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Sinne t'ciorunt of the New Colony at Sierra Leona, on the coast of Africa, ar ficted by Mr Clarkson to the Socichy in this place for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.


-HE first project of establishing off from the grounds which the co-

a settlement on the river Serra looy occupied ;-councils were im, Lcona, originated with the late be-mediately held,--the slave fhips boardnevolent Mr Jonas Hanway about ed,--the unfortunate captives brought the year 1786. Obferving in the back,—and the captains of the verItreets and environs of London a fels laid hold of and compelled to pay number of poor and neglected natives considerable fines for their misconof Africa, sublisting in misery on pre- duct. A series of such proceedlings carious charity, he formed the idea of would soon have produced considera fending them back to their own coun able inconvenience to the slave deal. try, in a situation in which they mighters, by restraining, at least in the terbe able at least to support themelves, ritory of the colooy, the villainous and perhaps ultimately to benefit this and inhuman practices from which kingdom. Three hundred of them much of the gain of that traffic arises ; were accordingly collected, and tranf, the different nave factories in the ported to a place on the river Sierra neighbourhood therefore united for Leona, where it was expected they the destruction of the infant fertlewould have it in their power to turn

The African Kings were, by their industry to a proper account. different mears, stirred up to attack Un'orunately from misinformaiion, in them; and at last a detachment of respect to the climate and seasons in Africans, conducted, it is said, by an that

part of the world, this little co- European, attacked the new-built lony nere sent out, und arrived in town, set fire to it (the white conAfrica at the most unfavourable pe- ductor setting the example), reduced riod for fursaing a fettlement. The it to a heap of ruins, and partly exrainy weather fer in b: fore they could. tirrated, partly dispersed, the inhabie provide ibilter; and, from their bad accommodations, joined to other hard The Colonists, ftruck with conster. Thrips to which they were exposed, a nation at this disaster, and dreading gieat mortality came on, which car immediate and utter destruction, aried off more thau one half of the Co- bandoned their seulement, and took looists. One hundred and twenty, refuge in faltnesses and moraffes, huwever, fuivived all their distrefies; where they were exposed to hardihijs and, when the more favourable sea- that proved fatal to several. In hopes son commenced, immediately took of relief, they found means to get feneafures for forming a Settlement, veral letters, ftating their wretched built a village, and began to cultivate fituation, dispatched by different ships, the ground: the rudiments of a go- addressed to the persons in London vernment were planned, and divine who had formed the plan of the fertlewo ship was regularly pertormed, and ment. As slave ships, however, were conftanıly as well as decently attended. the only means of conveyance they

Even in this infant itate they very could procure for these letters, pot carly began to prove a confiderable one of them was ever delivered, but check on the enormiries of the Slave all of them opened ; and, on the con, Merchants. Two particular inftances tents being known, immediately de ... foon occurred, in which fone per- ftroyed. No answer being received {uns had been kidnapped and carried to ibeir letters, the settlers began to



fufpect their miscarriage ; and, as the low water, capable of floating a man only mode of effecting their deliver- of war almost close to the shore. The ance, one of them at last offered and land besides appeared uncommonly undertook to venture on board a Slave fertile, and the climate with proper ship, and go with it, first to the Welt precaution by no means infalutary. Indies, and then to England. He Determined to proceed in all their did so, arrived safe, and gave the first transactions on the principles of the intelligence to the benevolent plan- ftriételt equity and jultice, the affociarners of the scheme, of its total mis- ed company, as the commencement of carriage, the means by which that had their operation, entered into terms been effected, and the disial situation with the several African princes, who of the surviving Colonifts.

claimed the property of this la d, for The Gentlemen concerned instant- the purchase of what they required. ly resolved to attempt the relief of the The ternis were fertled, the lands fufferers. They dispatched a small purchated at an expence of between refsel berween 30 and 40 tons bur- two and three hundred pounds Sterden, under the care of M. Falcon- ling, and the African Cliefs made bridge furgeon, loaded with what them over in perpetuity to the King might be most neceffary for men in of Great Britain. their circumstances. M. Falconbridge The next step was to apply for an found the fettlers in most distressed Act of Parliament, incorporating the circumstances, destitute of every ne. Company, and impowering his Maceffary, and many of them ready to jesty to make a grant of the lands thus perish from diseases contracted by ceded to the new-established affociatheir mode of living; many of thele tion. To the passing of this act, the disorders he was able to cure, and greatest opposition was made by the collecting all the remains of the Co. llave-merchants and Welt-India plantlony, found seventy-four persons still ers; but in spite of their endeavours, furviving. These he brought toge- it was carriei through, and in confether, and setiled in a proper spot, quence of it a grant of the land in the where they built a vilage, and thus manner defired was obtained by the Jaid the foundation of the New Colo- Company. ny of Sierra Leona. Inured to the Being thus put in poffeffion of a climate, and trained up by hardships legal title to the ground, the next step and distress, they must prove a valua. was to procure a proper number of ble acquisition to the infant settle- fertlers for its cultivation. By a parment.

