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State of the BAROMETER in inches and decimals, and of Farenbeit's Thet.

MOMETER in the open air, taken in the morning before sun-rise, and at noon ; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from July 31st 1791, to the 30th of August, near the foot of Arthur's Seat.

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0.05

53 53 55 55

62 65 62 65 67

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13 14

50 45 52 54 56 59 60 56 53

61 MI 65 58 69 69 72 72 60 54 62 63 68 62 66 65

29.475
29.675
29.9
30.
29.825
29.9
24.75
29.8
29.95
29.925
29.875
29.75
29.95
29.85
29.87
29.775
29.775
29.7
30.2
30.3
30.325
30.05
29.8275
29.55
29.535
29.4
27.6
29.3
29.4
29.6125
29.8

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15 16 17 18 19 20 ZI 22 23

Clear
Ditto
Small Showers
Clear
Ditto
Dito
Diito
Ditto
Cloudy
Clear
Ditto
Ditio
Showers
Clear
Small Showers
Clear
Rain
Ditto
Clear
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Rain
Dino
Clear
Rain
Ditio
Showera
Rain

48

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64

24 25

0.2
0.075

26 27 28 29 30

60 55 SI 55 52 54

60 63 60 61 57 60

0.425 0.32 0.065 0.15

48

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Buffon's Natural History of the Canary-Bird. [Concluded from p. 8.] T THE brood of birds in a state of cap- happens a day less or Diore, it is over

tivity is not so conftant, but is per- ing to some accidental circumftalice; haps more numerous than it would cold retards the exclusion of the probably be in a 1tate of native free- young, and heat accelerates it. Acdom: for there are hens who will cordingly it sometimes happers, that hatch four and even five times a year, the firit sitting in April lalis thirteen laying fuur, five, fix, and sometimes days and a half or four teen days, if seven eggs at a time : in general they the air is at that time cold; on the have three broods, and ile moulting contrary, the third hatching, which prevents their having more. There happens during the great leats of July are bens, however, that hatch while or Auguft, laits only twelve days, or they moult, provided they begin to fit twelve days and a half. The bad before that time. Birds of the fame eggs (aught to be separated from the neft do not all begin to micult at the good ; but in order to know them fame time. The weakest are the first certainly, you should wait till they shat undergo that change; the Itrong- have been sat upon for eight or nine eit are often a monjh later. The days; then take cach egg by the two moulting of jonquil Canary-birds is ends for fear of breaking them, and more tedious and generally more fatal hold them against the sun or a lighted than that of the others. The hens candle; thole that are clear must be of the se jonquil birds lay only three rejected, it would only fatigue the zimes, with ihree eggs each time: the hen to leave them with her. In thus light coloured ones, both cock and detaching the clear eggs, of three hen, are too del cate, and their brood nests we may make only two ; and feldom prospers; the cream coloured the third ben being a liberty will prohave some repugnance at pairing with ceed again to lay *. It is a practice one another; in a large aviary, the much recommended by bird-funcyers male generelly chufes one of a differ- to take away the eggs as the hen lays ent colour. In general, the whi:e go them, sabízíuring an isory one in through the whole process with equal their place, that the whule may be fucceis; they pair, build, and hatch, hatched in oce day. When the last as well and better than any of the o- egg is laid, ide i sory ques are removed thers, and the white spangled birds and the others injiliced. In general, are likewise the ftongest of all. therine of laying is in the morning,

Notwithstanding these differences about six or seven o'clock: it is faid, in the disposition, temperansent, and that when this happens an hour later, fertility of these birds, the time of in- it is owing to the hen's being fick; cubation in all is the same: all of the egg being thus laid in regular luc. them lit thirteen days, and when it celliunt, it is easy to take them away

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In giving the cggs of one hen to others, we must be sure that they are all good; the ben spangled birds that get clear or bad eggs, will of themselves throw them out of the neft; and when this is to deep that they cannot effed it, they never leave friking them with their hill till they are broken, which fpoils the other «ggs, injures the neil, and makes the whole become abortive : the females of the other varieties wili lit upon clear eggs.

Father Bugot. + The eggs are all laid at the same hour except the last, which is some hours, and at other times a day later. This last egg is always tmaller than the reft, and I have beende allured that the bird it contains is always a cock. I wish the fact were well ascer tained.

