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great propensity to bring a horse's upper line of their necks, from their head down, and seem to have no seat ears to their wirbers, too short. A without a strong hold by the bridle, head of this sort cannot poslibly beod They know, indeed, that the head inward and form an arch, because the should yield to the reins, and the neck vertebræ (or neck bones) are too short form an arch; but, do not take the to admit of flexure ; for in long and proper pains to make it an arch up- Ahort.necked horses the number of the ward. A temporary effecì of attempt vertebræ is the same. In fome, the ing to raiie a lurie's head, may per jaw is fo thick, that it meets the neck, haps be making him push out his nose. and the head by this means has not They will here tell you, that his head room to bend. On the other hand, is too high already; whereas it is not some have the under line from the jaw the distance from his nose, but from to the breast fo short, that the neck the top of his head to the ground, cannot rise. which determines the head to be high

Io all these cases you may gain a or low. Besides, although the fault is little by a nice hand with an ealy bit i said to be in the manner of carrying but no curb, martingale, or other the head, it should rather be said to be forcible method, will teach a borse to in that of the neck; for if the neck carry his head or neck iu a pofture was raised, the head would be more in which nature has made uneasy to him. : the position of one set on a well-form- By trying to pull in his nose farther ed neck.

than he can bear, you will add a bad The design therefore of lifting up habit to nature. You could not inthe head is to raise the neck, and there, deed contrive a more effc&tual method by bring in the head; for even while to make him continually toss his nose the bridle makes the sanıę line from up, and throw his foam over you. the rider's hand to the bit, the horse's The rule already given to ride à pose may be either drawn in, or thruft lo-se-necked horse, will be a proper out, according as his peck is raised or one for all light mouthed horses: one depressed. Instead of what has beun cartoon being added, which is, always here recommended, we usually fee to search whether bis fiddle or girths colts broke with their heads cavesson- may not in some way pinch him ; and ed very low, their neclis Itif, and not wiether the bit may not hurt his lip in the least suppled. When the break- by being too high in his mouth; be: ing tackle is left off, and they are cause, whenever he: frets from either mounted for the road, having more of these causes; his head will not be food and rest, they frequently plange, steady, and a second breaking becomes neces It is a common custow to be always fary. Then, as few gentlemen can pulling at the bridle, as if to set off manage their own horses, they are puç to advantage either the spirit of the into the hands of grooms, from whom horse, or the skill of the rider, Our they learn a variety of bad habits. horses therefore aie taught to hold

if, on the other hand, your horse their heads low, and pull, so as to bear carries his head (or rather his nose) up the rider from the saddle, standing too high, he generally makes some a in his ftirrups, even in the genuleft mends by moving his shoulders light- gallop: how very improper this is, we ly, and going fafely. Attend to the are experimentally convinced, when cause of this fault. Some borses have we happen to meet with a horse which their necks fet fo low on their shoul- gallops otherwise. We immediately ders, that they bend first wn, then fay, he canters excellently, and find the opward, like a ftag's. Some have the case and pleasure of his motion. When


borfes are designed for the race, and making with his hinder parts, or croup, swiftness is the only thing considered, a great circle out of the road; wherethe method may be a good one. as, he should learn to keep straight on,

It is not to be wondered that dealers without minding objects on either are always pulling at their horses ; fide. that they have the fpur constantly in If he starts at any thing on the left, their lides, and are at the fame time hold his head high, and keep it straight contioually checking the rein: by this in the road, pulling it from looking at means they make them bound, and the thing he starts at, and keeping your champ the bit, while their rage has right leg hand pressed against his fide, the appearance of spirit. Thele peo- toward his daik: he will then go ple ride with their arms spread, and straight along the road. By this mevery low on the thoulders of their thod, and by turning his head a littie horses : this method makes them more, he may be forced with his croup ftreech their necks, and gives a better close up to what frightened him; to appearance to their fore hands; it con- as his head is pulled one way, his ceals also a thick jaw, which, if the croup neceflarily turns the other.head was up, would prevent its yield. Always avoid a quarrel with your ing to the bit; it hides likewise the horse, if you can : If he is apt to itart, ewe-deck, which would otherwise show you will find occasions enough to exitself. Indeed, if you have a horfe ercise his obedience, when what he upsteady to the bit, formed with a na- starts at lies directly in his way, and fural heavy head, or one which carries you mnit make him pafs ; if he is not his nose obstinately in the air, you subject to start, you should not quara must find his mouth where you can, rel with him about a trifle. and make the best of him.

