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washed with a compound made by adding when the action was made to take place one part of alcohol to four of water, and in a Woulfe's bottle, the tube of which the stopping varnish laid upon any part passed into a solution of potash, the that is sufficiently corroded, should be liquor collected, when rendered slightly thoroughly dry before the biting is re- acid, and precipitated by persulphate of peated. Care should be taken to keep iron, gave a precipitate, which washed the mixture out of reach of the sun or with muriatic acid became Prussian blue. any artificial heat, because its valuable Nitrates of the earths, or alkalies, boiled properties, for this purpose, would there with vegetable charcoal, gave no result of by be changed. It will be necessary, this kind. When the nitrates and charalso, to observe that no more of the in- coal were mixed in the dry way and heatgredients should be mixed than are wanted ed, the action was, of course, violent, for present use, as the mixture will be but no important results were obtained. greatly changed if kept many hours. Gio. de Fis. vii. 240. The stopping varnish that answers the Preserving of Birds, &c. - Mr. Tempurpose best, is made by dissolving the mick, director of the Dutch Museum, has best Egyptian asphaltum in the essential for many years made use of no other oil of turpentine, which dries sufficiently means of saying preserved birds and quick for all desirable purposes, and per- quadrupeds from the attacks of minute fectly secures the part covered with it, insects, than placing a small wooden bafrom the action of the menstruum.—Tech. sin, containing tallow, in each case, Rep. vi. 134.

which he finds to be more effectual than Oil of the Dahlia.-At the same time either camphor or Russia leather. that M. Payen had occasion to signalize Concentration of Alcohol by Bladders. the existence of a peculiar vegetable prin- The effect produced by inclosing diluted ciple in the dahlia, he noticed, in con- alcohol in a bladder is well known, namenexion with it, a peculiar vegetable oil. ly, the concentration of the alkali. This Further experiments with the oil have fact was first observed by Soemmering, shewn it to contain two distinct sub- and it has even been proposed to improve stances, the one a crystalline body having wines by an application of it, as, for inmany of the characters of benzoic acid, stance, by closing the mouths of bottles and the other a flyid uncrystallizable at with it instead of corks. It is now stated low temperatures. Both are soluble in that M.Soemmering has succeeded by the alcohol and acetic acid, but almost inso- same means in separating the water from luble in water ; they may be separated by alcohol entirely, so as to have the latter couling the mixture to the crystallizing quite pure or absolute. The process is to point, decantation, and pressure of the put alcohol of 750 of the areometer of crystals.-Jour. de Phar. x. 239.

Soemmering into an ox's bladder, or else Effect of light on colour of Sodalite.- into a calf's bladder coated with isinMr. Allan observed a very interesting glass, which is to be huog over a sand phenomenon, in relation to the action of bath; in a few days the alcohol will lose light upon the colour of the Sodalite of one quarter of its volume, and be found Greenland. When the massive variety is quite free from water (absolute alcobroken up, many portions of it have the hol.)-Gio de Fisica, vii. 239. most brilliant pink colour; but after a Polar Land Expedition. - Extract of a day's exposure to the action of light this letter from York Factory, dated Sept. 10, colour almost entirely vanishes. Having 1824.-"Our living heretofore bas been broken a specimen into two, Mr. Allan as good as a person could wish. We had kept one of them in the dark, and ex- plenty of excellent venison, and parposed the other to light : the specimen tridges in abundance. Our household conkept in the dark retained its pink colour sisted of about 100 souls, which is a vnimpaired, while the other lost it al- greater number than I ever saw at one most entirely.- Edin. Jour. Sci. x. 181. place before in this country ; and never