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the moment they are laid. However, regard to their food; it may be ress this practice is more adapted to our dered more Gimple, and perhaps the Ovin convenience than to that of the birds will be better for it*. One cirbird, and is contrary to the economy cumstance it is particularly necessary of nature; it makes the mother part to attend to, and that is, to beware of with

great deal of heat unnecessarily, pairing them too soon in the season: and burdens her at once with five or in general, it is the custom to permit fix young, which incommode her more their union towards the 20th of 25th than they give ber pleasure; while, of March, whereas the 12th or 15th when she sees them come successively of April is a more proper time ; for one after the other, her pleasures are when they are put together while the multiplied, and her strength and cou weather is still cold, they grow indifrage supported : accordingly, very in- ferent for one another; and, if the hen telligent bird-fancyers have assured me, happens to lay eggs, the leaves them that the natural way has always fuc- if the weather does not grow warm ; ceeded better with them than the a thus we lose a whole hatching by feekbove-mentioned practice.

ing to have it too carly. Indeed I must say that, in general, The young birds are different from too subtle practices, and the fcrupulous the old ones, not only in colour but in cares which our writers advise us to other qualities. A young Canarybestow on the rearing of birds, are Bird of the year, observed on the 13th more hurtful than ufeful. We must, of September 1772, had the head, the as much as poshble, imitate nature in neck, the back, and the quill-feathers every thing. In their pative spot Ca- blackısh, except the four first feathers nary birds haunt the bapks of little ri. of the right wing, which were whitish vulets, or of moist ravines; we must the rump, the coverts of the wings, the not therefore suffer them to want wa- tail, which was ftill not quite formed, ter, either to drink or to bathe in. As and the under part of the body, were they are ratives of a very mild climate, also of a whitish colour, and there were we mult defend them from the rigor not as yet any feathers on the belly of winter ; but as they seem now long from the sternum to the anus. This naturalised with us, they are accustom- young bird had its lower mandible ened to our cold weather, for we may tering within the upper, which was keep them in a room without fire, and pretty thick and a little hooked. As even with the window open, guarded ihe bird advances in age, the difpofihowever with a net-work to prevent tion and shades of the colour change; their escape. I have known many the old are distinguished from the young bird-fancyers who have assured me, birds by ftrength, colour, and song. that, by treating them thus hardily, The old ones have always the strongthey lose fewer than by keeping them eft and moft vivid colours, their feet in warm rooms. It is the lame with are rougher, inclining to black if they

are

I have learnt, from the fatal experience of trusting to the directions of others, to confine my treatment to the following : I have given them for food, rape-seed and niillet; water every other day in Winter, and once or twice a-day in Summer; groundre! when it is to be had once a month ; chick-weed in moulting time; instead of sugar, bruised oats and Turkey corn; but particularly great cleanhess is necessary.

Traité par M. Batteau. I must here remark a small error : It is generally agreed, that Canary-Birds must by no means have groundsel whilc they are moulting ; for that food is too cooling, and prolongs the fcason of their indiposition. The other directions given by Air Batteau ap. pear to be well founded.

are of the grey race ; and the nails to another; for though the should are thicker and longer than thuse of get better fuon, the will not return to the young. The female fometimes fo her nest. The firit symptom of fick. much resembles the male, that it is not ness, especially in the cock, is melaneasy to distinguish the difference at first choly: whenever he is observed to Light : however, the colours of the lo!e his natural gaiety, he must be put in male are always the brightes, his head a separate cage and placed in the sun in a little thicker and longer, the temples the same room with the hen. If his more of an orange colour, and under feathers appear rough, you must look if the billa flame-coloured yellow, which he has not a pimple above the tail ;descends lower than in the female; when the suppuration here is fit to be his legs are also longer, and he begins opened, the bird often performs it him'to record almost as soon as he can feed self with his bill; but if it goes on too himself. It is true that there are hens Bowly, it must be opened with a large which likewise begin thus early; but needle, and the wound anointed with taking all these marks together, we faliva, without mixing any falt with it, will be at no lofs to distinguish, even which would smart it too much. The before the first moulting, the cock from next day, you may let him loose, and ibe hen. After that time there is no observe, by his behaviour and eagerness more uncertainŁy, for the cock declares for the hen, whether he is cured or himself by his song.

