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very eligible. In this way the ex These are much needed in the north, pence to the Society might be more as, excepting the precarious fale to nearly alcertained, and impofitions of the butchers in the small towns, various kinds more readily guarded there is no market of any consequence against by proper regulations. The for sheep to the orth of the Tay, excertain gain, which would occur to cepit ac Trinity moor, in the county the farmer from the premiums, would of Angus, and two aanual fairs in the be a much more effe&ual excitement county of Kincardine. Belides, the to improvement, thin the eventual butchers are not the best purchasers and contingent profit, held forth to for breeders, as, in general, on ground them in the forever way; a id ghus fired for breeding theep, it is impostheir old prejudices might be remov file to make them far enough for the ed by the force of self incerelt. burcher. The buliness of cattering
Should this way of proceeding be belongs to an interm: dare farmer oa adopted by the Society, I would beg more cultivated land ; whi, by means leave to lungeit, rhat, in certain dil of fu'w'n grass or cornips, or both, has tricts, chosen as much scattered as it in his power to farten iac ep quichly, porrible, and as numerous as the funds and consequently to produce a quick will admit of, annual premiums be re:urn for his outlay. Farmers, in offered to the farmer, in each of these general, are rather needy, from the diftriels, who hall provide himself preffure of their regular paymenis for with the greatelt number of rams of rent. There are very few instances the proper kind and age; and in Scotland of a farmer confiring his a leffer premium to the fariner who views to such a quantity of land as has the next greatest number. Each he is fully able to itock, and baving a competitor to produce certificates sufficiency to wait for crentual profit from the person from whom he pur at a distance of time. Every means chased his rams, of their age, when therefore which brings a ready fale, bought ; of the number of ewes va and a quick return for their goods, his farm; of the rams being itiil ia must be of the most effectial Tervice their poilellion, &c.
10 his interest. Were such premiums to be contiau In the countries, through which I ed for a confiderable number of years have travel ed, during my survey, fucccllively,' there can hardly be a perhaps the following places at- bek doubt, that they would quickly (pread adapted for fairs to feive the interest the improved breed all over the coun- of theep breed ng, beginoing with the try.
north, viz. Tongue, Thurto, Wick, Another set of premiums might be Langwrll, Dornoch, Tain, Dinge offered, after three or four years, to wall, Beauly, Inverness, Avien:ore, the fariners, in each of these districts, Dalwhinnie, Blair in Athol, Dunken, who Thall produce the greatest num. Peith, Kinross, Falkland, Leucbars, ber of brood ewes of the crossed Furfar, Brechine, Aberguldie, larver.' breed, and of the bext quality as tourie, Keith, Elgin, Torres, and won) and carcase.
Newton in Murray. At tliese plaçır, To promote the improvement of or fo:ne of them according to circonthe breed of thtep, and render it more ítances, there ought to be fairs for and more the intereft.f the farmersheep, and wool, established at the to attend to the increase of his stock, different feasing of the year, whea it would likewise be extremely necef these commodities are usually brought fary to institute fairs for wool and to market from the breeding country, freep in various parts of the country, The wool in the end of July; for ind at different times of the year
. fambs in the b.gioning of the faine
ton:h; and, for azed sheep, in the 11, That a peculiar breed of Breeper end of August or beginning of Sep- poffefling qualities of the moft valuable ļember. And they mould be fo con. fort, acimally subfifts in the Shetland irived as to fucced each other regular- ifles at prelent. ly, so that either buyer of relier be 24, That that breed is of a hardy ginning at the North may try his nature, and easily rearer', and never market on his way home to the South. would have been in darger of being Ce:tlemen ought to be fouled with, loft, even frem neg'ect alone, had not who will ontert keisgreihe marksi artificial means been employed to deground free from duty on 'heep or base it. koul, on fa:isfy cheinfelves