Action of Nitric Acid and Charcoal. were people kept in better order, as the Professor Silliman formerly pointed out men were made to respect the officers. I the production of hydrocyanic acid by never travelled so little in a winter season the action of nitric acid and charcoal. before, being altogether absent from the M. Frisiani has also observed the same fort five or six days only ; but I expect effect produced, in a very striking man- to have plenty of it this winter, as I raner, during the action of nitric acid on ther expect to join Capt. Franklin. Great the residuum obtained by calcining sul-. Slave Lake is situated in the route which phate of baryta with vegetable charcoal, Capt. Franklin intends to take, so that I and removing every thing soluble in water have reason to suppose the sending me by repeated washings. A strong odour there is for the purpose of my joining the of hydrocyanic acid was produced, and expedition. Two Esquimaux have already joined the party, and have gone very pretty boats for the purpose of transinto the interior with the expedition men, porting their goods to the interior, which I believe to Cumberland House, where it have left this place on that destination : is expected they will pass the winter. the men are in high condition, capable of Capt. Franklin comes by way of Montreal much fatigue, and in high spirits. One next spring, and will join his men before of the Esquimaux is an old acquaintance they reach Athabosca. They appear to of mine ; he was with Capt. Franklin on be much better supplied with necessaries the last expedition to the Arctic Sea, now, for such an undertaking, than Capt. where he proved himself to be a valuable Franklin was the last time he visited this attendant. I am more partial to the Escountry, to explore it. Eleven men and quimaux than to any of the Indians in this an officer came by the ship to ac- country, as they are more open in their company him, and seven have left the manners, brave, and sooner learn the Company's service and agreed for the ex- customs of the whites, pedition. They brought with them three

FRANCE.

FOREIGN VARIETIES.

to the cultivation of science and letters. The Geological, Mineralogical, and Bo- To him is owing the discovery of the des tanical Academy of Auvergne, in its sit- composition of the diamond (at which he ting on the first of September, heard an laboured in common with his unfortunate interesting report read by the President, friend M. Lavoisier,) and the improveCount de Laizer. He produced a plan and ment of the manufacture of porcelain. three sections of the great Plateau of Ba- Inoculation for the small-pox is considersalt and Tuffa, which is between the two ably indebted to him for the rapidity with rivers of Coreze, from Champein to near which it spread in France. Nor will the Isoire: le accompanied them with nume- friend of the dramatic art ever forget that rous specimens. From this tuffa, which it was be who, by a large pecuniary sacris is entirely composed of pieces of pumice- fice, prevailed on the managers of the stones and various tracbites, he has taken, French Theatres to remove from the stage Ist. Bones of very large animals com- the seats (lanquettes) which were absurdly pletely petrified and tsansformed into car- placed there for rich spectators, and which bonate of lime, without having lost either destroyed all scenic illusion. their form or their texture. 2d. A piece At a meeting of the French Institute on of horn, or antler of a stag's horn, trans- the lith October, amongst the works of formed into agate. Lastly, he had found fered to the Academy was one by M. and taken out of a layer of pumice sand, Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, on the Calculi which is under the tuffa, some teeth, the found in the auditive cells of fishes; and jaw-bone, and two horns belonging to two a Memoir of M. Audouin, on the Generaspecies of stag, now lost; also a skull tion of Insects. M. Jomard read several with the two horns, belonging to a large letters written on the banks of the Gamspecies of stag, or elli, likewise a variety bia, in Africa, between the month of Januwhich no longer exists. Besides these ary and the end of July lasi, by M. Bean. and a great quantity of other fossil bones, fort, officer of marine : they are filled M. Laizer produced a grinder of a masto- with very important botanical details. M. don, or mammoth, found a little lower in de Beaufort found, to his great surprise, the testaceous limestone, which is between that the Gambia flows in an horizontal the volcanic tuffa and the primitive soil. soil upwards of 120 miles from the mouth, We believe it is the first time that orga- as the two tides are felt there. Contrary nized terrestrial bodies bave been inet to another opinion, equally accredited, he with under ancient tuffa and basalt. This discovered scarcely any venomous plants important discovery, due to the active in the country he visited; he did not meet and enlightened zeal of Count de Laizer, with either moss or heaths, but a great will throw a great light on the relative age many culinary and medicinal plants, parof our ancient volcanoes.