not, If not, you must take him again, Every quick exertion of the voice and with a smali quill blow a little is in animals a strong indication of white wine under his wings, put him paffion; and as love, of all internal e in the sun, and next day when you let motions, is that which agitates them him loose judge as before of the state ofteneft, and transports them most of his health ; if melancholy and difpowerfully, they do not fail to express gust for the female continue after these its ardour. Birds by their fong, the remedies, all hope of cure is vain; he bull by its lowing, the horse by neigh- must be put into a separate cage, and jog, the bear by growling, all announce another inale given to the hen timilar one and the same defire. The ardour to the one the bas lott, or if that canof this defire is by no means so strong not be, one of the fame variery with nor so conspicuous in the female as it herself: there is generally most fymiis in the male, and accordingly she ex- pathy between those which resemble presies it but seldom by her voice ;- each other, except in the case of that of the hen Canary-Bird is nothing cream-coloured varieties which prefer more than a gentle note of tender la- the females of any other colour. But tisfaction, a sign of consent, which docs care must be taken that the new male not escape her till the has long liftened be not a novice, but already acquaintto and suffered herself to be won by ed with the duti-s of a parent. When the ardent prayer of the male, who ex. the female falls sick she must have the eris himself to inspire her with the same treatment with the male. same paffion which he feels. But The most general cause of sickness when her deGres are once excited, is too abundant or too rich food :there is a neceflity for gratifying then, when these birds are made to breed in otherwise she often falls sick and dies. a cage or closer, they often eat too

It is feldom that Canary-Birds much, or select the succulent food de. brought up in a chamber fall lick be- frgned for the young ; hence the confore hatching : fometimes a few cocks fequences are either repletion or inover-eat themselves and die : if the flammation. By keeping thein in a hen grows fick while she is fitting, room this inconvenience is in a great her eggs must be taken away and given measure prevented ; because being an

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mong a great number, they hinder one this first moulting; and in the fecond another from eating to excess. d cock the following year, the large feathers, who eats for a long time is sure to be even those of the wings at d tail, iall beaten by the other males; and the likewise. The young birds of the litt fame is the case with the hens; these brood, which have not been harched quarrels give them exercise, tempe- till September or later, luffer accord. rance, and occupation from necelity: ingly much more in mouling than it is chiefly on this account that they thole which were hatched in the Ipring. are seldom or never Gickly in a cham. Cold wea:her is very unfriend:y to ber during the breeding time; it is this state, and they would all die were only after hatching that infirmities and they not kept in a temperate, or rather diseases attack them. The greater warm pace. While this function is part have the pimple we mentioned a- going on, that is, fir fix weeks or two bove, and afterwards all of them are monihs, nature labours to produce new subject to moulting. Some support feathers; and the organic n:olecules pretty well this change of state, and which had been previoufly employed do not fail to fing a short while every in formitg the feminal fluid, are now day ; but most of them lose their voice, engaged in this new production ; acand some of them even die. When cordingly, when muulting, birds neithe hens have attained the age of fix ther breed nor pair ; for i he fuperflux or seven years, many of them die in of life is wanting, which every being moulting; the cocks support this fpe- must have before it can convey it to ocies of disease more easily, and exist thers. three or four years longer. However, The most faval and most common as moulting is a natural effect rather disease that the young Canary.Birds than an accidental disease, thefe tirds especially are subject to, is thai called would have no need of remedies, or the surfeit, in which their bowels seem would find such for themselves bad to descend to the extren:ity of the bothey been reared by their parents in a dy. The intestines are seen through fiatc of nature and liberty. Lut being the skin, in a state of inf.in mation, under restraint, fed by us and made redness, and cifter ficn; the feathers nore delicite, moulting, vbich to on the part fall off; the birds grow birds at freedom is only an indifpofi- emaciated, give over eating, tho' they rion, a lefs perfect ftare of health, be. fit perpetually beside their meat, and comes to those in captiviiy a serious die in a few days. The cause of this and often fatal malady, for which in- disease is the too great quantity, or too deed there are but few remedies*. It fucculent quality of the food. All remains only to say that mouling is medicines are fruitless ; diet alone can the less dangerous, if it bappens early, save a few out of the number of birds zhut is, in a good season of the year. thus affected. They must be put inYoung Canary-Birds moult early in to separate cages, and nothing given the year, about six weeks after ihey to them but water aod lettuce leed : are hatched : they become melancho, this fuod is cooling and purgative, it ly, appear rough, and put their head tempers the arcour which consumes under the wing Their down fails in then, and sometimes causes evacua

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* At moulting tine pit a bit of feel, not iron, into their water, changing it three times a weck: give them no other medicine, only put a little more hemp-feed than usual an:org their mear during this critical period. Notre of Fulier Bouget. Obferve that fled is preferable to on, only that you may be sure there is rio rust, which would do more baini ihan good.

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