ticular clause in the Art of ParliaThe Gentlemen in Britain, who ment, incorporating the Company, a had ftill an establishment on the Afri- pofitive' refiriction was laid against can coast much at heart, profiting by their either countenancing or adopting the errors in the first attempt, resolved the practice of lavery ; it was to free to proceed with more caution, and on sertlers alone, therefore, they were 10 a better plan in the second. A tract look for a fapply of inhabitants. The of ground on the river Sierra Leona, 74 persons already mentioned as the about 20 miles square, lying in lat. remains of the first Colony, were about 9°, was pitched upon as the sure and useful hands, and were thereproper spot, both on account of its fore regarded as the foundation of the central situation in the vicinity of se- sertlement. But their number was veral navigable rivers, and on account too small to carry on any extensive of the depth of water at the place plan, fresh settlers therefore were necefwhere the proposed new town was to lary. On enquiry it was found that to crocted, the river being there, at many persons, both white and black,


in different parts of Britain, would ter, and the regularity of their conchearfully embrace the opportunity of duct. In a short time, three hundred fe tling in Sierra Leona, it proper en- and twenty perfonis, partly negroes, partcouragement was g ven. The Affu- ly Europeans, were approved of; many cintei Company held out to these of them pofiefed of small capitals; and men terms p rhaps the most liberal all of them bearing respectable chathat any Company ever had offered. raciers for industry, fobriety, and deEvery ma), it was agred, furuld be cency of behaviour.

These were put in poffeffion of twenty acres of embarked on board of a proper vessel, Jand fir hiniclf, ten more for his and are now on their pailage to, if not wife, if he was a married man, and already arrived at Sierra Leona. The five more for

every child he carried Company have purchased an oid 44 out with him ; the Fre-limple of this gun frigare, which they mean to lie Jandio belong in property to him and in the river to serve both as a maga. hsheis for ever. Tools and instru- zine for stores and provisions, and a Luis of

every kind were furnished temporary habitation for the seriers, at the Compa:y's cxpence, and to till they can get houfes constructed on iniure the letters agairt inniediate shore. Wint, ne morths provisions were These two furflies of people, tho' prwd to be given gratis to the together they form an infant colony, Colcks on their arrival, and provi. far from contemptible, yet are not the fions for three months more laid in, only ones which this sertlement has to be filled in them if necessary, at a to look for; a ftill greater accesfion reasonable aire.

will soon be made froia America, l'he lib vality of these terms opera- owing to a series of circumstances, ted with many; and numerous applica- which, for the honour of Britain, it tions were received from many who were to be wished had never taken withid to 'embark in the ich me; place, but which may ultimately tend mone however were received who to the benefit of humanity. could not produce suficient atteftations in regard to their moral charac (To be concluded in our next.)

New Discoveries respetting the purifying property of Charcoal *.

perties of Charcoal, it has lately this simple application, at the fame been discovered by a gentl. man at time, renders the teeth beautifully Petersburgh, that all forts of glass white; and that brown (or othervessels and other utensils may be puri- wise coloured) putrid stinking water fied from long retained (mells and may be deprived of its offensive {mell, taints of every kind, in the eaficít and and rendered transparent by means of most perfcct manner, by rinsing them the same substance. Hence he thinks out well with charcoal reduced to a it would be of use for preserving wa.

fine powder, after their groffer im- ter sweet during sea voyages, 10 adet purities have been scoured off with about 5 lb. of coasse charcoal powder Lind and por-ath -- That people whose to every cask of water ; it being only breath smells (trong from a scorbutic neceffary afterwards to ftrain the wadifpofition of the guns, may at any ter off when wanted, through a loca time get perfeAlly rid of this bad smell, bag. by rubbing and washing out the mouth

A four

• From Crell's Chemical Journal.

å fort Description of Carnicoljar, by Air G. Hamilton *

and are

THE {land of which I propose to the person something like the 'thatch. -

sire à succinct account, is the ing of a house. Such of them as have northernmost of that cluster in the Bay received presents of cloth petticoats of B-ngal which goes by the name of from the ships, commonly tie them the Nicobars. It is lon, of a round round immediately under the arms. figure, about forty miles in circumfer. The men wear nothing but a narrow ence, and appears at a dittance as if strip of cloth about the middle, in entirely covered with trees : however, which they wrap up their privities fo there are several well-cleared and de- tight that there hardiy is any appear. ligh'ful spots upon it. The soil is a ance of them. The ears of both fixes black kind of clay, and marshy. It are pierced when young, and by produces in great abundance, and with squeezing into the holes large plics of Jinile care, molt of the tropical fiuits, wood, or hanging heavy weights of such as pine-apples, plantains, papayas, shells, they contrive to render them Cocoa-nuts, and areca nuts; allo ex- wide, and disagreeable to look at. cellent yams, and a root calleil cachu. They are naturally disposed to be The only fur-footed animals apon good humoured and ray, the island are hogs, dogs, large rats, very fond of fitting at table with Lun and an animal of the lizard kind, but ropeans, where they eat every thing large, called by the natives tolonqui ; that is set before them, and they cat these frequently carry off fowls moft enormously. They do not care and chickens. The only kind of much for wine, but will driok bom. poultry are hens, and those pot in pers of arak as long as they can fee. great plenty. There are abundance A great part of their time is spent of snakes of many different kinds, in teatting and dancing, When a and the inhabitants frequently die feast is held at any village, every of their bites. The timber

