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laudable undertaking. Benares is fub- with ardour and success. Nothing ject to its dominion; the confidence seems now to be wanting, but that of the Brahmins has been so far gain- thole entrusted with the administraed as to render them communicative; tion of the Britiih empire in India, some of our countrymen are acquaint- should enable fome person, capable, ed with that sacred language in which by his talents and liberality of senii. the myfteries both of rel gion and of ment, of investigating and explaining science are recorded ; movement and the more abitrule parts of Indian phiactivity has been given to a spirit of lorophy, to devote his whole time to inquiry throughout all the British erta- that important object. Thus Great blishments in India ; persons who Britain may have the glory of explorvisited that country with other views, ing fully that exten'ive field of unthough engaged in occupations of a known science, which the Academi. very different kind, are now carrying cians of France had the merii of firit on scientific and literary researches opening to the people uf Europe.
A short Exhortation given by the Right Reverend Father, John M'Donnel,
Aribbifrop of St Andrews, at Torivood near Falkirk, on the 17th Janu
ary 1746, before the Young Chevalier and Army, from Píalm lxxii. 1, 2. “ Give the king thy judgment, o here to fight the battle of God agaioft
“ Lord; and thy righteousness unto his enemies, under the command of “ the king's fon : be shall j Age the the king's fon; he is the heir, and go
people with righteous.ess, and the doubt has the hereditary right of the poor with judgment."
crown of his ancestors: you see him
there in his Royal Perfun, nut covering MY
Y dear gentlemen, foldiers, and the right of any other, but endeavour
loyal auditory, there are the ing to recover his own, vfurped fra' words of the kingly prophet ; frea the his royal family many years paft, vehemence of his inspired fpirit, he and by the blelling of God he'll do ardently prays to the all-seeing eve for it, and fay as the royal prophet exjudgment and righteculness, and that presseth it in the 11 8th Plalm, ver. 7, the same way discend to his son to in The Lord taketh my part with govern his people, which was ob- them that helpeth me, therefore I shall tained : for, niy dear fauls, be ablured, see my de fire upon my enemies." My there is nothing a juít man and fer. dear sauls, you see that God has rail. vant of God alks from his great Crea. ed his most Christian Majerty, and for but he obtains it. lis proved so; Catholic Majesty, two of the greatett for no greater blellings co'd mort is monarchs in the world, to be his have bu his son and fucceffor enjoyed; help: you, my dear fellow-fubje&ts and he had wisdom, riches, and all other loyal hearts, are bound by God and worldly grandeur; he had trophies in nature to help your true and undoubt. war, and subdued all the enemies of ed Prince to his ane: O now, my God by his feleet people. Now, my brave and heroic soldiers, , let your dear fáuls, and loyal foldi:rs, these courage and valvur be known at comkords of God and his holy prophet mand, in asserting the right of your were spoke and verisyed for the in- native and hereditary Prince; he is struction of succeeding ages to the no alien precariously brouglit over ord of the world, and may now be from the German continent, and placlied to our present caule. We are ed by a rebellious and miferable folk on
the throne of his most royal ancel Lindsays and Ramsays, stout Duntors, contrary to the laws of God and dasses, and Dalrymples; now the nations : all the princes of Europe brave offspring of Fergus M Roy know this usurpation to be every ways antient king of Ireland and true contrary to God, and an open viola. King of Scots, long before the Intion of the laws of monarchical right; carnation of our blessed Saviour, af. they take it to be the mot heinous ferters of monarchy and champions act that can be committed by any ci- of God;
