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Christ on the cross saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved, standing by. The rood, in Roman Catholic times, formed a part of the furniture of our churches, and was put up in a gallery, called the rood loft, commonly in the arch between the church and the chancel. Traces of this, especially the doorway into it from some staircase, are still to be seen in many of our churches.

17.-SAINT LAMBERT. Lambert was Bishop of Utrecht, in the time of King Pepin I; but, reproving the king's grandson for his irregularities, he was cruelly murdered at the instigation of an abandoned woman. Being canonized, he obtained, at first, only a simple commemoration in the calendar; but Robert, Bishop of Leeds, in a general chapter of the Cistercian order, procured a solemn feast to his honour in the church in 1240.

21.-SAINT MATTHEW. In the year 64 or 65, Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew, which was afterwards translated into Greek. After many labours and miracles, he closed his life at Nadabar in Ethiopia, probably by martyrdom.

22.-CORONATION OF KING GEORGE UI. His present Majesty was crowned on the 22d of September, 1761. The form of the oath, and the manner of taking it, may be seen in T.T. for 1814, p. 228-230. 26.-OLD HOLY ROOD. See HOLY CROSS, p. 221.

26.-SAINT CYPRIAN. He was an African by birth, of a good family and well educated. He behaved with great courage and resolution in the Decian persecution, and openly invited the people to constancy and perseverance: this conduct so enraged the Pagans, that he soon fell a victim to their fury, and suffered martyrdom under Valerianus and Gallienus, in 258.

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29.-SAINT MICHAEL. Saint Michael was an archangel who presided over the Jewish nation, and had an army of angels under his command and conduct; he fought also with the Dragon or Satan, and his angels; and, contending with the Devil, he disputed about the body of Moses. See Rev. xii, 7; Jude 9. This festival has been kept with great solemnity ever since the sixth century. For customs on this day, see our former volumes.

30.-SAINT JEROME. Jerome was born in a town called Stridon, on the confines of Pannonia and Dalmatia. He translated the Old Testament into Latin : this version, now styled the Vulgate, is the only one used or allowed by the Romish church. He died in the 80th year of his age, A.D. 422.

Astronomical Occurrences

In SEPTEMBER 1820. The Sun enters Libra at 48 m. after 3 in the morning of the 23d, and he rises and sets at the following times this month. He will also be eclipsed as follows:

TABLE
Of the Sun's Rising and Setting for every fifth Day.
Sept. 1st, Sun rises 13 m.after 5. Sets at 47 m. after 6

6th, · · · 23 · 5 · · 37 · · 6 ·
11th, · · · 53 · 5 · · 27 · · 6
16th, • • • 42 . 5 · 18

6
21st, · · · 52 · · 5 · · 8 · · 6
26th, • • • 2 . . 6 - · 58 · - 5

Eclipse of the Sun. The Sun will be eclipsed on the 7th of this month, the circumstances of which, às visible in this country, are as follow. For these, as seen in some parts of the continent, see the observations under the head of next month.

At the Royal Observatory.

h. m. s.
Beginning of the eclipse - - - - - - 12 24 15
Visible conjunction - - - - - - - 1 50 30
Greatest obscuration - - • • • - - 1 53 0

End of the eclipse . . . . . . - 3 16 45 Digits eclipsed 10° 27' on the Sun's northern limb.

Equation of Time. If the time shown by the Sun be diminished by the following numbers, the remainders will be the time that should be indicated by a well regulated clock at the same moments. TABLE.

m. 8. Friday, .. 1st, from the time by the dial subtract 14 13 Wednesday, · 6th, · · · · · · · · · · · · 1 49 Monday, - 11th, - • • • • • • • • • • 3 31 Saturday, - - 16th, . ... . .. .. . . . 5 16 Thursday, • 21st, • • • • • • • • • • - - 7 1 Tuesday, · 26th, . .. . .

