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height, that Juftinian, eager not only curiog it, mysteries hitherto unknown, to obtain a full and certain supply of a or very imperfectly understood in Eu. commodity which was become of in- · rope ; and encouraged by his libera dispensible use, but solicitous to deliver promises, they undertook to bring to the commerce of his subjects from the the capital a fufficient number of those esactions of his enemies, endeavour- wonderful insects, to whose labours ed, by means of his ally, the Christian man is so much indebted. This they monarch of Abyffinia, to wreit fome accomplished by conveying the cggs of portion of the filk trade from the Per- the Glk-worm in a hollow.cane. They laos. In this attempt he failed; but were hatched by the heat of a dungwhen he least expected it, he, by an hill, fed with the leaves of a wild mulunforeseen event, attained, in lume berry true, and they multiplied and measure, the object which be had in worked in the same manner as in those view. Tyo Perfian monks having climates where they first became ob. been employed as missionaries in some jeets of human attention and care. of the Christian churches, which were Vast numbers of these insects were established (as we are informed by food reared in different parts of Greece, Cosmas) in different parts of India, particularly in the Peloponesus. Sjhad penetrated into the country of the cily afterwards undertook to breed silk. seres, or China. There they observ wornis with equal success, and was įed the labours of the fille-worm, and mitated, from time to time, in several becanje acquainted with all the arts of towns of Italy. In all these places man in working up its productions in. extenfive manufactures were establishto such a variety of elegant fabrics.- ed, and carried on, with filk of doThe prospect of gain, or perhaps an in. meftic produétion. The deo.and for dignant zeal, excited by seeing this lilk from the east diminished of course, lucrative branch of commerce engros- the subjects of the Greek emperors Acd by unbelieving nations, pronipted were no longer obliged to have recourse them to repair to Conftantinople.- to the Perfians for a supply of it, and There they explained to the emperor a considerable change took place in the the origin of filk, as well as the vari. nature of the commercial intercourse ous modes of preparing and manufac- between Europe and India.

Account of the present State of the Fur Trade of Hudson's Bay 5. Τ'

Wenty years ago the Governor and these are procured at an expence,

of York Fort, which was the which a few years back would have Company's principal establishmens in been looked upon as next to an anniihe Bay, annually fent home at least hilation of their commercial existence, thirty thousand skins, aud maintained It is an incontrovertible fact, that no more than twenty-five men, at very Since the French have evacuated Capalow wages ; at present that place has da, the fur trade from the inland parts upwards of one hundred men at it, of Hudson's Bay has been carried on wilio have increased faláries, and it to a greater extent than ever it was fends home no more than twenty thou. before ; for the Company, who tiil fand skins, upon an average, from it. then confined themselves to the feafelf and four lubordinate fertlenients; shore, knew nothing of the numerous

nations & From " Umfreville's present State of Hudson's Bay."

nations inlaod; and these again knew a fale elsewhere, this extension of the as little of them: that the Conpany, trade will appear an object not very notwithstavding they had ob iged them inconfidclc. selves by their charter to explore the By the profecction of this commerce whole of their territories, confined from Canada, the Hudson's Bay conthemselves within a small circle. They pady found themselves effectually fupconsequently did not exert their in- planted on the sea-Thore, the patives fluence to procure peltries, or to ang- being supplied inland with every conment the consumption of British ma- veniency for war and domestic uses. nafa&tures, by any other methods chan. This induced the Company in the through the channel of a very few In- year 1773, to b gin their inland voydians, comparatively speaking. These ages, so that the Canadians from Ca. Indians however, brought downegough nada and the Europeans from Hudto entich a few individuals, whose in. son's Bay met together, not at all to tereft it was to prevent too great an in-, the ulterior advantage of the natives, fax of furs, which would not only who by this means became degeneratlwer the price at market, bunt probaed and debauche), through the excelbly open the eyes of an injured com- five use of spirituous liquors imported mercial people. In the days I am al- by these rivals in commerce. Juding ty, the port of York Fort was İt however must be owned, that the Surrounded with nations of Indians en- Hudson's Bay traders hare ingratiated tirely unknowo to the traders of the themselves more into the esteem and Company; and they would have re. confidence of the natives than the Camained in the fame Itate of ignorance, nadians. The advantage of trade is to this day; had they not been awaken evidently on their lide; their men, ed from their reverics by the unfur- whole honesty is incorruptible, being muun:able perseverence of a few Ca- more to be depended upon. Ia

pronadian merchants, who found them portion to the goods imported, the out, through obstacles and impedi. Company export a greater quantity of ments artended with more danger and furs, and these in better preservation, perfonal hazatd tban a voyage to Ja- and consequently more paluable. Their pan.

udseasonable parsimony has hitherto Since that time their affairs have been proved very favourable to their undergone a material change in these Canadian opponents; as the accumuparts. The Canada merchants annu- lated expences attending so distant an ally fend into the interior country, for undertaking would cverbalance the the Indian trade, about forty large ca- profits of the latter, if the exertions of noes of about four tons burthen each, the Company wete adequate to the vaa confiderable part of which goods are lue of the prize contended for. conveyed to shofe Indians who used The Hudson's Bay ferrants being 10 find their furs duwu to Hudson's thus more in possession of the esteem Bay by the Indian carriers, which did of the natives, they will always havis not amount to half the quantity at pre- the preference of trade as long as this fint procured. So that by this in:era conduct continues.

