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EDINBURGH MAGAZINE,

OR,

LITERARY MISCELLANY.

VIEWS IN SCOTLAND.

Ġ LA MES CASTLE,

IN the county of Forfar, is the seat of the Earl of Strathmore. It is fa

mous in our history for the murder of Malcom II. by the hands of assallins in a paffage still thewn to strangers. It was formerly a royal residence, and on the acceifion of Robert Il, was bestowed on his favourite Sit Joho Lyon. The ancient buildings were of great extent, consisting of two long courts dívided by buildings ; in each was a square tower and gate-way beneath ; and in the third another tower, which constitutes the present house, the rest being totally destroyed. This received many alterations in 1656 by Patrick Lord Glames, and fome modern improvements by the late Earl of Strahmore.

Buffon's Natural History of the Canary Bird : (Continued from Page 446,

Vol. XIII.) o the particular remarks we have mother, and acquire the long ears,

already made, which are all im- tail, and fkinny legs of the ass. It portant, I must add a general and very would seem therefore, that, in the ininteresting observation which may timate union of those fluids by which throw some light on the generation of generation is accomplished, the orgaanimals, and on the developement of nic molecules of the female, occupy their different parts. It has beca the center of that living sphere which constantly obferved in mixing Canary- increases in every direclion, and that birds either with their owo or with the molecules furnished by the male, other fpecies, that the mongrels pro- surround those of the female in such ceeding from them resemble the cock manner that the external coat and the in the bead, ihe tail, and legs ; and the extremities of the body belong mere hen in the other parts of the body, to the father than to the mother. SeveThe same observation may be made ral mongrels which I obtained from a with respect to the mules of quadru- goat and a ewe, instead of wool, were peds; those from the Jack-ass and all covered with the frong hair of mare, have the body as large as the their father.

ID

In the human fpecies it may like sheep, for only rams of a diffewise be observed, that in general,the fon rent race, can improve the breed; refenibles his father more than his mo. and the finest ewe, with a dimi. ther, in the legs, the feets the hands, nutive ram, will never bring any but inthe hand writing, the quantity and co. different lambs. This subjeđ is imlour of the hair, the quality of the portant; and as many people amuse skio, and size of the head ; and in themselves in the breeding of Canarymulattoes, proceeding from a white birds, which does not consume much man and a negro woman, the colour time, it would not be difficult to instiis not so black as in those that spring tute a number of experiments on the from a negro man and a white woman. mixture of different birds, and on the All this seems to prove, that in the ultimate products of these mixtures, so local deposition of the organic mole. as to ascertain the truth of the doccules, furnithed by both fexes, those trine I have here been supporting. of the male rise above, and invelope In the lower animals as well as in those of the female, and as it were man, even in our small birds, the diforni the nucleus of the being which versity of character, or if you will, of is to be organized; and that notwith- mural qualities often injures the constanding the intimate penetration and sonance of physical qualities. If any intermixtgre of these molecules, more thing could prove that the disposition masculine ones remain on the surface is a good or bad impression given by and most feminine ones within ; this nature, which education cannot alter, is natural, as the former go in quest it would be the instance of our Canaof the laiter; whence it follows, that ry-birds. • Almost every one of in the developement of the body, the them says, M. Hervieux, differs from limbs ought to take after the father another in disposition. There are more than the mother, and the body some cocks that are always melanchoto take after the moiher more than the ly aud even sullen, singing seldom, fatier.

and then in a dismal strain ; they are Now as in general the beauty of long in learning, and learn at laft but the species is nor brought to perfec- imperfectly what you teach them, and tion, nor maintained except by crof. the little they know they very foon ling the breed ; and as the stature, the forget. These are often so uncleanly, strength, and vigour of the body de. that their feet and tail are generally pend almost entirely on' the propor- dirty; they do not please the female

, tion of the limbs, it is only by the whom they never regale with their males that the breed of men and ani- fong, even when her

young

first

apmals can be exalted or improved. pear, though indeed there are seldom Large and bcautiful mares with little much better than their father. There puny ho ses, will never produce any wie others so wicked that they kill the thing but ill made foals ; whereas the ben they are put to, and there is no noble Italion, with an indifferent other way of taming them, than by mare, will always prodice fine horfes; giving them iwo females who juin for, and the more beautiful, the more re- their common defence; and when they more and distinct the father and mo- have once vanquished by force they ther have been. It is the same in conquer afterwards by love *. There

are It sometimes haspens, that these ill-riatured males have other qualities, which repair in fome mcafure their defects, such as a most melodious fong, a bezutiful plumage, and great tamenes. Kiherefore you would have a breed from them, you niuit cake two Hen; that are vigorous, and a year older than the cock; put there hens for a few montlis into the fame car, that they may know each other well, and then chey will not be jealous or Lght wlich put to the cock is month before latching time, put them both into the