Phases of the Moon.
New Moon 7th day, at 52 m. after 1 afternoon
First Quarter 15th, • . 19 .. 2 · · ·
Full Moon - 22d, . . 48 .- 6 morning
Last Quarter 29th, a • : 3 •:-

Moon's Passage over the Meridian. The Moon will pass the meridian of the Royal Observatory at the following times this month, which will afford opportunities for observing her in that situation, if the weather prove favourable: viz. September 16th, at 2 m. after 7 in the evening

17th, • 2 • • • • • • • 18th, . 1 . . 8 . . . . . 19th, . 58 . . 9 . . . . 20th, · 52 · · 10 · · · · · 21st, . 41 • • 11 - - - - 26th, · 17 · • 4 in the morning 27th, · 15 · · 5 · · · · · 48th, · 12 · · 6 - - - - 29th, 6 · 7 - - ...

Eclipse of the Moon. On the 22d of this month the Moon will be eclipsed, and partly visible at Greenwich. The circumstances of the eclipse are the following: viz.

h. m. s.
Beginning of the eclipse .... • 5 13 20 morning
Moon sets · · · · · · .. . · 5 57 15 · · ·
Middle of the eclipse . . . . . . . 6 41 54 · · ·
Ecliptic opposition . . ... .. 6 47 30 .. .

End of the eclipse . . . . . . . 8 10 20 . . . Digits eclipsed 100 12 from the north side of the earth's shadow, or on the Moon's southern limb.

Phase of Venus.
September 1st Enlightened part .. = 2.8442
september 151 Dark part . .. . . = 9.1558

Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites. The following are the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites visible at the Royal Observatory and its vicinity this month: viz.

Immersions.
1st Satellite 6th day, at 6 m. after 2 in the morning

7th •:. 35 . - · 8 evening
14th · · 43 · · after midnight
16th . 12 ... 7 evening
22d - - 38 • - - % morning
23d . . 7 . . . 9 evening

30th • . q ..11 night
2d Satellite 4th · 21 · · · 8 evening

29th · · 12 · · · 8 · · ·

Other Phenomena. Mercury will attain his greatest elongation on the 5th of this month. Jupiter will be in opposition at 4 in the morning of the 11th; and Georgium Sidus will be in quadrature at 11 at night on the 17th. Mercury will be in conjunction with e in Leo at 31 m. after 17 in the evening of the 7th; when the star will be 10' 45" south of the planet. The Moon will also be in conjunction with & in Virgo, at 3 m. after

4 in the afternoon of the 10th; with « in Scorpio, at 53 m. after 9'in the morning of the 14th; with Jupiter, at 31 m. after 11 in the morning of the 21st; with Saturn, at 28 m. past 1 in the morning of the 23d; and with B in Taurus, at 50 m. after 9 in the evening of the 27th. The Moon will also be in apogee on the 7th, and in perigee on the 21st.

- OBSERVATIONs on the Harvest Moon.

This term is applied to that full moon which happens nearest to the entrance of the Sun into the sign Libra, which takes place about the 23d of September; and from its rising nearer the same time, and affording more light after the close of day, at the time when its friendly influence is so essential for reaping and securing the fruits of the earth, it has justly obtained the appellation of the Harvest Moon. Mr. Ferguson has given a full explanation of the phenomena exhibited during this lunation in different parts of the earth, in his Astronomy; of which the following is a concise abridgment:

To conceive the reason of this difference in the rising of the harvest moon from that of the same luminary at other seasons of the year, it should be considered that the Moon is always opposite the Sun when she is full. That in our harvest months this full Moon takes place when she is in the signs Pisces and Aries, the Sun being then in the opposite signs of Virgo and Libra. Also that those parts of the ecliptic, from their relative position to the horizon in these northern latitudes, rise through equal spaces in shorter intervals of time than any other points. (This may be readily shown by means of a celestial globe). Hence, as the orbit of the Moon does not deviate, much from the ecliptic, she rises with less difference of time at this season than when she is full in other parts of her orbit.

But as the Moon rises with nearly the same difference of times in every revolution through her orbit,

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