It mult be observed, however, that Many horses are taught to ftart by this rule in guing pait an object may whipping them for starting. How is perhaps be a little irregular in a mait poffible they can know it is designed naged horse, which will always obey as a punishment in the riding house, the leg : but even ?uch a horse, if he you teach your horse to rise up be- is really afraid, and not reftive, it may fore, and to spring and lak out his not be amifs to make him look ano her hinder legs, by whipping him when way; unleis the olject be fomething tied between two pillars, with his head you would particularly accustom him a litile at liberty. If he understood to the light of. this to he a punishment for doing fo, The case will also be different with he would not by that method learn to a lic. se whose fear is owing to his being do it. He seems to be in the same not used to objects; but such a one is manner taught tv ipring and fly when not to be rode by any horseman to he is frightened. Molt horses would whom these rules are directed: the g? quietly paft an object they were be- ftarting here meant arises merely from Lioning to fly from, if their riders, in the horfe's being pampered, and spring, Itead of gathering up their bridles, and ing through live iness. showing themselves fo ready, should The notion of ihe necesity of makthrow the 'reios loose upon their ing a horse go immediately up to every necks.

thing he is afraid of, and not suffering When a horse itarts at any thing him to become loaiter of his rider, on one tide, most riders turn hirr out seems to be in general carried too far. of the road, to make him go up to It is an approved and good method to what he starts at: if he does not get coquer a horse's fear of the found of the better of his fear, or readily com- a drum, by beating one pear to him ply, he generally goes past the object, at the time of feeding him : this not


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oply familiarises the noise to him, but may be useful hints for the treatmicet makes it pleasant, as a forerunner of of horses with regard to starting. his meat; whereas, if he was whipped Though you ought not to whip up to it, he might perhaps start at, it a horse from starting, there can be no as long as he lived. Might not this be good effect from clapping his neck applied to his starting at other things, wath your hand to encourage him and thew that it would be better to If one took any notice of his Itarting, faffer him (provided he does not turn it should be rather with some tone of back) to go a little from and avoid an voice which he usually understood as object he has a didike to, and to ac- an expression of dislike to what he is cuitom him to it by degrees, convinc- doing; for there is oppofirion mixed ing him, as it were, that it will not with his starting, and a horse will ever hurt him; than to punila him, quarrel repeat what he finds has failed his with him, and perhaps submit to his rider. will at lait, while yoa infift on his o Notwithstanding the directions de vercoming his fear in an instant? If bove given, of not preling a horfe he sees a like object again, it is pro- up to a carriage he starts at; yet if bable he will recollect his dread, and one which you apprehend will frighten arm, himself to be disobedient. him meets you at a narrow part of

We are apt to suppose that a horse the road, when you have goce let him fears nothing fo much as his rider: know he is to pass it, be sure you

many circun- remaio determined, and press him on. Aances, be afraid of initant deftruc. Do this mort especially when part of tion? of being crushed ? of being the carriage has already paffed you; drowned ? of falling down a preci- for if, when he is frightened, he is pice? Is it a wonder that a horse accuftomed to go back, and turn thould be afraid of a loaded waggon ? round, he will certainly do it if he snay not the hanging load seem to finds, by your hand dackening, and threaten the falling on hin? There tegs not presling, that you are irre, cannot be a' rule more general, than, flute; and this at the most danger. in such a case, to show him there is ous point of time, when the wheels Toom for him to pass. This is done pf the carriage take bim as he turps. by turning his head a very little from Remember not to touch the curb-rein the carriage, and pressing your leg, at this time; it will certainly check which is fartheft from it, againft his 'him. It is not known to every one, fide.

that the person who would lead A horse is not to stop without a horse by the bridle should not tura fign from his ridero-Is it not oben his face to him when he şefuses to probable, that when driven up to a follow him: if, beside this, he raises *carriage he starts at it, he conceives his arms, Ahows his whip, or pulls himself obliged either to attack or run the bridle with jerks, he frightens the against it can he understand the horse, instead of persuading him to rider's spurring bim with his face di- follow, which a little parience may jected to it, as a sign for him to pass bring about. ir? That a horse is easily alarmed for Ride with a fnaffle; and use your his face and eyes (he will even catch curb, if you have one, only occafionbuck his head from a hand going to ally. Chouse your saaffle full and Caress him) that he will not go with thick in the mouth, especially at the any force, face to face, even to ano ends to which the reins are falteped. ther horfe (if in his power to stop) Most of them are made too small and and that he sees perfectly fideways long; they cut the horse's mouth, and


bend back over the bars of his jaw, ing, koow they have any power over working like pincers.

a horse but by the bridle; or any use The management of the curb is too for the fpur, except to make him go nice a matter to enter on here, farther forward. A lule experience will than to prescribe great caution in the teach them a farther use. If the left use of it; a turn of the wrist, rather {pur touches him (aod he is at the than the weight of your arm, should fame time prevented from going forbe applied to it. The elasticity of a ward) he has a fin which he will sod, when it hath hooked a lih, may fuon understand, to move fadeways to give you fome idea of the proper play the right. In the same manner to the of a horse's head on his bridle; his left, if the right spur is closed to him, fpirit and his pliablepels are both hre afterward, through fear of the marked by it.

