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*7. 1819.-DREADFUL STORM IN FRANCE. On the night of the above day ten communes in the arondissement of Montargis were desolated in the night by a tremendous hail-storm, accompanied by thunder and lightning. Every thing was destroyed for the space of twenty leagues. Sixty hours after the dreadful catastrophe, hail-stones were found of the size of an ordinary egg. The damage is estimated at four millions of francs (£170,000 sterling). There were dreadful storms also in several other quarters. In Deux Sevres, a space of seven leagues was desolated by hail, which lay on the ground to the depth of three or four inches: two of the hailstones weighed twelve ounces.
15.-SAINT SWITHIN. Swithin was promoted to holy orders by Helmstan, Bishop of Winchester, at whose death, in 852, King · Ethelwolf granted him the see. In this he continued eleven years, and died in 868. For some remarks on the popular saying respecting St. Swithin, see our former volumes.
20.--SAINT MARGARET. She was born at Antioch, and was the daughter of a Pagan priest. Oļybius, president of the East, under the Romans, wished to marry her; þut finding that Margaret was a Christian, he postponed his intended nuptials until he could prevail on her to renounce her religion. Our saint, however, was inflexible, and was first tortured, and then beheaded, in the year 278,
22.-MARY MAGDALEN. This day was first dedicated to the memory of St. Mary Magdalen, by King Edward VI, and in his Common Prayer, the Gospel for the day is from St. Luke, chap. vii, verse 86. Our reformers, however, upon a more strict inquiry, finding it doubtful whether this woman, mentioned in the Gospel, was really Mary Magdalen, thought it. prudent to discontinue the festival.
25.-SAINT JAMES. James was surnamed the Great, either on account of his age, being esteemed older than the other James, or for some particular honour conferred upon him by our Lord. He was by birth a Galilean, and partner with Peter in fishing, from which our Lord called him to be one of his disciples: Mark i, 19, 20. Of his ardent zeal, no other proof is necessary than his becoming the victim of Herod Agrippa. The Spaniards esteem James their tutelar saint.
26.-SAINT ANNE. She was the mother of the Virgin Mary, and the wife of Joachim her father. Her festival is celebrated by the Latin church.
* 25. 1814.-CHARLES DIBDIN DIED, One of the most prolific and popular song writers that any age or country perhaps ever produced ; and, not only the writer of the words, but the composer of the music, in which art he was no less popular. Though sometimes exceptionable, a general feeling of morality runs through his writings.. His sentiments of valour and patriotism may be said to have been of service to his country, and contributed much in his naval songs to raise the character of the sailor. He says, in his Professional, Life, written by himself (vol. i, p. 8), 'I have learnt that my songs have been considered as an object of national consequence; that they have been the solace of sailors in long voyages, in storms, in battle; and that they have been quoted in mutinies, to the restoration of order and discipline. As a dramatic writer his talents were considerable.
In JULY 1820. · The Sun enters Leo at 36 m. after midnight of the 22d of this month; and be will rise and set during the same period as in the following
6th, · · · 48 · · ·5 - 18 ... 8
Equation of Time. By adding the time in the following table to that shown by a good sun-dial, or obtained by an observation of the Sun's transit, the same will be the time that should be shown by a good clock at the same moment, TABLE.
Phases of the Moon.
Moon's Passage over the Meridian. · The Moon will pass the first meridian at the following convenient times for observation during this month; and if her passage over any other meridian be required, it must be found by means of her daily motion:
July 1st, at 27 m. after 4 in the morning
| 2d, - 34 - 5 - - -.-
- - - -
- 11 -
aoerer A CO
Phase of Venus.
" Dark part -.. = 9•7583
Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites. The eclipses of Jupiter's satellites that will be visible this month at the Royal Observatory are the following: viz. .
22d, • • 43 • • 1 morning
30th, - - 5 - - 10 evening
Form of Saturn's Ring.
* Conjugate diameter = -0.270
Other Phenomena... Mercury will attäin his greatest elongation on the - 22d; Venus, will be in her inferior conjunction at 45 m. past 3 in the afternoon of the 30th; and Saturn will be in quadrature at 45 m. after 10 in the morning of the 5th of the present month. Venus will be stationary on the 9th; Jupiter on the 12th; and Saturn on the 25th. The Moon-will also be in conjunction with Jupiter at 21-mafter 5 in the afternoon of the Ist; with ß in Taurus, at 5m. after 3 in the morning of the 8th; with Pollux, at 7m, after 1 in the afternoon of the 10th; with Mars, at 39 m. past 2 in the morning of the 15th; with a in Virgo, at 53 m. after 2 in the morning of the 18th; with « in Scorpio, at 47 m. past 5 in the afternoon of the 21st; and again with Jupiter, at 4m. after midnight of the 28th of this month. The Moon will also be in apogee on the 15th, and in perigee“on the 27th.
- TIME of the Planets' SOUTHING. The time of the planets' southing is the same as the time of their passing the meridian of the observer;
and this is requisite to be known, to find the declination at the time, and from that the meridian altitude, where great accuracy is required. Otherwise the declination may be taken as given for the nearest moon in the ephemeris; and as this will never make more than a few seconds difference in the result, it may safely be neglected for all common purposes.
Having the planet's declination and the latitude of the place of observation given, the semidiurnal arc may readily be found; and this added to or subtracted from the time of rising or setting, as the case may require, will give the time sought.
Let it, for instance, be required to find the time of Saturn's southing on the 15th of May, 1820, the place of observation being situated on the first me. ridian, and in 51°4 of latitude.
The declination on the given day, taken from the Nautical Almanac, being nearly 1° 46', with this and the latitude entering a table of semidiurnal arcs, and making the proper proportions for the half degree of latitude and the 46of declination, we have Ch. 12 m. for the semidiurnal arc answering to that latitude and declination. Then the time of the planet's rising or setting being calculated or taken from an ephemeris, by applying the semidiurnal are to these by addition or subtraction, as the case may require, we shall have the time of the planet's coming to the meridian for the day proposed. Thus, in the present instance, Saturn sets at 19 m. after 3 in the afternoon; by subtracting the semidiurnal from this time, gives 7 m. past 9 for the time of his passing the meridian of the given place.
As another illustration of this method, let it be required to find the time at which Venus passed the meridian on the 1st of October, 1819, in north lati. tude 53', and east longitude 20%.
The declination of the planet on the given day at noon at the Royal Observatory is 51' south; and as the change in the last 6 days had been 39, there must.