« AnteriorContinuar »
temple. It may easily be perceived, cient edifices, the remains of which that this celebrated mountain had for- give ftill an idea of their ancient merly on its fummit several magnifi- grandeur.
Account of Nazareth, Tiberias, and Mount Tabor ; by the Same.
AZARETH, a city of Galilee, elegant; and the different kinds of
so famous among the christians, marble with which it is 'ornamented, is situated in 35 degrees of east lon- receive an additional luftre from the gitude, and in 32 degrees of north combined light of feveral filver lamps latitude. It held the third ránk a- presented by christian princes. On mong the metropolitan cities depen- solemo festivals, the walls and the dent on the patriarch of Jerufalem. pilasters are ornamented with various At present, it forms a part of the do- pieces of tapestry, representing the mains of the chief of Acre. The mysteries of the Virgin ; a luperb ancient city, destroyed by fanaticism, present from the houte of Austria. was, after its ravages, nothing but a In the western part of the city stands miserable hamlet, consisting of a few á chriftian church, built, as is said, Arab huis. Under the protection of on the fire of the ancient fynagogue Daher Omar, however, it has reco-' where Jesus showed the Jews the aca vered from its humiliation, and dow complifhnient of the propheties in his makes a far superior appearance. The person. This place served a long houses are built of beautiful stone. time as a helter for flocks; but' at In the ealtern part there is a hando prefeat it is in good repair. Io the fome church dedicated to the Virgin, neighbourhood may be seen a fountain which was formerly destroyed by the of excellent water, which is, however, Saracens, and rebuilt by the zeal of the esteemed by the people on another acCænobites. The building consists of count. They conjecture that it was three naves, divided by two rows of contiguous to the habitation of the ftone pilasters. That in the middle Virgin, and that it was used by her. contains the principal altat, the ascent At some distance is a large ftone, of to which is by two magnificent fair. a round form, called Christ's table, cases, mych admired for their iron balu. It is pretended that he came hither strades, formed with great skill by one more than once with his disciples to of the monks belonging to the con- eat. The inhabitants of Nazareth
Under the altar is a remark- pay it a kind of worship, by buroing able grotto, called the Chapel of the perfunies and incenfe around it. Annunciation. It is descended by At the distance of a mile from the steps of beautiful marble, which are city, on the southern fide, is a mouncut with much taste. In this place, tain which the Arabs call Sein, and according to tralition, the angel ap- the Nazarines the mountain of the peared to the Virgin, and announced to precipice;' because the Jews withed her the future birth of our Saviour. to precipitate the Meffiah' from it. Two beautiful columns of oriental On the fummit is found a small grotto," granite strike the eye of the observer cut out in the rock, in the form of a in the entrance. They appear to have tabernacle, to recall to remembrance been constructed both to support and the miraculous poder manifested by ornament the grotto. The altar of the Son of God in escaping from the ibis Tubterranean chapel is extremely hands' of the impidus." There was
formerly upon this mountain a cele- ance of the interior part, where nobrated monastery, which is now de- thing is to be seen but misery and destroyed by time. Some cisterns, half folation. On one side are ruins half in ruins, are the only memorials of buried in the earth; and on the other, its ancient existence. Opposite to some shattered edifices, converted inthis, and separated from it by a rivu- to a kind of huts. The aspects of let, stands another mountain, at a- the inhabitants correspond to that of bout the distance of a guo-lhot. This the place ; and they seem to live in ftream was so much swelled by the extreme poverty.
Before the year winter rain, that it overflowed all the 1759, when this city was destroyed neighbourhood, and even part of the by an earthquake, it contained some plains of Galilee. Three miles from beautiful edifices and ancient churches Nazareth, . towards the southwest, worihy of attention. To the west of ftood the ancient city of Saffe, Jaffe, the city, on the borders of the lake is or Saffre, of the tribe of Zebuloo. a large church, which escaped the efNothing now remains of it but a few fects of that calamity. This religisude stones. At a little distance is a ous place serves as an hospital for delightful eminence, the sides of strangers, who are received in a very which are covered with vines. On hospitable manner. The sea of Ti. the fun mit is a small village, with a berias had different denominations rural altar, to which the fathers of at different periods. Sometimes is Nazareth come to celebrate the fefti- was called the sea of Galilee, and val of the apostles.