spur, obeys a touch of the leg ; in the A horse should never be put to do fame manner as a horse moves his any thing in a curb which he is not croup from one side of the fall to the ready at : you may force him, or pull other, when any one strikes him with his head any way with a fnafile ; but his hand. In short, his croup is guided a corb acts only in a Atraight line. It by the leg, as his head is by the briis true, that a horse will be turned dle. He will never disobey the leg, out of one track into another by a unless he becomes restive. By this curb, but it is because he knows it as means you will have a far greater a When he is put to draw a power over him : be will move sidechair, and does not understand the ne. Vays, if you close one leg to him ; ceslicy he is then under of taking a and ftraight forward, if both : even larger sweep when he turns you fre. when he ftands ftill, your legs held quently see him reftive, as it is then near him will keep him on the watch ; called: but put him on a fnaffle, or and with the Nightest, unseen motion buckle the rein to that part of the bit of the bridle upward, he will raise his which does not curb him: and the head, and show his forehand tu ada horse submits to be pulled about, till vantage. he understands what is desired of him. On this use of the legs of the rider, Thele directions fuppose your horse and guidance of the croup of the to have spirit, and a good mouth: if horse, are founded all the airs (as the Ke has not, you must take him as he riding-nafters express themlelves) is, and ride him with fuch a bit as which are taught in the manege ; the you find most eafy to yourself. paffage, or lide-motion of traopers to

When you ride a journey, be not ciole or open their files, and indeed so attentive to your horse's nice car all their evolutions. But the cooveriage of himself, as to your encourage- nience of some degree of this discipline ment of him, and keeping him in good for common use is the reason of menhumour. Raise his head; but if he . tioning it here. It is useful if a horse dags, you may iodulge bim with is apt to stumble or Itart. If to the bearing a little more upon the bit than firit, by prefing your legs to his flank, you would suffer in an airing. If a and keeping up his head, he is made horse is lame, teoder-footed, or tired, to go light on his fore-legs, which is "he paturally hangs upon his bridle. , aiding and supporting him; and the

On a journey, therefore, his mouth fame it be dues actually Itumble, by will depend greatly on his ftrength helping him at the very instant to exand the goodness of his feet. Be then est himself, while as yet any part of very careful about his feet, and let him remaios nor irrecoverably imDot a farrier fpoil them.

preffed with the precipitate motion, Very few, alebo practised in rid- Hence this use of the band and legs of

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the rider is called giving aids to a again't the fides of the horse: if a horse; for, as to holding up the horse is taught, they are then conweight of a heavy unactive horse, by tinually preiling him to violent action; mere pulling, it is as imposible as to, and if he is not, they render him inrecover him when falling down a pre- sensible and incapable of being taught. cipice.

The fretting of a hot horse will hence A horse is supported and helped by be excethve, as it can no otherwise be the hands and legs of his rider in every moderated than by the utmost fillaction they require of him; hence he nels of the feats, hand, and legs of is said to perform his airs by the aids the rider. of his rider.

Colts at first are taught to bear a The fame manner is us-ful if a bit, and by degrees to pull at it. If horse starts. For if. when he is be- they did not press it,, they could not ginning to fly to one side, you leg on be guided by it. By degrees they the fide he is flying to, hc ftops his find their necks stronger than the arms {pring immediately. He goes part of a man; and that they are capable what he started at; keeping straight of making great opposition, and often on, or as you choose to direct bim; of foiling their riders. Then is the and he will not fly back from any time to make them supple and pliant thing if you press him with both legs. in every part. The pare which of all You keep his baunches under him others requires most this pliancy is the going down a hill; help him on the neck. Hence the metaphor of ftiff. lide of a bank; more easily avoid the necked for disobedient. A borse canwheel of a carriage ; and approach nọt move his head but with the muscles more gracefully, and nearer to the of his neck : this may be called his fide of a coach or horseman. When helm ; it guides his course, changes a pampered horse curvets irregularly and directs his motion. and cwists his body to and fro, turn The use of this pliancy in the difhis bead either to the right or left, or ferent parts and limbs of a horse is both alternately (but without letting not necessary to be shewn in this essay, him move out of ihe track), and press which is directed solely to the inexyour leg to the oppofite tide ; your perienced horseman. It may, therefore, horse then cannot Spring on his hind. fuffice to add, that his idea of suppleer legs to one side, because your leg ness need only be, that of an ability prevents him ; nor to the oļher, be-, and readiness in a horse to move every cause his head looks that way, and a limb, on a lign given him by the horse does not start and spring to the hands or legs of his rider : as alfo, to fide on which he looks. Here it may bend his body, and move in a fore not be amiss to observe the impro- compass, quick and collected within priety of the habit which many riders himself, so as instantly to be able to have, of letting their legs Dhake perform any other motion.

Anecdotes & Traits Characteristiques.--Accotes and Charalleriftic Circum

liances in the Life of Joseph Il. late In.peror of Germany, to which is prefixed his Teftament. By Madame de R.

the first number of these anec. passed over in filent expediation.

, to be


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