with fuch 3d, That the inhabrants are at this dues as' nay be had from other com day adire in trying to debase it, boy modities. It would not be arifs like plecling for rams only the very world wise tu ciablish in the same places, of the breed they hare; ard altho' an annual market for futier and in consequence of the hardinefs of the cheeft; for, as these are produced in original breed they have no: been fiecp fainis, every means ought to be able ro effe at an erire extirpation of employed to facilitate the Si Je of the it, they lave aircady fucceeded in ástick's produced ly a new fpecies of greatly debating it, and reducing the farming er år last one which at pré. rumber...The datives are so ford of f-ne largulies, and deserves to be the fine won', that they are very lorth tidurished by every poffee beans. to lose any of it; and, as they fmd
It would likewise be of to fmall that rams' are ape ro ftry trem the moment to the breeders of Sheep, that flock during the ruiting lafun, fo as means were fa}len on to extirpare'tle to be oben entirely joft, they take iace of foxes, eagles, and carrich care to cut every ram lamb that cir: crows or corbie's, all of which are ex- ries a fre ficece ; fut, as weddeis ne. cedirgly hurtful to a breeding tick, pet wander, they are fure of thus ad abrand very much in mary juris Reering i he fleece
In this manner of the Highlands. The wife policy they debale the quality of iheir soul of our ancestors has most happily fuc. in gener:l, for the fake of preferv.si recl in total's defiroying the race a particular fleece; and realise the o solves in our Illand ; and there is fabic of the gove with the golded Cris'y very little dilliculty in the eggs.--This tra the writer of this 3.4. lo extinzare the tox, cagle, altract bad from the left authority. ini! rolve, for which foar nitatis 4th, That, therefore, nothing mere htle tiken.
fueins to be wartive to recover tie I cannot conclude without exprer fine brecsl, but to falect the beít eves fingerit, fincere with, that the Society and te befi rms thér ferrain,' ard for the improvement of Britith wool, keep them apart, for breeding liom.“ pay next with every roble success sih, That, before any proper or ir die profecution of th: jarrioticib extensive use can be made of this jis nt jis indiquior ; wlich. inded, vicol in merufadlures' which ali re inte criburged views of its members, 10. can make it a profitable article to the ter wrh the great advantages, both icaret, the practice of thearingie public and private, which put recef. therp molt be introduced umieristle: . jriy 12 cifrom their exenions, can oil, That a prendimt he miren to carol! talo obrain.
the 1'erson who ha'l prefent a certain
number of porn flects at a certain Torbis rrport is fubiained an appen- time, neatly done upy, as is usuai įn
pix, meant (ir.fideilly we twirk) wool coentries. o prove
Abridged Review of New Publicatio:s.
Fljcry on the Principles of Tranjation, which, by the by, the very judicious 890, pp. 200.45. Chduel and Crecch. clay of D'Alembert, in his Melange
F the art of speech may be allowed de literature, is spoken of more flightI to hold the first rank among the ingły-than it seems to deserye, the aste of human invenion, as by, chab- author describes a good tranlation as ling mankind 10 communicate their follows: “ Tha: in which the merit ciscoveries, it puis cwery inçavidual of the original work is so comin a firuärion to profil by the ciscove pietely iransfufcd into another layties of luis fellows, inttead of being “guage, as, to be as ditioctly appreJett to his folitary experiences and if “ henned and as flrongly felt by a the art of writing holds the fecond " rative of the country to which that tank, as it perpetuaies disc:veries, “ language belongs, as it is by these and enables every age to profit by the " xho speak the janguage of the ori, discoseries of all the preceded it "ginal vork." From this descripa we may, is one view, align the third tion or definition, which appears to piace to the Art of Translation, the be extremely juit and accurate, the fubje&t of this trerile art which three following Laws of Trasllation eemmanicates 10 one nation the cif are deduced: Coveries and improvements of ano 1. That the tranfation should ther, and caterds the bounds of lite "give a complete tranfcript of the Farure and science, by exhibiting their “ idcas of the original work. actual progress in every corner of the