ticularly of the mallow species, and an The Duc de Brancas Lauraguais.-A Peer abundance of fig-trees. He also found of France, and a Member of the Academy the butter tree in the vicinity of the Gamof Sciences, died lately, at the age of bia. The young and interesting widow of ninety-one years and three months, of a the unfortunate Mr. Bowdich had sent, fit of the gout, which fixed itself in the gratis, to M. de Beaufort, from St. Louis, chest. After having been distinguished as all the instruments he stood in need of, a Colonel, in the campaign of 1757, M. de and even more than he wished, Dr. LasLauraguais devoted himself with ardour sis read it memoir to prove the non-existence of the yellow fever, which, if it ex- this country. I should wish to send you isted, said the Doctor, would have already the observations I have made on the spedestroyed the whole world. His memoir cies of palin-trees which ornament the was referred to a commission. M. Gay banks of the Gambia, but they are not yet Lussac made his report on the Minerals complete. I have renewed, within these brought from India by M. Leschenault few days, the observation I made at the Latour. The President engaged the Sec- Senegal, on the subject of atmospherical tion of Mineralogy to present a candidate electricity, but with more exactness : I to replace M. Lesage, deceased. A new passed the brass wire through a glass tube memoir was addressed to the Academy on suspended in the air, leaving a long piece the Quadrature of the Circle. The Insti- of metal to hang down. The result was tute has adopted an uniform answer to the same, that is to say, estirely null, and all those who may in future address them by no means answered my expectations. on the subject, viz. that the Academy re- I send you some Shea or Seetoulou butter, gards it as impossible and in vain to treat, in order that you may have it examined; and engages the learned to apply them- together with a bottle containing an oil selves to other subjects. M. Fourrier extracted from butter of the palm, which read, in the name of M. Benoiston de I should be very glad to have analysed, Chateauneuf, a memoir relative to the particularly on account of a circumstance observations of M. Caster on the benefits which gives a new interest to that tree. of Inoculation and the Vaccine, in Prussia, This oil is the result of the ebullition of during the last forty years. At the com- the fruit of a palin-tree which I have not mencement of this period, the Small-pox been able to refer to any genas, (I follow destroyed ten thousand children in one the genera plantarum of M. Jussieu :) the hundred thousand, while at present the fruit is a drupa with a very thin covering mortality in the same number is only on the outside ; the kernel contains, as I three hundred and thirty-three. The King understand, a considerable quantity of alof Prussia, in order to enconrage vaccina- kaline substance, of which a soap is made. tion, had it first tried on his own son. It I have not yet been able to procure any to *is worthy of notice, that Louis XVIII. and send you as a specimen, but shall endeaCharles X. recommended inoculation in vour to do so by the next opportunity. the same manner, by receiving it them- Mungo Park's account of the Fang Jany selves on its first introduction in France. is perfectly correct; it is of the genus of M. Caster afterwards examines the dis- pandanıs, and its maturity is announced orders, by some attributed to vaccination, by an explosion accompanied by fire; this and whether it increases the violence of fire is subject to communicate with the other disorders to which children are adjoining bodies, which prevents my sendsubject. He denies the fact. M. Gaimar ing you a specimen, it having already read a very highly curious and interesting caused some accidents. I shall, however, memoir on the Phosphorescence of the carefully watch its progress, and shall Sea, and the Animalculæ that produce it. endeavour to preserve some of it in oil.

Account of the Expedition of M. E. de Up to my arrival in this place, I have obBeaufort into the interior of Africa, by the served a considerable difference between way of the river Senegal.* Extracted from the vegetable products of the two great two Letters from M. de Beaufort to M. Jo- rivers, the Senegal and the Gambia. mard.-Guiauguianlourey, 8th April, 1824.

Sir, -I am hurried by the departure of Russian Poetry.The young poet, Puschthe vessel, and fatigued by writing a num- kin, has completed a new production, ber of long letters, and must therefore which, though of no great extent, surbeg of you to excuse me for the shortness passes, in the unanimous opinion of the of this letter. I shall remain here two or critics, all his former productions. The three days, and during that time shall title is, The Fountain of Baktschissarai ; take an opportunity of writing to you at and M. Ponamarew, a bookseller of Mosgreater length. My first letter shall con- cow, has given him 3000 roubles for the tain the solution of any questions I may copyright. The poem contains about 600 have been able to solve since my arrival in lines, so that five rubles per line have

been paid for it, a thing quite unheard of

in Russia. Puschkin is a literary phenoM. de Beaufort, a navy officer of great

menon, endowed nature with all the information, and most zealous in the pur- qualifications of an excellent poet; he has suit of new discoveries, departed from St. Louis towards the end of the month of Ja: begun his career in a manner in which nuary 1824, having furnished bimself with his thirteenth year, when he was still a

many would be happy to conclude. In a variety of astronomical and philosophi- pupil in the Lyceum at Zarskoe-Selo, be cal instruments.

composed his first distinguished poem,

4 A

RUSSIA.

NO. XLVIII.

