' i. 341, 11, 34), Wandles-cumbs the Hitchin field-name “Welshman's Croft.” But Cod. Dipl.,' 'vi. 120, 15), Wendle-bury, and in we do not know the age of this name nor its Windsor (Wendles-ore, Windles-ora ; 'Cod. Dipl.,' original form, and it is extremely risky to found iv. 165, 9; 178, 19). || And we must conclude etymologies upon modern forms without consulting from Pyhtes-léa (Pytchley) of 'Cod. Dipl.,' iii. the old spellings. I Here is an apposite instance 439, 14, that even the Picts had a settlement in of tbis danger. The Lincolnshire Walesby is A.-S. times in Northamptonshire ! situted in Walsh-croft wapentake. This looks The results that we have arrived at are truly “ Welsh ” enough! But a reference to Domes- alarming. Very few bistorians will be found ready day shows that the wapentake was then known as to accept conclusions that involve a Suevic, a Walescros ; so we see that the Walsh has arisen Hunnish, a Frankish, and a Vandal participation from the dropping of the e of the gen., the in the English Conquest. All these names must coalescence of the s of the gen. and the c of the stand or fall together. If we admit that the local cros, and the subsequent palatalization of the sc. names in Wales are proof of distinct Celtic settleHence the genesis of the Walsh is clear enough. ments in English districts, then, also, must we be
In any other science than etymologyit is needless prepared to believe that the Sueves, Huns, Franks, to insist upon the danger of arguing from particulars. The danger is just as great in etymology, * Their namo also occurs in the Danish Sax-trup though not so generally recognized. The following (træp==thorpe). instances reveal this danger. If we find the + This is preserved in the Danish Svave-sled. Here
we have a Suevic village in Denmark !
I Cf. also the Danish Franke-rup (=Frank-thorpe). * In Walsham and Walsall the a bas been labialized $ The æ of Wandles bas arisen from the common by the subsequent l. In the other cases the e has pre-confusion in lato A.-S. MSS. of e andæ, Hence Wendles vented this labialization,
W lles. † There is also a Vals-fjord in Norway.
|| These instances are from charters of dubious authen. In this article, where I give the modern orthography ticity, but the form of the name agrees with the twelfth of local names, it is to be understood that that ortho- and thirteenth century Windlesora, &c. The etymology graphy is confirmed by Domesday or some other early 5 winding-shore” is a wild guess. It is, however, adopted
by Dr. Taylor in that seges errorum, ' Words and Places."
and Vandals had similar villages inhabited solely find an actual instance, apart from the evidence of by men of their own tribe.* It is evident, there- local names, of the use of these pet forms. The fore, that we must reject MR. ADDY's line of argu- evidence being ample that the Anglo-Saxons used ment unless we are prepared to rewrite our early all the above stems in compounding full names, history. I hold that these names no more prove we are, I hold, entitled to assume that they also the existence of such national or tribal settle- used these stems alone as pet forms. For instance, ments than the name of the present King of Italy we know that Wealh was used in full names; thereproves that he is a Hun.
fore we can at once assume a pet-name Wealh. The What, then, is the explanation of these names ? | accuracy of our principles is at once established by My answer is that it is to be found in the Anglo- the occurrence of this very name in the following Saxon system of personal names, which is, in instances : A.D. 696-713, Walh presbyter, 'Cart. trath, the key to the etymology of a large pro- Saxon.,' i. 131, 27; A.D. 696-716, Walh presbyter, portion of our local names. Every one of the id., i. 131, 27; A.D. 757, Vales, gen., id., i. 262, 14; above names is derived from a personal name em- A.D. 777-9, Wales, gen., id., i. 313, 13; 325, 10; bodying & national name. The Teutonic tribes A.D. 800-900, Walch, ‘Liber Vitæ Dunelm., 20, adopted tribal and national names-such as Angle, col. 3 ; A.D. 805-31, Wealh, 'Cart. Saxon.,' i. 445, Goth, Frank, Saxon, Sueve, Vandal, Dane, Hun, 26. I have instances of the use of the pet forms &c.