Another great fesence of the Canada traders, it is e. advantage in their favour is, that the vident that many more peleries are principal articles of their trading goods procured and imported into England, are of a superior quality to those imand a greater quintity of its manufaco ported from Canada. I would not by tares consumed than heretofore ; and this infinuacion infer, that the goods *han it is further considered, that sent inland from Canada are not good th:fe goods are of a very inferior qua- enough for the Indian trade; no, I liry, which perhaps would hardly find well know that the worlt article im

F VOL. XIV. No. 79.

ported

are fo

sorted is good enough ; but while they tenor of their behaviour is conducted Have'to contend with people who fend with fo much propriety, as not only to goods of a superior kind, they evident- make themselves esteemed by the naly lie under a difadvantage; and it is tives, and to procure their protection ; my opinion, that it would be for the but they allo employ their time in eninterest of the Canada merchanis to deavouring to enrich themselves and supply goods of an equal if not superi- their principals, by their diligence and or quahig to their adverfaries, at every unwearied almidoity. By this pruders pott where they have thefe formidable demeanor among the Indians, nor with. rivals to oppose them.

ftanding they have annually expofed The great imprudence, and bad way themselves to all the dangers in idem of living of the Canadian traders have to the cradle, for fteen years past, incy been an invincible bar to the cmolu. have not suitained the lofs of a man ; ment of their employers. Many of and the principal advantage of the these people, who have been the great- Company over the Canadian traders, eft part of their lives on this inlard is more to be attributed to the laud. fervice aniong favages, being devoid of able efforts of their servants, than even every social and benevolent tie, are be- to the superior quality of their goods, come Daves to ercry rice which can while the Canadian fervants corrupt and debafe the human mind; far from being actuated by the fame fuch as quarrelling, di unkennels, de principles, that very few of them cat ceptiòn, &c. From a confirmed habit be trusted with a small assortment of in tad courses of this nature, they are goods, to be laid out for their masters held in abhorrence and disgult, even profit, but it is ten to one that he is by the Indians, who finding themselves defrauded of the whole by commerce frequently deceived by fpecious pro with indian women, or some other mises, nerer intended to be performed, fpecies of peculation. By this and imagine the whole fraternity to be in various other meang, which lower them pregnared with the same failing, and in the eyes of the natives, as before accordingly hold the generality of the observed, they are become obnoxious Canadian traders in dereftarion and to the Indians, their faith is not to be contempt.

relied on, nor their honeity confided On the contrary, the fervants of the in; fo that scarce a year elapses, Hudson's Bay Company, imported without one or more of them falling principally from the Orkney Illes, are victims to their own imprudence, at a a clole, prudent, quiet people, ftriatly time when fatal experience should faithful to their employers, and fordid- teach them, that a condu& guided by ly avaricious. Whco these people are caution and difcretion ought to be the scattered about the country in small invariable and uniform rule of theis parties among the Indians, the general behaviour.

On tie impossibility of rendering the French Conftitution fimilar to the British. No OTSUING has been asserted Burke than the facility with which tł.e

with more confidence by Mr fragments of the lung subyerted liber.