Wospominanie 0 Zarskom Selo, Remem

SWITZERLAND. brances of Zarskoe Selo : this piece was The Glaciers.-Mention has been pubperhaps too loudly and generally admired; licly made of the labours directed by M. the boy aimed henceforward only at the Venetz, engineer of the bridges and Muses' wreath, and neglected the more se- roads of the department of the Valais, to rious studies which are so essential to the accomplish the destruction of the ice poet. However, up to this time, when he which covers the Dranse. Last autumn is scarcely twenty-five years of age, he there remained only 292 feet. The work has composed, besides a number of charm- was recommenced last summer ; but the ing little pieces which have been received avalanches which fell from the upper with great approbation by the literary glacier during the winter, so filled the journals, three more considerable poems, breaches which were made last year in which are real ornaments of the Russian the lower glacier, that, at "the beginning Parnassus; and what is a particular me- of June, the Dranse was covered again rit in these days of translation, they are to an extent of more than 1000 feet. quite original. The first of them is Russ- During the course of the same month, lan and Ljudmilla, which carries us back the work was considerably impeded by into the ancient days of chivalry and fable avalanches, which fell every instant; and in Russia, and places before us Kiow, with even in July a great part of the pipes its gilded domes; the magnificent Wladi- were covered with a huge mass of ice. mir, the luxurious Bojars, the valiant he- In placing some new ones they discovered roes, and the bards of those times. The some remains of the last at more than subject of the poem (in six cantos) is the 30 feet deep. It is truly a war against carrying off of the Princess Ljudmilla by Nature that they carry on; scarcely have the magician Tschernomor, and her de- they been overcome on one point, ere liverance to her husband Russlan, a va- they attack another; and when M. Venetz liant knight. The plan is admirable, the cannot reach the glacier by falls of water, execution masterly, and, notwithstanding he dams up and makes the Dranse overthe numerous characters introduced, and flow itself, in order to undermine it at the the episodes and events which cross each foot. It is thus that he is continually other, the narrative is rapid, the charac- impeded by a thousand foreseen and unters well drawn, the descriptionsanimated, foreseen obstacles. Unfortunately, to this and the language excellent. Russlan was is added the most distressing circumsoon succeeded by Kaw Koskoi Plennik, stance of all-that of an illness brought a smaller, though not less excellent poem; on by the excess of bis fatigues, and from which describes the rude manners of the which he is scarcely recovered. But be banditti of Caucasus, their mode of life, hopes still, in spite of all, to free the and the peculiarity of the country and its Dranse entirely. The whole mass of the inhabitants, in the most lively colours. glacier is already reduced about one-half This poem is known to the German pub- of its cubic bulk. Ten currents of water lic through a masterly translation by M. at present fall upon it; and by means of Wulfert, which is inferior to the original a breach effected in its centre the spectaonly in the inimitable melody of the Rus- tor may observe at a glance, by the enorsian language. Puschkin's new poem, the mous height which still remains, the inFountain of Baktschissarai, is in many credible effect which these little waterfalls respects superior to his former produc- have produced. M. Venetz is unable to tions. The subject is very simple : Ghiräj, comprehend how he had the courage to Chan of the Crimea, in one of his pre- begin undertaking the destruction of this datory excursions, takes prisoner a Polish glacier, but he now assures himself of princess, Maria. She is in his harem ; the charms of the beautiful Christian make a deep impression on the heart of the rude Giovanni Brocchi, the celebrated Italian monarch. He forsakes his former fa- natural philosopher, writes from Balbec, vourite, Sarema, a passionate Georgian ; that since his return from Nubia he has she knows indeed that Maria persists in established himself in that town to direct rejecting his love, but, tormented by jea- the operations of a coal-mine, which has lousy, she murders her innocent 'rival. been discovered near Mount Libauus. Ghiraj, inconsolable, sentences the Geor- M. Brocchi's berbal is very rich in rare gian to death, and dedicates to the me- plants ; and his mineralogical, or rather mory of Maria, in a solitary part of his his geological collection, is not less congarden, a fountain, the cold drops of siderable. He has not, however, found which, falling even to this day into the any curious plants on Libanus, and Antiinarble basin, remind feeling hearts of Libanus,-the vegetation there differing Maria's innocence and Ghiraj s grief, and but little from that of Sicily and Souththe young girls in the neighbourhood still ern Calabria. He has been constantly call it the fountain of tears!

travelling; and his journey to Nubia

success.

