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both sexes. The vivacity of his wit idle moments in his long protraded and of bis animal fpirits, even when life. His mind was inceffantly eru advanced in years, rendered his com- ployed'; either teeming with net pany not only agreeable, but greatly ideas, or pursuing active and labo. folicited by the Gierati, and courted rious occupations. At the fame time, by ladies of the highest rank and ac. with all this intellectual ardour, one compliments. He told very few great feature in the character of Lond stories; and rarely, if ever, repeated Kames, beside his literary taleats and the fame fory to the same person. his public spirit, was a remarkable From the necessity of retailing anec. innocency of runad. He not only iicdotes, the miferable refuge of thofe ver indulged in detraction, but wcu who, without genius, attempt to shine any species of scaudal was exhibited in in conversation, the abundance of his his company, he eitlier remained 4own mind for him free ; for his wit or lent, or endeavoured to give a dizer his learning always fuggeitet wliat ent turn to the conversation. As 12the occasion required. He could wish tural confequences of this, amiable dilequal case and readiness combat the position, he never meddled with po opinions of a metaphysician, upravel litics, even when parties ran to muethe indicacies of law, talk with a far. cene lengths in this counu'y; acts mer on improvements in agriculture, what is all more remarkable, he ne or estimate with a lady the meriis of ver wrote a sentence, Darwithtanding the dress in fashion. 'Inttead of be- his numerous publications, without ing jealous of rivals, the characieristic direct and a manifeit intention to be of little minds, Lord Kames foitered nelit his fellow creatures. In his icin and encouraged every symptom of per he was carutally warni, though merit that lie could discover in the kindly and affectionate. In the friend Scholar, or in the lowelt mechanic. fhips he formed, be was ardeot, zal. Before he succeeded to the ellare of ous, and fincere. So far from beiro Blair-Drummond, his fortune was inciioed to irreligion, as fome iga Inall. Noruitbitunding this circum- rant bigors infinuated, few men por ftance, he, in conjunction with Mirs fefed a more devout habit of thoughi. Drummond, his respectable and acconstant fenfe of Deity, and a se comilished spousc, did much more neration for Providence, dwelt upon service to the indigent than moit ta- his mind. From this Cource arole that milies of greater opulence. If the propensity which appears in at his preteat nuc. Daty was preling, they writings, of investigating anal causes. gave money. They did more: When ard tracing the wildom of the Supreme they diícovered that male or female sluthor of nature. But here we must petitioners were capable of perform- top. Lord Kames, to the great re ing any art ur labour, both parties pret of the public, died on the 27th exerted themselves in procuring that day of Decemb:r 1982. As he had Species of work which the poor people no warked disease bu: the debility tecauld perform. in cases of ibis kind, ceflarily refulting from csirtme wich which were very frequent, the lady ace, a fuw days before his death his took charge of ile women and h's wrot to the court of fefion, addrelied Jord:hup of ihe men. From what has all the judges fiparately, 'told thuri been låd concerning the various ard he was specdily to depari, and 1.0 numcrous productions ci his genius, a'luk.mn nod anbevonte farewall is is voicw. h2:bere could be lewe

Eximus

Extract from a Memoir concerning the Existence and Situation of Solomon's

Illands. Presented to the Royal Academy of Sciences, January 9th 1781 ; by
M. Buache.

THE

nor

HE Voyages of modern naviga. the discovery of Solomon's Islands, as

tors, at the fame time that they related by Figueroa, cannot be regardhave furnished so much knowledge ed as romance; they contain noihing of the South Sea, have given rise to marvellous, inconsistent with doubts relpecting the exittence of things actually known, bui a simple Solmon's Ijiards ; and several geogra- narrative of fact. The relation of phers have already been anxious to Min dana's second voyage is alone sufexpunge them from their charts, and ficient to cltablith the reality of this rer ove them to the class of fabulous discovery. We fee from the first, Lands. It was for some time rather that this voyage was not undertaken, asual' to deny the existence of every like the former, to make discoveries country, which was oot found at the at randon, but to riturn to a place place affigned to it by the charts ; already known, and establish a colowhile, on the other hand, all those ny in it: the fleet was, consequently, lands which were found in tracts of provided with every thing neceffary sea where there were not any marked for such an expedition ; 368 persons, in the charis, were considered as new chicfly married, were embarked in it; discoveries. The more enlightened their course was directed to the partinavigators of the present time, when cular object in view; and they crossed their researches prove unsuccessful, the sea between the 8th and 12th dedraw no other conclufion, than ihat grees of south latitude, in cont quence the lands they are unable to find have of their previous knowledge of the been ill placed upon their geographi- situation of the places. When they arcal charts; and, before they give a rived at the island of Santa-Cruz, new name to any illand that does not Mendana no sooner saw the inhabi. appear there, conlider attentively, all tants, than he declared to his crew, thote that appear in the fame tracts that these were the people he fought. and at the fame latitudes. In the . After the death of Mendana, his prefent case, to be qualified to deny widow, who succeeded him in the the exiftence of Solomon's Islands with command of the fleet, when they quitany reason, it would be necessary to ed Santa-Cruz, was desirous to lik have fought them in all the situations the island of St Christopher, the m.cat which different authors have ailigned, eaitern of Sulomon's Illands, and which has not yet been done. I have steered W. S. W. but after the fecond examined this point of geograpisy day, as this island did not appear, the with atteotion ; and it has appeared changed her course and bore to the to me, thai, to any one who has not north for Manilla. It was, without made a vow. of scepticism, the exist. doubt, upon Mendana's instructions ence of these islands is sufficiently de- that he directed this search ; and by monft+ated by the accounts of Men- the short time the employed, it is evidana's voyages. I have also thought dent how near that navigator had fupthat, with the knowledge we now posed them.. have of the South Sca, we may be Mendana's chief Pilot, Fernard able to ascertain their position more Quiros, could not bring himself to reprecisely, and make them easier to be lioquith, his commander's researches, found by other navigators.

