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Page Register of the Weather for Octo Dire&tions for Inexperienced ber, 266 . Horsemen,

295 Remarks by the late King of Pruf | Anécdotes of the late Emperor ha on German Literature, 267

feph II.

304 Experiments on the new discover Scale of the merits of the most ed Paragelidum,

272 eminent Painters of the Old Description of the Plete, ibia School,

307 Account of Dr Pricily, 273A Memorial of the most Rare and Observations on the State of Liter Wonderful Things in Scotland. 308

ature among the Fair Sex in Account of the Revolution at Dela the 16th Century,

276 hi, the Capital of the Mogul On the Effects of Capt. Cook's ex Einpire,

peditions to the South Seas, 277: Accou'st of Jobu IVilfon the EngMemoirs of Dr Gilbert Facchaus,

Pin Botanist,

315 Professor of Philosophy at Ley

Account of the Pelew Illands,

317 den,

282 Remarks on the Ilaod HinGilpin on the Original State of Fo za; by Sir William Jones, 32 1

rests and theit Iohabitants, 283 Obfervations on the Writings of Letter from Dr Johnson to Mr

Vida, Elphinstone on the Death of his Review 6f-Abftract of the EviMother,

287 dence on the Part of the Peti. Extract of a Letter from Lord tioners for the Abolition of the

Bolinbroke to M. Pouily de Cham. Slave Trade, peaux, with keturks,

288 Corecousness its own punishment; Address to the People of England a Tale,

333 by the Diffenters in the West Poetry,

337 Riding of Yorkshire, 291 Monthly Regifter.

339

326

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State of the BAROMETER in inches and decimals, and of Farenheit's THER

MOMETER in the open air, taken in the morning before fun-rise, and at nuon; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from Sept. 311t 1791to the zoth of October, near the foot of Arthur's Seat.

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Extrait of a Letter from the late King of Prullia to M. de Hertzberg on the

Literature of Germany; its defects, and the means of remedying them : dated

in 1780. YO

OU are furprised, Sir, that I do tion till the times of Cicero and of

not join my voice to your's in Hortensius, and of those illuftrious applauding the progress which, as you writers who dignified the Auguftan say, German literature is every day age. making. I love our common country

This short review points out to me as much as you do, and therefore I the progress of letters. I see that an shall not praise her till she has merit- author

, cannot write well if the laned my praife. That would be like guage he writes in is rude and unproclaiming a man a conqueror before formed; and that, in every country, he has run half his course. I wait till people begin with the necessary before he has gained the prize, and then my they think of the agreeable. After the applause will be as kncere as it is de formation of the Roman Republic, it served.

fought to acquire territory, which it You know that in the Republic of cultivated, and when, after the Punic letters, opinions are free. You see wars, it had taken a more stable form, objects in one point of view, I in ano a talle for the arts was introduced, cher: allow me to explain myself, and eluquence and the Latin language to lay before you my way of thinking were perfected. But I cannot help on this subject, and my ideas of an, observing, that from the time of Scipio cient and modera literature with re. Africanus to the consulship of Cicero, fpect to languages, science and taste. there is 'an interval of one hundied

I begin with Greece, which was the and lixty years. cradle of the fine arts. That nation From this I conclude that profispoke the most harmonious language ciency in an, ibing is a work of time, that has ever exifted. Her firtt Theo. and that the feed which we plant in logians, and her frit historians, were the earth mult take root, muit shoot poets ; these were the men who gave up, estend its branches, and acquire the happy polith to their language; strength before it cao produce flowers who invented a number of picturesque and fruit., 'Let me examine Germany expreíñons, and who taught their suc- by these rules, that I may appreciaie ceifurs to speak with grace, with po- without partiality our prescot Gualiteness, and propriety.

tion: I divest my mind of every preFrom Athens I pass to Rome, and judice, that truth alone may be any inthere I find a Republic ftruggling long former. Here I find a semi-barbarees with iis neighbours, and tighting for language, divided into as many differglory and for empire. Every thing ent dialects as Germany contains Pro in that guvernment was active and vinces. Each circl: is persuaded that warlike ; nor was it till after the des- its own patois is the belt. We have truction of its rival Carthage, that it no work fortified with the national acquired a taste for the scicnes. Scipio fanction which contains such a choice Africanus, the friend of Lelius,aod of of words and phrafes as coolitutes the Polybius, was the firit Roman who purity of language. Wh.it is written protected letters. Afterwards came in Suabia is unintelligible' at Hamthe Gracchi, and then Anthony, and burg, and the style of Austria appears

Craffas, two celebrated orators. But obfcure in Saxony. It is therefore the Latin language and Roman elo- physically imposible for au author of quence did not arrive at perfec. genius to manage fo rude a language

LT2

with

with any degree of superior dexterity. of my compatriots, is to allow that we If se require a Phidias tu execute a have had, in the insignificant walk of Goidian Venus ; if we give him a block fable, a Gellert who has obtained a of the purest marble, and farp.sh bim place belide Phædrus and Flop: the with the best implements of his art, poems of Canitz are tolerable, not on there is no doubt but he will succeed: account of the di&tion, but because he but without tools there can be no artist. imitates Horace, though saintly. I Perhaps it may be objected to me that will not omit the Idylls of Gesner, the Grecian Republics had as many which have found many admirers; different idioms as we have; and that, however you will allow me to prefer even in our own day, the Provinces to them the works of Catullus, Tibul. of Italy are distinguished by a style lus and Propertius. If I corn my. and pronunciation peculiar to each eyes to the historians, I find only the These truths I do not deny ; but let history of Germany by Professor Malthem dot prevent me from tracing the co, which may be cited as being leaft progress of things in ancient Greece, defective. Shall I give you my opias well as in modern Italy. The ce- dion freely on_the merit of our ola. ļebrated poets, orators, and historians tors? I can then only produce sbe of these countries, seuled their lan- celebrated Quant of Konigiberg, who guage by their writings. The public, pofseffed the rare and forgular talent by tacit confent, adopted the style, of rendering his native tongue hardcothe phrases, and the n.etaphors which nious; and I must add to our flame, these superior artists had employed in' that his merit bas neither been actheir works: these phrases became knowledged nor famed.