such M•Donnells, vilized people on the globe of the M Ronnells, M'Cleans, M*Kivers, ear:h; and those miserable folk, guil M.Kenzies, M Gregors, M‘Farlanes, ly of still persevering in their fins, M-Phersons, the famous M.Dowalls will be brought very soon to condign and M“Intiers. A'y
'you faith!ul Inith, punifiment; their fins are come to a sele&t English ancient Welth, and height, and their many abom'nations, wadauno d French, that hear me, made obvious to the kenned earth: join hearts and hands together, handle they martyred their king, banished his your Wčely weapons, sharp-edged. royal issue, abjured his lawful heir, swords and targets, and bring your and bid L. 103,000 fur his head ; nay, ane true Prince to his primitive, or they :' cryed out like the perverse die cap by can. You see you have and oblurate Jews, Crurify him, the voice of the select of God, the good crucity him. O height of villany and humble and meek, brave and juft, wickedness of heart! But, my dear now even the very populace cry out auditory, God forbid it, who is The King and the King's undoubted the protector and this ld of the royal heir ; which is according to the word head, and will lead his royal itandard of God, in the second book of K ngs on in the battle to crush and cut his ver. 12. in the following words, “ And enemies---He is now, my dear “ he brought the King's son, and put fellow subjects, and brave soldiers, 6i the crown upon him, and gave
him your Johua and captain, under God; " the testimony, and made him King, he will favour the justice of his cause," and anointed him, and clapt their which God we'l kenns. -We find hands and faid, God save the in the holy write, that the sun stood King:" O my dear fauls, you see fill until Joshua, the captain of God, how these words of God are cut tie enemies of God by the order coming in, and hear farther what it and decreas of Heaven : the same fays in the second of Chronicles, God that was the leader and conduc ver. 12. “ Behold, Gud himself is with tor of his bly captain, is the con for our captain and his priests, ductor and Lader of your ciptain, “ with found of trumper to cry alarm aand will give you your trophies again it “ gainit you :” and so it is, my dear those miscreants and exc mmunicated bairns of God, the ordinance of the loos who war against you after a little Almighty power of heaven and earth wh:le; but you must have a little pa- is to b: oblerved by his anointed, and te.ce; ad bear. linde fariynes with they are founding trumpets in God's O royal caotain wh thews
revealed orthodox farth. Now the d marra' imous exampl“. Now I ume is come to affure his right, until wil name time of the brave Scots the heir restore the grieved and that never failed to show iher vel or wronged subjects to their primitive and courag upon a' nccafions: the rights and liberties, propagate God's great Robert de Bruce s family, the holy religion and church, and crush ancient biood of Hamilton and Doug- its enemies: you see and may be well las, the fimous Gordons, undauoted assured, that those again?t him are the Grabaus, heroick Lcfsleys, brave spawn of regicides, and king-killers,
who descended from the Oliverian that; and after that, a' that is pleased hell-hounds, their guilt is in their faces, to join me, let us invoke the interand their date of being is at hand. cession of the glorious Mother of God, Now, my dears, keep close to com who will, no doubt, obtain what she mand, and observe what the gospel alks from our dear Saviour Jesus faith ;-Sis fidelis ufque ad noriem, et Christ, her dear Son, that he would be dabo tibi coroiam vita-Be you faith. pleased to prosper our royal caprain, ful unto death, and you shall have direct our steps, and forward our good the crown of life, and that we may deligns, to the glory of God and the kave that, let us a'implore the Almigh- benefit of our King and country. ty God upon our knees to grant us
of the Philosophers who have believed in a Plurality of Worlds, and of such as
bave adopted that Idea ; by M. Gerard.