fame

are others fo barbarous as to break and thers, and of fo gentle a disposition eat the eggs when the hen has laid and so happy a temper, that they are them; or if this unnatural father al- susceptible of every good impreffion, lows her to hatch, the young are hard- and endowed with the best inclinaly excluded from the shell, than he tions: they charm incessantly the hea leizes them with bis bill, drags them with their song; they foothe her in from the neft, and kills them *. Some the distressful aMduity of hatching; are so wild, favage, and ungovernable, they invite her to quit her place to that they will allow themselves nei. them, and actually fit on the eggs fether to be touched nor careffed ; these veral hours every day : they join with must be left at liberty, and cannot be her in feeding the young, and, lastly, treated like the others : if they are they are docile, and learn whatever we meddled with in the least they will choose to teach them. It is by these not breed; their eggs must not be alone that we must form an opinion of touched or taken away, and they the species ; and I have only mentionwill not hatch if they are not suffered ed the others, to demonftrate that the to pair and build as they please. Laft- temper and disposition, even in anily, there are some of an indolent dis- mals, proceed from nature, and not position ; such for example are the from education. grey ones; these oever build, and This bad disposition, which makes ine person that tends them must make them break their eggs and kill the a neft for them. All these tempers nestlings, often proeeeds from their are very distinct, and very different temperament and from the impetuosity from that of our Canary-birds, which of their love; it is to enjoy the female are always gay, always singing, tame, that they drive her from the neft, agreeable, good mates, attentive fa. and deftroy the tender objects of her

affection, fame cage, and at the proper season, introduce the male, who will instantly endeavour to beat the two heos, especially for a few days at firft ; but they, slanding upon their den fence, will soon gain the absolute command of him ; to that feeing he can gain nothing by force, he will begin to grow tame and enamoured. These forced marriages forretimes fucceed better than others from which much more has been expected, and which often produce nothing. In order to preserve the brood, you must take away the eggs as the hen lays them, and substitute others of ivory; and when they are all laid, the cock must be removed, the eggs replaced, and the hen left to hatch them. The cock is to be kept in a cage, in the same room, while the hen is fitting on her eggs and feeding the young. but as loop as you take away the young to feed them with a ttick, you must relieve the cock, and restore him to the femalc.

Traite des Serins des Canaries, There are some cocks of a weakly habít, careless of love, and always fickly after pair ing. These should never be used for breeding, for I have observed, that their issue al ways resembles them. There are others so petulant, that they beat the hen off the neft, and prevent her from fitting : these are the Itrongest birds, the best fingers, and often the moft beautiful and familiar; others break the eggs and kill the young, that they may the longer enjoy the female. O:hers have a remarkable predilection, and marked preference for certain females. A cock placed among twenty hens, will single out one or two, which he will constantly attend and make love to, without minding the rest. Thçse cocks are of a good natural temper, which they communicate to their progeny. Others do not attach themselves to any female, but remain fterile and inactive. The fame difference of temper and manners is found among the hens. The jonquil-coloured hens are the gentleft; the agates are capricious, and often quit their young to give themselves to the male : the hen spangled birds are constant to their eggs, and good to their young; but the cock spangled birds are the most ardent of their species, and must be provided with two and even three hers, otherwise they will not suffer the hen to fit, and they will break the eggs. Thofe that are entirely jonquil-coloured are nearly of the same difpofition, and require two or three females. The cock agątes are the weakest, and the heas ofteu dic when Attinig.

affection. Accordingly the best means have no green thing while they are of making these birds barch, is not to breeding, which would weaken the feparate them, and to put them in young too much; but in order to duferent cages. It is better to put vary their food a little, and chear them into a room well exposed to ibe them with a new mess, give them, every Lun, and to the ealt, in winter, where third day, on a plate, instead of the there are many hens and a few cocks: dry cake, a bit of white bread dipt in here they enjoy themselves more and water and pressed with the hand; this multiply beiter : wlien a hen fits, bread not being so substantial a food abe cock finds hin another mate, as the cake, will prevent their growand does not disturb her. Besides, the ing 100 fat while batching: it will likecocks have many quarrels among wife be proper to give them, at the same themselves from jealoufs ; and when time, fome poppy feeds, but only once they fee any one to ardcnt as to tor. in iwo days for fcar of heating them ment 'the female, and attempting to too much ; figured biscuit generally break the eggs, they beat dim lufa- produces this effed, which is followed ciently to deaden his du fires.