ITALY.

was very productive. M. Barbié du Bo- Julius II. ; as well as the other celebrated cage, the French dragoman at Bagdad, colossal statues of Melpoinene, Cercs, &c. states, in a letter dated 11th of May, The Pope Jately visited the public pri1824, that, profiting by his last journey sons, examined the most secret dungeons, to Syria, he had transported his collec- their government, food, &c. and interrotion of antiquities to Aleppo ; whence it gated many of the prisoners upon their was bis intention to send it to Paris, in treatment. He departed bighly pleased order that it might be presented to the with the state in which he found them, Royal Library. Unfortunately this valu- and left marks of his satisfaction with able collection was very much impaired the conduct of the gaoler and turnkeys; and reduced by the earthquake that oc

he also distributed money among the curred in Syria on the 13th August, 1822. prisoners.-A similar visit was once paid

New Route to Italy:-The beautiful to the prisons by Benedict XIV. The road of Posilippo, begun by the French in amelioration of the prison regimen, from 1811, and carried on with much art up to

the observations made by the same sorethe foot of the mountain near Puzzuoli, reign in his visits, characterized in a is continued upon the same plan by the manner highly honourable the vigilance Austrians, and will be completed imme- of the chief of the catholic religion. diately. The trenching which these works Petrarch. Professor Meneghelli has made necessary, has been the means of lately addressed a paper to the Abbé discovering tombs, inclosing skeletons, Talia, entitled Sopra due Lettere Italiane and vases with money placed in the attribuite al Petrarca: “Upon two Italian mouths of the skeletons.

Letters attributed to Petrarch. These A succession of earthquakes was expe

two letters were published by M. Foscolo rienced in Tuscany between the 12th and in his essays on the Italian Poet. On 13th of August. Several of the shocks comparing with them the fac simile now were so strong as to excite great appre- preserved in the seminary of Padua, the bensions ; and in one place a wall was

authenticity of which is incontestable, it thrown down.

is plainly to be seen that these letters Rome.-In removing the masses of the are not autographs. M. Meneghelli has entablature of the 'l'emples of Jupiter also found many passages in contradiction Tonans and Concord, recovered last year able in the life of Petrarch, in bis age, and

with circumstances more or less remarkunder the Campidoglio, adhering to a little building existing between the two

in his style.-Revue Enclyclop. Temples themselves, there has been found a small votive altar of marble, which de- American Literature. The publication termines the age and the use of the little of books is so much cheaper in this counedifice, by the following inscription :- try than in Great Britain, that nearly all DIVAE . PIAE

we use are American editions. According FAVSTINAE

to reports from the custom-houses, made VIATOR . Q

under a resolution of the Senate in 1822, AB. AER , SAT

it appears that the importation of books That is, Divae Piae Faustinae Viator Quaes- bears an extremely small proportion to tor Al Aerario Saturni. It, therefore, be- the American editions. The imported longed to the younger Faustina, and was books are the mere seed. It is estimated erected to her, after her death, by Viator, that between two and three millions of Questor of the neighbouring treasury of dollars' worth of books are annually pubSaturn. Signor Luigi Marini having oc- lished in the United States. It is to be casion to rebuild a wall in his house, on regretted that literary property here is the level of the present street, which is held by an imperfect tenure ; there being much above the ancient, the workmen dis- no other protection for it than the procovered the external circular part of the visions of an inefficient Act of Congress, Theatre of Pompey. It corresponds with the impotent offspring of an absolute Engthe many fine remains of the saine Thea- lish statute. The inducement to take tre which are still seen in the vaults of copyrights is therefore inadequate, and the Palace Pio. Besides fragments of a large proportion of the most valuable columns, &c. a female statue was found, American books is published without any nine or ten palms in height, wanting the legal title. Yet there were 125 copyhead and arms, and the drapery much da- rights purchased from January 1822 to maged, but in a good style. It is well April 1823. There have been eight ediknown that near this place were found the tions, comprising 7500 copies, of Stewart's Hercules called Commodiano, which is Philosophy, published here since its apnow in the Museum Pio-Clementino, and pearance in Europe thirty years ago. Five the other very famous Hercules called hundred thousand dollars were the capital the Torso di Belvidere, in the time of invested in one edition of Rees's Encyclo.

AMERICA.

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