T Hough the plurality of worlds Orpheus is the most ancient author is not a philosophical dogma al- whose
' opinion on this subject has been together proved, yet the opinion should preserved. Proclus, in his commenappear the more probable, as it has, tary on Timxus, quotes three verses of for its foundation, first, that principle this philosophical poet, in which he of truth that nature does nothing in expressly says that “the moon is a rain ; and, fecondly, astronomical ob- world like ours, which has its moun. servations which cannot be refuted. tains, its vallis, &c. Pythagoras,
The ancients, deprived of the ad- who followed Orpheus in many of his vantages of the telescope, supplied the opinions, also taught that "the moon defect with an extraordinary perspica- is a world similar to our own, inhacity of mind. They discovered, with bired by animals whose nature he did the eyes of genius, what our instru- not determine;" although he believed ments have brouglit within our view. them larger and more beautiful than They knew the path we have taken in those that inhabit our globe, and not order to ettablish the doctrine of a mul. subject to the same infirmities. The titude of worlds, and they have dedu- sentiment of Democritus, as related ced, from the fame principle, the con- by Srobeus, on the nature of the moon sequences which the moderns have and the cause of the spots we observe drawn. We cannot have a greater or on her disc, which he believed to be more sublime idea, nor one more wor “ nothtig but thades formed by the thy of the greatness of the Deity, than great height of the mountains he fuptheir notions of the deltination of the posed to be in the moon,” as well as planets, and of the mulsiplicity of fars the question agitated by Plutarch on that adorn the firmament: the fages the same subject, further prove our afof antiquity considered them as so ma- fertion. Laitly, Aristorle, Epicurus, ny suns, round which planets similar and Heracliius believed in the plurato those in our solar fyítum revolved: lity of worlds ; as did Thales, Ararthey went still farther; they maintain- imenes, Alcinous the Platonist, Xe. ed iliat these planets were inhabited nophanes, Anaxagoras, Xenophon, Luby beings, the nature of whom they cian, &c. Origen expl..ined the opidid not define, but who, they said, nion of Democritus on the existence yielded neither in beauty nur in fize of an innumerable quantity of worlds, to our felves.
fonie of which were inhabited by ani
mals; but others had neither animals nomena may not be useless; for we nor plans. This was the doariae will not suppose that nature, or the Suwhich furnished Alexander the Great preme Architect of the univerfe can with the idea, which has been preserv. have made any thing in vain. ed as an evidence of his ambition, Among the moderns, those who when he wept that he had only one have thought that because the moon is world to subdue.
furnished with hills and vallies, fogs, The magnificence and fecundiiy of foreits, seas, and houscs, it must therenature shine in all her works. The fore be an inhabited or a habitable hand of the Almighty, which laid the country, are Father Marsenius, Gil. foundations of the universe, which suf- bert, Gaflendi, &c. Kepler was also of pended from the arch of heaven millions opinion that the moon was inhabited. of globes of light, which gave them Hevelius, in his ingenious defcription the first impulse, which created planets of that plaget / Selenographia) has difimilar to that we inhabit, could it vided it into provinces. have been unable to people those o-bs Cyrano de Bergerac's Histoire coas it has peopled ours? We have rique of the enpire of the moon is stronger reasons than the ancients had well known. It would appear from for believing that the moon is inha- the burlesque, inflated, and fingular bied. All the modern observations Ityle of that work, that the spirit of the tend to persuade us that the moon has author had made frequent journies to an atmosphere, that some parts are the country he describes. It is evilighter and more elevated than others, dent, however, notwithstanding the and that those places which reflect the fooleries in which he indulges, that light less strongly, and present a fur. he was well acquainted with the prinface at all times equally smooth, are ciples of Descaites, and that, had age vast seas: from all which it has been ripened his talents, he would have concluded, that in the moon there are been capable of something better. mountains, the height of which has Superftition and enthusiasm, which even been measured geometrically. mingle in all religions, do not injure
The celebrated Galileo determin. the truths they are sometimes connected, that the bighest of these inequali- ed with. Father Kircher has transties exceeded the height of any of the ported himself in idea into all the plamountains of the earth. The total nets, and has given us the description eclipses of the fun, the aid of the te. of their inhabitants according to the lescope, the aftertions of the most il. fancies of his own brilliant imaginaluftrious astronomers, especially of tion. Thus, according to those fana Callini, the man of our world, says cies, there are for example in Saturn, Fontenelle, to whom the heavens wre melancholy old men, walking with the best knowo, all concur in persuading pace of a tortoise, cloathed in mournus, that lince there is in the moon, as ful habits, armed with Imoaking torch. in our earth, an atmosphere, moun es, and whose countenances are pale tains, seas and rivers, we must con- and forbidding In Veous, on the ciude that there will also be rain, contrary, there are young people of foow, and all the other meteors which the moit enchanting shape and beauty; are the consequence of these suppori- some dancing to the found of lyres and tions ; nor is it less to be concluded, cymbals, others scattering flowers and according to our ideas of the wisdom perfumes. The author explains the of God, that he has there placed he- reason of this difference in the inhabiings, of whatever nature they may be, tants of the two planets; and.is reato inhabit that planet, that all those fons, which are not wanung, are as fothings, all that accumulation of the lid as his vilions. Persons who have P VOL. XIV, No. So.