upon one that chufes goes uninvited, for the island is of many forts, in they are utter strangers to ceremonyo great plenty, and some of it remark. Ai those feaits they eat immense ably large,

excellent quantities of pork, which is their famaterials for building or repairing vourite food. Their bogs are remirkships.

ably fat, being fed upon the cocoaThe natives are low io ftature, but nut kernel and lea-water ; indeed, all very well made, and surprisingly active their domestic animals, fowls, dogs, and strong; they are copper-coloured, &c. are fed upon the same. They have and their features have a cast of the likewise plenty of small sea fill, which Malay, quite the reverse of elegant. they strike very dexterously with The women in yarticular are extremely lances, wading into the sea about kneeugly. The men cut their hair thort and deep. They are sure of killing a very the women have their heads Shaved small fib at ten or twelve yuds dis. quite bare, and wear no covering but tance. They eat the pork almost a short pesticoat, made of a sort of raw, giving it only a hafty grill over ruth or dry gials, which reaches half a quick fire. They roast a owl, by way down the thigh. This grass is ruoning a piece of wood through it for interwoven, hut hangs ruund by way of spicy and hoiding it over 2 z Vol. XIV. No. 83.

a br ik


* From the Second Volume of the Afiatic Researches, just publisbed..

a brisk fire until the feathers are burnt next day the child was ruoping about off, when it is ready for eating in perfeâly well. their taste. They never drink water ; Their houses are generally built only cocoa-nut milk, and a liquor cal. upon the beach, in villages of fifteen led foura, which oozes from the co or twenty houses each ; and each coa-nut tree after cutting off the house contains a family of twenty peryoung sprouts or flowers. This they fons and upwards. Thefe habitations suffer to ferment before it is used, and are raised upon wooden pillars about then it is intoxicating, 'to which qua. ten feet from the ground ; they are lity they add much by their method round, and, having no wiodows, look of drinking is, by sucking it slowly like-bee-hives covered with thatch. through a fmall tray. After eating, The eotry is through a trap door bethe young men and women who are low, where the family mount by a lad. fancifully dressed with leaves, go to der, which is drawn up at night. dancing, and the old people surround This manner of building is intended them smoaking tobacco and drinking to secure the houses from being ina foura. The dancers, while perform. fexed with snakes and rats, and for: ing, sing some of their tunes, which that purpose the pillars are bound are far from wanting harmony, and to round with a smooth kind of leaf, which they keep exact time. Of mu- which prevents animals from being fical instruments they have only one able to mount; besues which, each kiod, and that the simplest. It is a pillar has a broad round flat piece of hollow bamboo, about two feet and a wood near the top of it, the projecthalf long, and three inches in diame- ing of which effectually prevents the ter, along the outside of which there further progress of such vermin, as is stretched from end to end a single may have passed the leaf. The floorftring made of the threads of a split ingis made with thin (trips of bamboos, cane, and the place under the string laid at such distances from one ano. is hollowed a little to prevent it from ther, as to leave free admision for touching. This inftrument is played light and air, and the infide is neatly upon in the same manner as a guitar. finished, and decorated with filhing It is capable of producing but few lances, oets, &c. nores ; the performer, however, makes The art of making cloth of any it fpeak barmoniously, and generally kind is quite voknown to the iohabi. accomanies it with the voice. tants of this island; what they have

What they know of physic is small is got from the ships that come to and simple. I had once occasion to trade in cocoa-nuts.' In exchange for see an operation in furgery performed their nuts (which are reckoned the on the toe of a young girl who had finest in this part of India) they will been itung by a scorpion or centipes. accept of but few articles what they The wond was attended with a con. chiefly wish for is cloth of different cosiderable swelling, and the little patient lours, hatchets and hanger blades, which seemed in great pain. One of the they use in cutting down the nuts. natives produced the under jaw of a Tobacco and arak they are very food small filh, which was long, and plant, of, but expect these is prefents. They ed with two rows of teeth as Sharp as have no money of their own, nor will needles : taking this in one hand, and they allow any value to the coin of a small stick by way of hammer in the other countries, further than as they other, he struck the teeth three or happen to fancy them for ornaments; four times into the swelling, and made the young women fometimes hanging it bleed freely; the toe was then strings of dollars about their necks. bound up with certain leaves, and However, they are good judges of


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