sometimes the lake of Genezareth ; a The city of Tiberias lies at the foot name which was given to it from a of a mountain. The neighbourhood city built between Bethsaida and Caperof this place is very badly cultivated, naum, belonging to the tribe of Naphand abuunds with wild animals, both tali. The excellent water of this birds and quadrupeds; among the lake, which is used by the inhabitants larter of which are a great many ante- of Tiberias, flows from the sources of lopes, a fpecies of small goats. The the Jor and the Dan, at the bottom city of Tiberias was one of the most of the Anti-Libanus, where ftood considerable in Decapolis. It was Pareades, called likewise Cafarea. built by Herod Antipa, tetrarch of This lake is confounded afterwards Galilee, who named it Tiberias, in with the river Jordan, and both dif. bonour of Tiberius the emperor. Si- charge themselves into the dead sea. tuated towards the southern part of the It is about eighteen miles in length lake of Genezareth, it exiended its from north to fouth, and its breadth walls for three miles towards the about six miles. It is sometimes fubsouth, and in breadth occupied all ject to great commotions, occasioned that space which lies between the same by a chain of mountains in the neighlake and the mountains. At present, bourhood; where the winds meeting it is much less than formerly, being with oppofition, recoil with violence no more than a mile in circum/erence. upon the lake. It is rare to find here It is of a square form, with two gates ; any boats or vessels, because its banks one of which looks to the west, and are barren and 'uncultivated. Several the other towards the south. Its ex- celebrated cities exifted anciently ori ternal appearance is very mclancholy; this coaft ; such as Capernaum, Beth. the walls being built of brown iron. faida, Bethsan, Gadara, Tarichea, and coloured stones, like those, our author Chorazin, of which nothing remains obferves, which the poets lay surround but shapeless ruins. This lea of Gas the palace of Pluro. The dismal idea lilee is an object of veneration among is till more encreased by the appeare the neighbouring chriftians, as being
much frequented by the apostles in perience all those senfations, which their capacity of fishermen.
are produced by a mixture and rapid At the distance of a mile from Ti- fucceffion of rural, gay, gloomy, and berias, on the north, there was for- majestic objects. This is the facied merly a town celebrated for the vic- spot which was the scene of the tran. tories of Vespasian, and of which fome figuration. restiges may yet be seen. It was cal. Mount Tabor has a perfect resemfed Ammaus, which signifies the Bath, blance to a fugar loaf, and is covered on account of its hot Springs, which with small trees from the top to the are endowed with a medicinal quali. bot.om. Its lummit is inclosed by ty.
the remains of ancient walls. Within Mount Tabor is diftant from the thefe is a plain of about two miles in fea of Tiberias about twelve miles, circunference, on which, accordir:g and is distinguished by different to every appearaace, no buildings names ; but, at present, it is called, - were ever created. Amongst the ruins in the Arabian language, Gibel-El- of the churches may be distinguished "Tor. The fituariod of it is most delight- three very beautiful tabernacles, which ful. Rising amijft the plains of Ga. formed part of the ancient temple lilee, it exhibits to the eye a charm- erected by St. Helen in memory of ing variety of profpe&ts. Oa one side the transfiguration. In several places there are lakes, rivers and a part of there are cifteros destined for the purthe Mediterranean; and, on the other, pofe of collecting the rain water, bea chain of little hills, with small val- cause there are no fprings on this leys, shaded by natural groves, and mountain. Though the plain on the top enriched by the industry of the hus. be very much exposed to the feverity of bandmen with a number of useful pro- winter, it is often covered with ductions. Here you behold an im- odoriferous herbs even in the middle mensity of plains interspersed with of that season. Great numbers of hamlets, fortresses, and heaps of focks and herds refort thither daily ruins; and there the eye delights to to feed on the rich pastures which awander over the fields of Jezrael, or bound in this place. It is no less freMageddon, named by the Arabs quented at present by multitudes of Ebn-Aamer, which fignibes the field Oriental Christians, without diftincof the foos of Aamer. Alle far: tion, whether Catholics or fchifmather you diftinguish the mountains of ties; and the fathers of the Holy Hermon, Gilboa, Samaria, and A. Land likewise come hither adqually rabia the Stony. la fort, you ex- to celebrate the transfiguration.
of the fundamental Principles and Spirit of tłe Hindoo Religion *. F we abstract our minds from the In the dialogues between Krishna
abuses, and inquire into the spirit and Arjoon, Kristina says: “ I am the of the Hindoo religion, we shall find creator of all things, and all things that it inculcates the belief in one God proceed from me. Those who are enoply, without beginning and without dued with spiritual wisdom know this, end ; nor can any thing be more sub- and worship me.” lime than their idea of the Supreme “ I am the soul, which is in the Being
bodies of all things. I am the begin
ning * From “Sketelics rclaping to the History, Religion, Learning, and Manners, of the Hindous."
ping and the end. I am time; I am avle, with fubdued pasfons, and who all-graspiog death ; and I am the re- are the same in all things, shall come furrection. I am the seed of all things unto me. rin nature, aod there is not any thing “ Tbose whose minds are attached animate or inanimate without me. to my invisible nature, have the great
“ I am the mystic figure Oom*, the er labour, because an invisible path is. Reek, the Sam, and the Vayoor Veds. difficult to corporeal beings. Place I am the witness, the comforter, the thy heart on me, and penetrate me
asylum, the friend. I am genera- with thy understanding, and thou “tion and dissolution : in me all things. fhalt hereafter enter unto me. But if " are repofited.
thou shouldīt be unable at once fted“ The whole universe was spread fastly to fix thy mind on me, endeaabroad by me.