How can common, and gave richness, and ele- we expect that men Nould exert themgarice, and dignity to their respective selves to attain emirepce in any parlanguages.

ticular walk, if reputation is not their Let us now throw our eyes upon reward? I shall add to these gentle. our own country, I hear the people men an anonymous, author, whose talking a jargon deftitute of harmony, poems in black verse I once fawi which every one varies according to their cadence and harmony depended his own caprice : I hear te: ms em on a happy alternation of Dactyles ployed without selection; the most and Spondees; they were tull of goed proper and n. oft expreilise words neg. lenfe, and my ear was agrecai ly Hate lected, and the tenie of things cch. tered with a certain fonorcas effect founded by a multij licity of epithets, which I did not think cur language I endeavour to discover our Homers fufceptible of. I veoure to presume and Virgils, our Anacreons, our How that this is perhaps the kind of verfi. races, our Demostenefes, our Ciceros, fication most adapted to our idiom, our, Thucydideles, our Livys ; but and" far preferable to rhyme; it is pro. my labour is lost, fur I can find cone bable, that if attempts were trade ca fuch. Let us be candid, then, and improve it they would fucceed. honcft!y corfess, that hitherto the "I do not talk to you of the GerBelles-Lettres have not profpered in man theatre. Melpunene has not our foil, Germany has had philolo- been wooed but by ungainly fuitors, phers who suftain a comparison with fome mounted on flilts, others founthe ancienis, and why even furpass dering in the mud, and all of then, them in more than one depanutent of being ignorant of her laws, and incapphilofophical discuilion. Asiothe Bells able of touching the passions, or cf ir... Lettres, we muit acknowledge our foresting the heart, have been difcardpoverty. All that I can grant to you, ed from her altars. The lorers of vithout making myself a vīle Hatteser Thalia have been more fortunate;

they

they have furnished us with at least ingenious men; the spirit of emulaone rruly origioal coniedy, I mean the tion arose ; and soon afterwards, under Postzug: that piece is excellently con- Louis XIV. Paris yielded not to Flostructed, and they are our own man. rence oor to Rome. But what was ners and our own foibles which it ex. then doing in Germany? At the poses. Had Moliere himself-treated very moment when Richelieu was the same fubject, he could not bave gaining immortal nonour by improv.' succeeded better. I an forry I can- ing and refining his country, the war not give you a more ample detail of of thirty years was at its height. Gero' our good productions : but I do not many was ravaged and pillaged by blame the nation on this account; it twenty different armies, which, somewants neither sense nor genius; but it times advancing, and sometimes rehas been kept back by causes which treating, carried ruin and desolation have presented it from diftinguishing in their train. The country was laid irself as early as its neighbours. Let waste, the fields were uncultivated, us go back, if you please, to the re: the towos almoft defert. Germany vival of letters, and compare the fitua. had but little time to breathe afier tion of Italy, of France, and of Ger- the peace of Westphalia : fometimes many, at the period of that remarkable the oppoíed the forces of the Ottoman revolution in the human mind. empire, at that time very formiciable:

You know that as to letters, Italy sometimes she was eng ged in resittbecame once more their home, and ing the armies of France, who, in orthat the house of Efe, the Medici, der to exter.d ile empire of that naand Pope Leo X. by the protection tion, were attempting encroathinents' they fforded them, contributed to on the frontiers of Germany. . Can their advancement. While Italy was we fuppose, that while the Turks were growing refined, Germany was agita- belieging Vienna, while liielac was red by the disputes of Theclogians, ravaging che Palatirate, while ilaines who were divided into two facti'ns, conf: med towns and civies, when the each of which fignalized itself by its afylum of cath icelf was violated by harred for the other, its enthuliarm the unrestrained licence of the foldi. and fanaticism. At this time Fraocis ery, who drigofron their tombs the I. undertook to llare with Italy in bocics of the clecors for the fake of the glory of contrbering to the re- their trifling spoils ;---can we furpose, foration of letters : but he wasted that while uninpry mothers were himself in valo attempts to transplant loving the twelves from the ruins of them into his native country; his la- their country, and carrying their inbours were fruitlele.' The monarchy, fans, vorn away with fainine in their exhausted by the payment of the arnis jo--can ac fuppesu, I say, that at king's ransom 10 Spain, Eus in a state fach a time men wcie making fonnets of languor. The wars of the league at Vienni, or cpigrams at Malcim? which succeeded the death of Fradicis, l'lic mufis delight in tranquilatodes; presented the people from applying they fly from places dittorbely difa themselves to the fine arts. It was order and alarms. It was roi therenet til towards the end of the riga fore till aficr the war of tix fucceffion of Louis XIII. when the wounds re- that we begin to repair what so many ceived in the civil wars had been succeflive calamities had made us lose. cured under the adminiftration of Thus it is nevher to th: genius nor Cardinal Richelieu, and when the to the fenfe of the nativ at we must times favoured the att:mpe, that the attribute the little progrifs we have project of Frar.cis l. was resumed. made; tot we mut refer is wholly to The court' encouraged learned and a train of disastrous circunftaeces, to

a suc.

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