and regretted the proposal of failing The circumstantial particulars of for Maoilla. He was convinced of Аа Vol. XIV. No. 81.

}

both foxes. The vivacity of his wit idle moments in his long protracted and of bis animal spirits, even when life. His mind was incesfintly enaadvanced in years, rendered his com- ployed'; either teeming with new pany not only ägree able, but greatly ideas, or pursuing active and labo Tol cited by the tirerali, and courted rious occupations. At the fame time, by ladies of the highest rank and ac. with all this intellectual ardour, onc complifhiments. He told very few great feature in the character of Lored stories; and rarely, if ever, repeated Kames, beside liis literary talents and the fame fory to the fame person. his public spirit, was a remarkable From the deceity of retailing anec. innocency of mind. He not only nem dotes, the miserable refuge of thofe ver indulged in detraction, but syk.cu who, without genius, attempt to shine any species of scaudal was exhibited ina in conversation, the abundance of his his company, he either remained own mind lus him free ; for his wit or lent, or endeavoured to give a disterhis learning always fuggcited what ent turn to the conversation. As :the occasion required. He could with tural consequences of this amiablu dia cqual cafe and readiness combat the polition, he never meddled with po opinions of a metaphyfician, unravel litics, even when parties ran to inue. the inuicacies of law, talk with a far- cent lengths in this country ; achim mer on improvements in agriculture, what is still more remarkable, he de: or estimate with a lady the meriis of ver wrote a sentence, Datwithstanding the dress in fashion. 'Inttead of be- his numerous publications, without a ing jealous of rivals, the characierisic direct and a manifett intention to bee , of little minds, Lord Kames fortered nelit his fellow creatures. In his ictis and encouraged every symptom of per he was rarurally warm, though merit that lie could discover in the kindly and acctionate. In the friend scholar, or in the loweit mechanic. ships he formed, he was ardent, zealBeivre he succeeded to the eflate of ous, and fincere. So far from berk Blair-Drummond, his fortune was inclined to irreligion, as fome ign{nuall. Noruitbitunding this circum. rant bigots infinuated, few men pat. stance, he, in conjunction with Mrs feried a more devout habit of thoughi. Druromond, his respectable and ac. A constant fenfe of Deity, and a ve complified sponse, did much niore neration for Providence, dwelt upun fervice to the indigent than moit ta- his mind. From this source arole that milies of grea:er opulence. If the propensity which appears in alt his pretenc nuchty was preling, they writings, of investigating tinal causes, gave money. They did more: When ard tracing the wisdom of the Suprense they discovered that male or female Author of nature. But here we muit petitioners were capable of perform- ftop. Lord Kames, to the great re ing any art or labour, both parties pret of the public, died on the 27th exerted themselves in procuring that day of December 1782. As he had fpecies of work which the poor people romarked disease bu: the debility necauid perform. in cases of i!is kind, ceffarily refulting from cstieme old which were very frequent, the lady asė, a tu w days before his death le took charge of the wonen and h's went to the court of feffion, addrefied lord:hup of the men. From what has all the judges fiparately, told the si Leen laid concerning the various sid he was specdily to depart, and to numcrous productons is his genius, alull.mnnd an 2evente farcwaldo

is vb.iowi ha: there could be leite

Extrue

Extract from a Memoir concerning the Existence and Situation of Solomon's

I lands. Prefented to the Royal Academy of Sciences, January 9th 1781 ; by
M. Buache.