vour to find me by nieans of constant “ The foolish are upacquainted practice. with my supreme aod divine nature. “ He, my fervant, is dear to me, They are of vain hope, of vain endea- who is free from enmily: merciful, vours, and void of reason ; whilst those and exempt from pride and selfthness; of true wisdom serve me in their who is the fame in pain and pleasure ; hearts, undiverted by other gods. patient of wrongs; contented ; and
Those who worship other gods, whose mind is fixed on me alone. worship me. I am in the facrifice, in “ He is my beloved, of whom manthe fpices, in the invocation, in the kind is not afraid, and who is not afire, and in the victim."
fraid of mankind; who is unsolicitous Arjoon says in reply: “ Thou art about events; to whom praise and the prime Creator--Eternal God! - blame arę as one ; who is of little - Thou art the Supreme! By thee the speech; who is pleafed with whatever : voiverse was spread abroad! Thou art cometh 10 pass; who has no particu
Vayoo, the god of the winds; Ag- lar home, and is of a steady mind." nee, the god of fire; Varoon, the god In treating of good works, it is said : of the oceans, &c.
“ Both the desertion and pra&ice 5. Reverence be unto thee; again of works, are the means of happiness. and again reverence, Othou, who art But of the two, the practice is to be all in all ! Great is thy power, and distinguished above the desertion. greal thy glory! Thou art the father “ The man, who performing the of all things ; wherefore I bow down, duties of life, and quitting all interest and with my body proftrate on the in them, placeth them upon Brabm, ground, crave thy mercy. Lord, wor- the Supreme, is not tainted with fin, thy to be adored! bear with me as a but remaineth like the leaf of the lofather with a fon; a friend with a tus unafrected by the waters. friend; a lover with the beloved.” " Let not the motive be in the e.
In speaking of serving the Deity, vent: be not one of those, whose moKrishna says:
tive. for action is in the hope of rem “ They who delighting in the wel- ward. fare of all oature, ferve me in
in « Let not thy life be spent in inac. corruptible, ineffable, and invisible tion; perform thy duty, and abandon form ; omnipotent, inconsprchenfible, all thoughts of the consequence. The flanding on high, fixed, and inmove- miferable and unhappy are fo about
"the Oon is faid to be a myftic word, or emblem, to signify the Deity, and to be compofed of Sanskrit roots, or letters; the first of which stands for Creator ; the second, PreTerver;
and third, Destroyer. It is forbidden to be pronounced, except with cucme reverçue.
the events of things; but men, who effects they produced in a period are endued with true wisdom, are un much shorter, mindful of them.”
Their rules of morality, are mof Not withitanding that the Hindoos benevolent; and hospitality and chaare separated into the Vilhnou Bukht rity ase not only Itrongly inculcatsd, and Sheevah Bukht, and that a variety but I believe no where more univerof fects are to be found over the whole fally practised than amongst the Hinpeninsul?, the chief articles of their doos. religion are uniform. Ali believe in “ Hospitality is commanded to be Brama, or the Supreme Being ; in the exercised even cowards an enemy, immortality of the foul; in a future when he cometh into thipe house: the state of rewards and punishments ; in tree doch not withdraw its shade evea the doctrine of the metampsychosis ; from the wood-cutter, and all acknowledge the Veds as con: “ Good men extend their charity taining the principles of their laws and upto the vilest animals. The moon religion. Nor ought we to wonder at doth not withhold her light even from the Ichisms that have arisen in such a the cottage of the Chandala, (outcef.), yait fpace of time, but rather be sur. • Is this, one of us, or iş he prised that they have been so mild in stranger !-Such is the reasoning of their consequences; especially when the ungenerous: but to those, by whom we reflect on the numbers that arose liberality is practised, the whole world. among ourselves, and the dreadful is but as one family,"
On the Manners and Customs of the Hindoos. From the fame. THE "HE Hindoos are naturally cheer- the fingers of the right hand, and are
ful, and are fond of conversation, scrupulously nice both before and af of play, and of other amusements. ter meals. They will spend almost the whole night With them, modes and fashions in seeing dancing and hearing music; are unknown ; and their dresses, like yét none dance but the women, whose their customs, are the same to-day that profession it is, and who devote them. I suppose they were at the beginning lelves to the pleasures and amusement of the Kaly Youg. of the public.
The Hindoos are averse to mai They are nevertheless extremely ny of those accomplishments in wofober ; they eat only twice a day, in men that are so admired by Eurothe morning and evening. It has been peans. They fay, they would be ioobserved!, that none of the four casts jurious to that fimplicity of manners are allowed to taste any intoxicat- and decorum of behaviour which are ing liquor, and even those who may requisite to render them estimable in eat meat do it fparingly.
their families : that, by too much enTheir food is prepared in earthen gaging the mind, they would lead pots : instead of plates and dishes they their attention away from their child. use broad leaves, generally of the palm ren and husband, and give them a or plantane tree, nearly fewn toge- disrelish to those cares to which they ther with a blade of dry grass, and think providence has designed them: which are thrown away and renewed and, as they strictly adhere to this at every meal. Like the inha- opinion, there are few Hirdoo wobitants of most eastern countries, they men to be found who can either read wsc peither forks nor spoons, but only or write.