—as name-stems; that is, they were freely com- Hún and Dene, and the existence of Swe'f is pounded with other stems to form personal names. proved by the Swee'fes-healh or heall of 'Cart. Sax.,' Adopting the same principle, the Anglo-Saxons ii. 490, 15; but so far I have not met with instances similarly used Piht, a Pict. The name-stem Wealh of the names Franc, Wendel, and Seax. But as was, no doubt, used by them long before they made these names are regular formations from authenti. acquaintance with the Welsh. Jordanes, c. xiv., cated name-stems, and as they are preserved and records a fourth century Vala-rauans,+ an ancestor recorded in local names, there is not the slightest of Theodoric the Great. The *Walhs of this name reason to doubt their having existed. cannot, it is evident, refer to either the Welsh or To show the fallacy of MR. Addy's arguments it the Italians, but relates to some other non-Teutonic is only necessary to consider that most of the Norrace, whose acquaintance the Teutons had made at mantons are older than the Norman conquest, and a mach earlier date. I These names compounded hence cannot record Norman settlements. They with national names were, of course, subject to are derived from the name Norð-mann. Simi. the same laws as the other Teutonic names. Hence larly the Nottinghamsbire Saxon-dale does not the first stem could be used as a pet or diminutive record a Saxon settlement, but is derived from the form. It is this practice that accounts for the personal name Seax-a, masc., or *Seax-e, fem., gen. appearance of these national names in our English masc. and fem. Seax-an. local names. In other words, local names in The notion that Gestfield, and Sibbfield, record Weales., Swa'fes, Húnes-, Denes-, Wendles-, &c., a Celtic occupation is surely one of the most absurd are simply derived from men named Wealh, Swa'f, arguments that has been produced even by the Hún, Dene, Wendel, &c.; or, to put it more accu- “Celtic” etymologists. It is astonishing enough nately, from men whose full names began with these to hear of separate Welsh and English villages in stems.
A.-S. times ; but the idea of separate settlements I have maintained upon several occasions that it in the fields of one village, distinguished as the is only necessary for us to know that a certain " friends' field "=English, and the " foes' field”. stem was used in compounding personal names to Welsh, is one that very few people will be able to enable us to assume, with reasonable certainty, swallow.
W. H. STEVENSON. that that stem was used alone as a pet form. I have been assailed for this by those who were not acquainted with the principles of the Teutonic 'FAME'S MEMORIALL,' BY JOHN FORD. Dame-system; but every day confirms me more and
Ford's dull and pompous lament for Charles more in my opinion. It is not always possible to Blount, Baron Mountjoy, who was created Earl of
Devonshire in 1603 by James I., has suffered a * This is, practically, the view adopted by Dr. Taylor general, and perhaps merited neglect. I wish to call in Words and Places.
1. This represents a Gothic *Wala-hrabns, A.-S. attention, however, to a few points connected with *Wealk-hræfn, O.H.G. Walah-kraban. The High Ger: it, which may not be without interest either to 13 or Frankish form of this name is familiar to us in the biographical or bibliographical student. The the Norman Waleran or the French Gualeran. The subject of the poem, it will be remembered, was for name Balcho-baudes in Ammianus Marcellinus, xxvii. some years before his death a lover of Lady Rich, 3,6 is, according to Dietrich, from the stem Walho-z. The impossibility of interpreting these personal
better known as Sir Philip Sidney's “Stella.” This rates as having any ethnic origin is shown by the A.-3. lady lived from the first very unhappily with her nanes Weath-hún and Piht-hún, where we have two husband, and about Nov. 15, 1605, she obtained Latural names in each compound.
a divorce from him. On December 26 following
she was married to the Earl of Devonshire at Wan- late husband, and this view is supported by the stead, in Essex, by William Laud, at that time his fact that the three verses omitted from the printed chaplain.