12. That the tile and manner of world.
writing should be of the fame chaSo far, iyowever, as regards objects“ racer with that of the original. ef Scie ce alone, the Art of Trafia 3. That the translation thuid tion, however important and wleiul, “ have all the case of original compo
et is one of fo liniple a nature, as to se fition." Bagihe very 'il: investigation. Ac To these three judicious rules. We curacy and fidelity in rendering the apprehend nothing can be ohjećied, words and phrales of one larguage exopt that the brit does not extend into another are all ibe requisites tor far enough to secure the comietion carrying it into practice; other qua- of what is said in the definition to 1 beations, if at all iaken into view, are conftituie a g'od trachat:on ;-:be cf vuy inferior Curfideration. But transcript of the ideas of the orginal wa wik regards the objects of taile wurk gusht nut oniy to be com; lete, and paie liefuture, the Art of Tranf- bat'a'thful; equally removed from axla: on, while it retains its importance, cels on the one hand, and deficiency becomes more complicared in its na on the otter; a bad translatur may ture, and demands rany superior re- margle ani au horas ett étcally by quities for its succits.ui exercise. It making additions of his own, atier all is 10.1hs latt fpecies of translation the decay of the original wirk are sds at the author of the treatise before completely wranscribed, as he can do us has almost exclulively directed bis by ito ping short breite the sense of attention, with a view to unfo:d its bis author is fully exhbied. principles and citallith its rules and In illustrating the firit or these rule, jrecepts.
the author o: the eilay begins with Stier an introduction mentioning fume very judicious remarks on tire the waw of any triatile go this fub. necefiryf a perfect knowledge of the jiet, fufficiently full idd' explicit
, in original language, ani a compeicht
acquaintance with the subject treated of. “ tical translator never to suffer his o. Thuse he illustrates, by a number of “riginai to fall. He mult maintain well chofen examples from Folard, “ with him a perpetual conteft of geMelmoth, and particularly D'Alem- "nius ; he must atiend him in his bert, in one or two of which I l, how “ highest fights, and foar, if he can, ever, we apprehend be blan:es the “ beyond him; and when he per translator unjustly, D'Alemberi hav. “ceives at any time a diminution of ing, in some of the passages condemned, “his powers, when he sees a droopcome nearer the sense of the original “ ing wing, he must raise him on his than the author of ihe efl-y:--Wal. “ own, pinions." In contradiction lude in paruicular to the tranllatioc
. of to this direction, we must observe, the sentence di&taturæ ad tempus fu. that if uranslators were to adopt the au. mebantur,where, from the coniexi, thor's views, we might have imitations we think it plain that the phrase ad or paraphrases, but we certainly would tempus means occasionally,' and not not have translations. In a cranslation, " for a limited time; the former be. we expect to find the original author ing the only circumstance in which presented to us as he is, not as theTacitus nieant to fpecity the distiac- translator may luppose he ought to be ; tion betwixt Dictatorships and the o- otherwile many of those ailuhons to ther offices mentioned in the sentence; circunstances and manners, which, to in which view, D'Alemberi is version, readers that enter into their fpirit, of “ On creoit au beloin dus dictateurs ten form the chief beanty, and to read.. puffagcss"? is fauliy only in the acdi- ers who ftudy the character and genius kion of the superfluous word " palfa- of other times and other nations, form gers,” which does not convey, a diffe- the most instuctive part of the original rent fenfe from the “ au beloin," but work, will probably be altogether loit; serves as ao uoneccflary amplification it will b:come impellible to appreciate of that idea,
in any ineafure, from the translation, The auihor next enters upon the the real merits of the author, these bediscussion of the question, Whuther it ing concealed under the labours of the is allowable for a warior to add to translator ; and, after all, there is the or retrench the ideas of the original. greatest probability, be the talents of He giv.s his opinion that it is, more the translator what they may, chat pecularly in poetical translations.-- where he fancies biofelf, inspsov. To a certain degree we should not ing, he may appear to others only degreatly otject to this liberty, thu', in forming the original work. These every cale, it ought to lie used with remarks might be illustrated cren by a very fparing land; bucibe ellay bax, those palliges, from Pope's versior in cur opinion, gived it an extension of the Inad, wbich are produced Kitogether unwarrantable in good cafte in the essay, as proofs of his superior and found critium. Roscommon, in excellence, as many of the trafla: bis etiay on traciliated versu, bad pre- tor's supposed improvem-nts would, fcribed as a general rule,
we apprebend, be justly called in Your author alvrays will the heft advise, cide on the merits of the original and
quellava by une competent to de Full when he falls, and when he rises, the translation, in particular, : We. rile.