* From Macintofa's Vindicia Gallicie,

ty of France might have been formed gy with an immense mass of property, into a British Constitution. But of rendered ftill more formidable by the this general position he has neither ex- concentration of great portions in the plained the mode, nor defined the li- hands of a few, to constitute it in efmitations. Nothing is more favoura- fect the fame body with the nobility, ble to the popularity of a work than by graoting them the monopoly of these lofty generalities which are light great benefices, and to beltow on this coough to pass into vulgar currency, clerico-military aristocracy, in its two and to become the maxims of a po- shapes of prietthood and nobility, two pular creed. Touched by definition, separate and independent voices in they become too simple and precise Legislation. This double body, from for eloquence, too cold and abstract its necessary dependance on the king, for popularity. But exhibited as they mult necessarily have in both forms beare by Mr Burke, they gratify the come the organ of his voice. The pride and indolence of the people, monarch would thus poffels three nesho are thus taught to speak what gatives, one avowed and disused, two gains applause without any effurt of latent and in perpetual activity on intellect, and imposes filence without the fingle voice which impotent and any labour of confutation ; what may illufive formality had yielded on the be acquired without being Itudied the third estate. Such and much more and uttered without being understood. must the parliament of England become Of this nature are these vague and before it could in any respect rosemble confident afiertions, which, without the division of the French Legislature furnishing any definite idea, afford a according to those ancient orders ready jargon for vulgar prejudice, Mat- which formed the Gathic assemblies of tering to national vanity, and sanctioned Europe. So monstrous did the ar. by a distinguished name. It is neces. rangement appear, that even under the sary to enquire with more precision in reign of Delporisin, the second plan what manner France could have ali- was proposed by M. Calonne--that milated the remaios of her ancient the clergy and nobility should fun an Conftitution to that of the English Le. Upper House to exercise conjointly gillature. Three modes only seem with the king and the commons the conceivable. The preservation of the legillative authority I admits howethree orders distinct. The uoion of ver of the clearelt proof that such a the clergy and nobility in one upper conftitution would have been diametrichamber, or some mode of electing cally opposite in its fpirit and princifrom these two Orders a body like the ples in the English government. House of Lords in England. Unless This will at once be evident from tie infinuations of Mr Burke point the different description of the body of to one or other of those schemes, I pobles in France and Eugland. In cannor divine their meaning. The first England they are a finall body, united mode (the three orders heting in Sepa- to the mass of the people by innumeTate houses with equal privileges) rable points of contact, receiving from would neither have been congenial in it perpetual new infusions, and returnspirit por fimilar inform to the con- ing to it, undiftinguished and unpriftitution of England. To convert the vileged, the majority of their childconvocation into an integrant and co-or. red. In France they formed an imdisant member of our legislature, would mense infulated caft. separated from give it some semblance of this fruc- society by every barrier that prejudice ture. But it would be a faint one. or policy could raise, receiving few It would be necessary to arm our cler- plebeian acceflions, and precluded,

by

by the indelible character of nobility, necessarily have a majority of its merathe equal patrimony of all their child-bers feptennially or triennially nomiren, from the possibility of their most nated by the King? Yet it would till remote descendants being restored to yield to the French Upper House of the general mass. The nobles of M. Calonne ; for the monied and comEngland are a Senate of. 200. The mercial interests of England, which noblesse of France were å tribe of would continue to be represented by 200,000. Nobility is in England the Commons, are important and foronly hereditary, so far as its professed midable, but in France they are comobject, the fupport of a hereditary parably insignificant. lţ would have senate, demands. li is therefore de- been a government where the Aristoscendible only to one beir. Nobility in cracy could have been strong only France was as widely inheritable as against the people, impotent against the its real purpose, the maintainance of a crown. This second arrangement then privileged caft, prescribed. It was is equally repugnant to the theory of therefure necessarily descendible 19 the British conftitution as the first. 2! male children.

There remains only fome mode of There are other points of contrast sele&lion of a body from amidst the still more important. The Nobleffe nobility and clergy to form an Upper of France were a:' once formidable House, and to this there are insaper. from their immense body of property, able ubje&ions. Had the right of thas and dependant from the indigence of forming a branch of the legislature by their Patrician rabble of cadets, whom a single act of prerogative been given honpurinspired with servility and servili- to the king, it must have ftrengthened ry excluded from the path to indepep. his influence to a degree terrible at dence. Theyin fact possessed fo large a any period, but fatal in the moment of portion of the landed property, as to be political reform. Had any node oi juftly, and almost exclufrely consider. eleâion by the provinces, or the legif. ed as the landed inierest of the king. lature, been adopted, or if they had com. To this formidable property was been vefted with any control on the added the revenues of the church, nomination of the crown, the new dig. monopolized by their children. The nity would have been fought with an younger branches of these opulent adivity of corruption and intrigue, of fa:nilies had in general no patrimony which, in such a national consullion, but their honours and their fiord. it is ippollible to estimate the danger. They were therefore reduced to seek No general principle of selection, tuch fo tune and distinction in military de- as that of opulence or an:iquity, would pendence on the Crown. If they have reinedied the evil, for the eswere generous, the habits of military cluded and degraded nobirs would service devoted them from loyalty ; if feel the principle, that nobility is the they were prudent, the hope of military equal and inalienable patrimony of all. promotion devoted themfrom interest to By the abolition of nobilty, no nolie. flie king.-How immense therefore man was degraded, for to degrade is and irreliftible would the Royal in- to lower from a rank that cominues Auence have been in elections, where to exist it fociety. No man can be the majority of the voters were the degraded when the rank he posleffed servants and creatures of the Crown? no longer exists. But had the rank What would be thought in England of nobility remained in the mode of of a House of Lords, which, while it which we have been speaking, the represened or contained the whole great body of the nobles would indeed, Linded interest of the kingdom, should in a proper and penal sense, have been

degraded

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