time to spare, or to throw awav, may St Denis at a distance. If he shall find, in the Iter extaticum of that fa- be asked whether he fupposes St Demous Jefuit, a description of the inha- nis to be inhabited like Paris, he will bitants of the other planets. It is very boldly answer, “ No ; for I see people extraordinary that this book fhould in Paris, but I see none in St Denis, have had lo gr at a reputation as to nor erer heard of any.” Should it be make it go through feveral editions ; represented to him, hat indeed when this is still more furprifing. when we one is on the turrets of Notre Dame consider the following extravagantno inhabitants are feen at St Deris, questions which it con:ains. «Would but that the distance alone is the caufe it be proper to make use of the wine of this; for that in o:her respects it that is produced in Jupiler in the fa- resembles Paris; it has steeples, hnuses, crifice of the Mass?"Could we ven and walls, and consequen:ly may have ture to make use of the water found inhabitants ; all this will not per: in the moon, in the facrament of bup. suade cur citizen; he will fill maintim ? đc.
tain that there are no inhabitants in After what we have here faid, it is St Denis, because he does not see evident that Foiltenelle was not the clien." first who inagined that each planet, This work is defervedly the most from the Moon to Saturn, was a world celebrated performance of Fontenelle. inhabiled like our earth. In doing We fee him there as he really was, a hin this honour, the learned authors clear and profound philosopher, a of the Encyclopædia have been m:- sprightly, elegant, and polite wit. fiaken. But it is true, that the inge. This book, fıys Voltaire, gave the nious academician, in his Discourse on first example of the delicate art of be. the Plurality of Worlds, has developed, ftowing graces even on philosophy: but in the most pleasing manner, a doc- it was a dangerous example, because trine nurfed in the cradle of philofo. the true garb of philofophy is order, phy; and that his pencil, guided by perfpicuity, and especially trah: and the Graces, has given innumerable at that, fince the appearance of this ingetions to a fubject little fusceptible vious work, men have but too ofien of them. Thole who have advanced endeavoured to substitute for these, that Huyghens's Treatise on the plura- points and failies of wit, and false or ity of worlds formed the groundwork naments.
What alone will hinder it of Fontcneile's on the same fabječt, from being placed by pofterity in the are not less deceived; for this work lift of our claffic works, is its being appeared twelve years before that of founded in part on the chimerical rora Huyghens. But however that may be, tices of Descartes, of whom Fontenelle the general reason by which Fonte was all his life a great adóirer, and sielle supports the doctyine already e- defended till his death the errors he Atablished by other observers fince Py- brud ad pred in his infancy. thagoras, is, that the planers are bodies "Among those who have loudly consimilar to our cartdı ; that our earth demned the reveries of Father Kircher itself is a planet, and conf quently, we must oiftinguish Huyghens. This fance this last is inhabited, the others learned man, however, also believed maft befo too.
that the planets are inhabited, and for “ Let us fuppofe, says he, that there the following reafins: As water is ihe is no intercou fe between Paris and principle of all things, ir muit exist in St Denis, and that an honest citizen the planets; and if it does exist," by of Paris, who has never been out of the alliance of the heat of ille fun his native city, shall be placed on the it must produce planis and trees.turreis of Notre Dame, and shall fee But these productions would be vain