doubt if the night piece, in the Bib " Far from adopting," says the sothor, Book of the Iliad, be " raised and im.
the former part of this maxim, I'proved” by Pope; he has indeed added “: conceive it w be the duty of a poe- fone emtelliminents, but he has allo
enfeebled the impression by feveral chofen examples, both of its observa fuperRuous additions *. We mean ance and failure, are given. " This not to infinuare that no liberty is to rule, however, it is justiy remarked, be allowed ; no doubt, elegance re- demands the following limitations ; quires that freedoms should be taken • The imitation must be regulared with the original ; but we must add, “.by the nature or genius of the lana the fewer the better, and far from di- u guages of the origical and of the reating a translator to maintain a con “ translation.” 2. “ The Latin and teit of genius with his original, would “Greek languages admit of inversions ' advise him to keep as close to it as " which are inconfiftent with the gethe nature of his language and the “ nius of the English." 3. " The Eng. wished-for ease in composition will ad- “ kifh language is not incapable of an mit.
« elliptical mode of expreslin, but it Upon the second General Rule for “ does not admit of it to the same deTranslation the author observes, that gree as the Latin.". Of these three "next in importance to a faithful tranf- rules, the two last of which are, in “ falion of the fenfe and meaning of fact, only branches of the first, we can author, is an assimilation of the have likewise fome happy illustraHi file and manner of writing in die tiorst. And in the conclafion of “trandation to that of the original.. his remarks on this ad law of tranlla* A tranflor, therefore, must apply tion, the author examines the questión, "pis attention to discover the true. Whether a poem can be well tranflat“character of his author's style. He ed into profe? The question is, in " muft afcertain with precision to what our opinion, jusly answered in the ne“ class it belongs; whether to that of gative. " the grave, the elevated, the casy, The Third General Rule that “ the lively, the florid and ornamented, "the translation should have all the " or the simple and unaffceted; and “ ease of original compofitio:7," comes " these characterillic qualities must be next to be confidered. This, it is ea * equally conspicuous in the tranfla- vident, is the most difficult of all the « tion as in the original. If a traxif- three... When we consider," says «lator wants this discernment, let him the author, “ those restraints within * be ever lo shoroughly master of the “ which'a tranllator finds himself ne« sense of his aothor, he will present “ cestarily confind, with regard to * him through a distorting medium, “the sentiments and marinet of his on “ or exbibit him often in a garb that “riginal, it will soon appear that this u is unsuitable to his character.” “ lait requisite includes the molt diffi• This obscrvation is very happily il. “cult part of his task. To one who Juftrated in the 5th and 6th chap- “ walks in trammels, it is not easy to ters of the work, where many well “ exhibit an air of grace and freedom.
* The profe translation of this passage in the cfTay is feebly and inadequately execucsd; the exprellive epithets of Presivry and umpisiu are altogether omitted 'uitseçeneys is weakly rendered by cpening to the fight," and sxmF1425 writei-tocurry" is unaccount. ably translated by "every valley,” by which a very pidurefque circumstance in the original is quite loft A similar remark may be made on the translation of jupiter's speech to the Affembly of the Gods, in which the author feems in several pla es parpolely to have made use of mean and vulgar terms, with a view to debase the original below Mr Pope's translation
** la the course of these illustrations we could not help smiling at the author's cilling MPherson's tranflation of Homer a “ valuable work, as containing a most perfect trans* fusion of the sense of his author,'' an culugiun that we doubt few will confirm who here compared it with the origiual.