nor

TH
THE Voyages of modern naviga- the discovery of Solomon's Ilands, as

tors, at the same time that they related by Figueroa, cannot be regardhave furnished so much knowledge ed as romance; they contain nothing of the South Sea, have giveo rise to marvellous, inconsistent with doubes respecting the exiftence of things actually known, but a simple Sol non's Ijlands ; and several geogra- narrative of fact. The relation of phers have already been anxious to Men dana's second voyage is alone sufexpunge them from their charts, and ficient to establish the reality of this rer ove them to the class of fabulous discovery. We fee from the first, Lands. It was for some time rather that this voyage was not undertaken, dłual to deny. the existence of every like the former, to niake discoveries country; which was not found at the at random, but to return to a place place affigned to it by the charts ; already known, and establish a colowhile, on the other hand, all those ny in it: the fleet was, consequently, Jands which were found in tracts of provided with every thing neceffary fea where there were not any marked for such an expedition ; 368 persons, in the charts, were considered as new chiefly married, were embarked in it; discoveries. The more enlightened their course was directed to the partinavigators of the present time, when cular.object in view; and they crossed their researches prove unsuccessful, the sea between the 8th and 12th des draw no other conclufion, than that grees of south latitude, in cont quence the lands they are unable to find have of their previous knowledge of the been ill placed upon their geographi- fituation of the places. When they arcal charts ; and, before they give a rived at the, illard of Santa-Cruz, new name to any illand that does not Mendana no sooner saw the inhabiappear there, conlider attentively, all tants, than he declared to his crew, those that appear in the same tracts that these were the people he fought. and at the same latitudes. In the After the death of Mendana, his present case, to be qualified to deny widow, who succeeded him in the the exiftence of Solomon's Islands with command of the fleet, when they quitany reason, it would be necessary to ed Santa-Cruz, was desirous to fuck have fought them in all the situations the island of St Christopher, the most awhich different authors bave alligned, eastern of Solomon's Illaods, and which has not yet been done. I have steered W. S. W. but after the fecond examined this point of geography day, as this island did not appear, the with attention ; and it has appeared changed her course and bore to the 10 me, that, to any one who has not north for Manilla. It was, without made a row. of scepticism, the exist. doubt, upon Mendana's instructions ence of these islands is sufficiently de. that the directed this search ; and by monftiated by the accounts of Men- the short time she employed, it is evidana's voyages. I have also thought dent how near that navigator had supthat, with the knowledge we now posed them.. have of the South Sea, we may be Mendana's chief Pilot, Fernard able to ascertain their position more Quiros, could not bring himself to reprecisely, and make them easier to be lioquith, his commander's researches, found by other navigators.

and regretted the proposal of failing The circumstantial particulars of for Manilla. He was convinced of Aa VcL. XIV. No. 81.

the

the existence of Solomon's Inands, `ages undertaken to find them? hare and from this moment the discovery these been fruitless? The answer to of then became the reigning object of this objection will be found in that his wishes : he returned speedily to very situation of the islands which it Peru, presented no less than eight me is my present object to ascertain. We morials to the Viceroy, and employ. may observe, in the mean while, that ed his solicitations fo effectually, that Quiros could not find them because at length he obtained his desire. When he could not make the island of San. he left Callao, the port of Lima, on ta-Cruz, which he fought on the December 21, 1605, he appointed north-east of the Tierra Aufiral; the island of Santa-Cruz as the place whereas it is on the north-west of it, of rendezvous for the vessels with him, according to the observations of mowhich fufficiently points out the obje& dero navigators. Carteret and Byron of his voyage. Knowing the distance did not find them, because they c:ade of this island from the coast of Peru, the search only in the places pointed and d:firous to employ his interme. out by modern charts. Byron obdiate way to the best advantage, he serves, that having advanced to ten did not take the direct course which degrees west of the position assigned he had gone with Mendana in his first to them by the French chart of the voyage, but proceeded southwards as South Sea, he thought it deceffary to far as the 25th degree of latitude. Af- abandon the search : be adds, thas ter discovering a long chain of small this situation is not founded upon any islands, most of which have since authority: and that he much doubts been re-discorered, he returned to the whether the celebrated navigator who latitude of Santa-Cruz. At Taumage made the discovery, has left fufficient he learned from the inhabitants, that information for them ever to be found they knew of many ilands in their again. - Carieret, in like manner obneighbourhood; and advancing again ferves, that he had advanced far be to the southward, discovered the land yond the licuation attributed to them; which he named. Tierra. Auftral del and that, having arrived at the island Espiritu Santo. When he left this of Santa-Cruz, which he re-discoverilland he met with violent and con ed, he gave up the attempt. trary winds in the open sea, by which If these navigators could have conone of his ships was separated from sulted the narratives of Mendana's him; he therefore resolved to steer up voyages, it is probable they would for the island of Santa-Cruz, where not lo haliily have relinquillied their the rendezvous was appointed : but researches. Thcle accounts give usy when he came into this latitude he in the firft place, the latitudes of mawas unable to find Santa Cruz, con- ny of the Islands of Sclomon ; aod in ftantly losing way more and more, this respect we know, that the errors fays Figueroa, by the force of the to be apprehended are very inconsiderwind. Seeing how difficult it was to able, feldom more than half a degree: make this illand, and thinking it would they give us, fecondly, the distance be impossibleto beat back again, he gave of these islands, from the coast of Pe up his defign, and steered for Mexico. ru, by comparing which with the time

Such are the principal considerations of their intermediate way, particularly which move us to believe the exist in Mendana's second voyage, which ence of Solomon's Islands. If we ob- was in a more direct course, and serve further, that most of Mendana's the same parallel with these and Quiros's discoveries have been illands, we may deduce their lonconfirmed by modern navigators, we gitude, at least within a very few cannot vell doubt of this. But if degrees. Before we undertake to these islands exift, why so many voy. ascertain this point, we must enquire

why

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