by another ftill more hurtful; for When they are about to build, you when they are fed op buscuit they muft furnith them with lint, the bair oftun lav addle eggs, or bring weak of oxen or stags, which has not been and fickly young. While they have employed in other uses, with mols young boil their rape seed to deprive and very small and dry straw. Gold- it of its acrimony. “A long experifinches and Sikios, if put with hea ence, says father Bougot, has taught Canary-birds, when mule birds are me, that this food is that which beft wanted, prefer small Araw and mors, agrees with them, not withfianding but the Canary-birds like beiter to what all auibors have said, who have ose the hair and lint: these must be written expressly on the subject." cut very small, for fear the threads After the eggs are all laid, give thould entangle the fect of the hen, them plantane and lettuce seed to and cause her to pull the eggs from purge them, taking away however the the neft as the rises from it.

young; for this food would neaken In feeding them, you must place in them, and must be given only for two the room a hopper pierced all round days to the parent birds. When you so as to admit their head, filled with wish to rear Canary-birds with the a portion of the following compofi- ftick, you must cot, according to the tion; three quarts of rape-feed, iwo directions of most bird-catchers, leave of oats, two of millet and of hemp- them with the mother to the eleventh feed; every twelve or thirteen days or twelfth day; it is better to take aLie hopper is to be filled, taking care way the young after the eighth day; that these seeds are clean and well, take them away in the neft, and leave wionowed. This food is proper as nothing but ihe case. The food of long as they have only eggs, but the the neltlings must be previously preevening before the young are to be pared ; 'it is a paste composed of boil. excluded, they must have a dry cake ed rape sced, a yolk of an egg and kneaded without falt, which may be crumb of the cake mixed and kneadleft silt it is eaten up, and then you ed with a little water, which is to be may give them eggs boiled hard ; a given them every two hours. This ungle hard egg if there are but two paste must not be too liquid ; and for cocks and four hens; two eggs if fear of its growing four, it must be there arc four cocks and cight hens, renewed every day till the young can and fo in proportion. They must feed themselves.

P.00ft

Proofs to ascertain that America was first discovered by the ancient Britons*. FR "ROM the testimonies of iravel- most part of those he had taken with

lers and historians, there are him benind, (Sir Thomas Herbert says ttrong reasons to believe that the an- that the number he left behind was cient Britons landed on the Conti- 120,) and returned to North Wales. nent of America nearly 300 years be. Upon his arrival, he described to his fore Behaim or Columbus ; io that if friends what a fair and extensive land a first discorery gives a right of por. he had met with, void of any inhabifeffion, the whole Continent belongs to tants, whilst they employed themselves, the ancient Britons.

and all their skill to supplant one anI cannot, in Giraldus, find any other, for only a ragged portion of thing upon the subject. He flourished rocks and mountains. Accordingly, about the time when this supposed having prevailed with confiderable discovery was made ; that is, during numbers to accompany him to that the reigns of Henry the II. Richard country, he failed back with ten ships, the I. and John, kings of Ergland. and bid adieu to his nalive land.

The first account that I can find The next accouno I have met with of the discovery of America by the of this event is in Hakluyt. Bntons is in an history of Wales writ After the death of Owen Gwy: ten by Caradoc of Llancarvan, Gla- nedd, his sonnes fell at de bate who morgar shire, in the British language, should inherit after him, for the eldest trnilated in'o English by Humphryfonne born in matrimony, Edward or Llwyd, and published by Dr David Jorwerth Drwidion (Drwyadwn) was Powel in the year 1584.

counted unmeet to govern because of This narrative bears the strongest the maine upon his face, and Howel semblance of truth, for it is plain, na. that took upon him the rule, was a tual, and fimple. It says, thar on the base foone, begotien upon an Irish wodeath of Owen Gwynedd, Prince of man. Thur, fore David, another North Wales, about the year 1169, fonne, gathered all the power he several of his childıen contended for could, and came againt Howel, and his dominions ; that Madog, one of fighting with him, it w him, and af:erhis sons, perceiving his native country wards enjoyed quietly the whole lands engaged, or on the eve of being en- of North Wales, until his brother Jorgaged, in a civil war, thought it bett werth’s fonne came to age. to try his fortune in fume foreign Madoc, another of Owen Gwyneth's climes. Leaving North Wales in a fonnes, left the land in contention bes' very unsettled itate, he sailed with a twixt his brethren, and prepared cerfew ships which he had fitted up and tain thips with men and munition, and manned for that purpose to the west- fought adventures by feas, failing west, ward, leaving Ireland to the north, and leaving the coast of Ireland fo fac He came al length to an unknown porth, that he came to a land unknown, counuy, where most things appeared where he saw many strange things. to bim new and uncustomary, and the This land must needs bc fome parts manners of the natives far different of the countrey of which the Spanfrom what he had seen in Europe.- yards affirm themselves to be the first Madog baving viewed the fertility and finders fince Hanno's time: wbereuppleasantpels of the country, left the on it is manifelt that that countrey B VOL. XIV. No. 79.

was * From “ An Inquiry concerning the Pirt Discovery of America, by the Europeans; John Williams, L.L. D.”

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