edition are more directly addressed to her and This event caused considerable scandal at Court, more personal than any others in the work. The where before both parties had enjoyed great favour. second especially describes very forcibly the con. The legality of the marriage was disputed, and in trast between Lady Devonshire's position at Court turn defended by the earl in a learned protest before and after her second marriage. The differaddressed to the king. James remained obdurate, ences between MS. and printed text gain in and when the earl died, April 3, 1606, the heralds, interest if we may conclude that they were desired it is said, refused to quarter his wife's arms on his by her. The following are the omitted stanzas. tomb. Public opinion, however, was divided. They occur after the verse beginning “O sad Lamentations for the deceased appeared as usual, disgrace" (v. 94), which, with the previous one, and among them was what seems to be Ford's first is slightly altered from the original MS. :poetical effort. A MS. of Fame's Memoriall'is
Lyue thou vntoucht foreuer aboue famo! preserved in the Bodleian Library (Malone, 238). More happie yt thou canst not be more haplesse ! It is a beautifully written small quarto. When The wordes of malice are an vsual game, purchased, Malone says in a note, it had gilt edges,
Whose mouth is lawlesse, whose invention saplesse,
Their breast of hony tornes to poison paplesse and is in all probability the actual copy presented
Still be thine eares to sufferance tun'd readie to the widowed countess. A comparison of this
In mynde resolu'd in resolution stedie, MS. with the first edition, printed by Christopher
What hee, amongst the proudest of contempt Purset, 1606, and, I believe, all subsequent editions,
Whiles as thy sunshine lasted, did not bend reveals three stanzas more in the MS., 151 against Vnto thy presence? flattery redempt 148, and different, apparently contradictory, Wth seruice on their seruice did attend? dedications. I will notice the latter first. After
All stryving to admiro, protest, comend,
Wch now by imputation black as hell a few lines common to both, the Epistle Dedicatory
They seeme to derrogate from dooing well. (which, by the way, is quaintly addressed to the Rightlie right Honorable Ladie, the ladie Pene
Thy virtue caus’d thy honor to support thee
In noble contract of vndoubted merit, lope Countesse of Deuonshire") in the MS. runs :
His knowledge to his credence did report thee “Yet ere I committed it to the presse (for fame A creature of a more then female sperit, vndiuulged is an hidden minerall) being vnknowne voto
Concord of musick did thy soule inherit, you, I might haue beene imputed as much impudent as Courtiers but counterfeit thy Rarity fond if I had not first presented it to yo' milder view : For thy perfections brookt no parity. Earnest to vnderstand whether your acceptation and The next verse begins as in the printed editions, liking may priuiledge the passe vnder your honorable "Even as a quire.”
RACHAEL POOLE, conduct: wch if it may, I shall deeme my willing paines, (though hitherto confined to the Inns of Court a Studie different) highlie guerdoned; and myne vnfeathered Muse richlie graced wth yo Plumes of soe worthie a
ALE-TASTERS. – I think the following is worthy protectresse. The honourer & Louer of your Noble of preservation in ‘N. & Q.':perfections, John Ford.”
“A correspondent of the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle The parallel passage in the first edition runs :- gives the following particulars concerning the last of the
ale-tasters :--The late Richard Taylor, of Bacup (the ale“Let not therefore (worthie Countesse) my rasher pre- taster of Rossendale), may with propriety be described as Bumption seem presumptuous folly, in the eyes of your dis- the last of the ale tasters.' His proper calling was that creeter iudegment, in that without your priuitie (being a of a spindlemaker, hence his nickname “Spindle Dick'; meere straunger alltogether vnknowne to you) I haue thus and the curious will find allusions to him in the History aduentured to shelter my lines vnder the well-guided of Rossendale. He was a fellow of infinite humour, and conduct of your Honorable name: grounding my boldnes performed his duties to his lord and the halmot jury as upon this assurance that true ge’tility is euer acco’panyd if to the manner born, as the following extract from one (especially in your sex, more specially in your selfe) of his annual reports will testify :- The appointment with her inseparable adiunct singular Humanity, princi- which I hold is a very ancient one, dating (as you are pally towards those whom neither Mercenary bopes or aware) from the time of the good King Alfred, when the seruile flattery haue induced to speake but with the jury at the court leet appointed their head-boroughs, Priuiledge of troth...... Thus (Madame) presuming on tithing men, bursholder, and ale-taster, which appointyour acceptance I will think my willing paines," &c.
ments were again regulated in the time of King Edward The two dedications, I have said, appear contra- !II., and through neglect this important office to a beerdictory. But it seems most unlikely that Ford imbibing population ought not to be suffered to fall into should have abstained from presenting his lament beer is meat, drink, and washing ; do away with the office
disrepute or oblivion...... To some Rossendale men, indeed, to the Countess of Devonshire after having it of ale-taster, an inferior quality of the beverage may be copied by a professional transcriber for the pur- sold, and the consequent waste of tissue would be awful pose. The explanation is probably that Lady to contemplate...... In my district there are fifty-five Devonshire disliked to appear to sanction the quality of beer retailed at these houses is generally good
licensed public-houses and sixty-five beer-houses. The publication of a poem which treated very frankly and calculated to prevent the deterioration of tissue, and various matters concerning herself and her I do not detect any signs of adulteration. When dis