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minor differences. In cases where there are differences in spelling, pronunciation, meaning, etc., each dictionary will generally give both usages, but the English work will prefer the English usage or form, while the American work will prefer the American. An American dictionary generally includes more Americanisms, an English dictionary more local English terms and colonial words.

AMERICAN

For a detailed study and comparison of the principal American dictionaries consult American dictionaries, by Stewart Archer Steger, Baltimore, Furst, 1913, 131 p.

Century dictionary and cyclopedia with a new atlas of the world. N. Y. Century co. [c1911] 12 v. illus. pl. (partly col.) maps, charts. 31cm. 423 Published and originally sold by Century co., but no longer handled by that firm. Now sold by Encyclopædia Britannica co., New York.

First edition 1889-91, 6 v., with two supplementary volumes, Cyclopedia of names, 1894, and Atlas 1897; partially revised from time to time and plates altered by the cutting out of some of the original material and the insertion of new information, but Revisions to note never entirely revised and reset. especially are: (1) Edition of 1901, 10 v., v. 1-8, Dictionary, v. 9, Names, v. 10, Atlas; (2) two supplementary volumes published 1909, numbered v. 11-12 to continue the 1901 edition and containing about 100,000 new words, senses and phrases and a 92 page supplement to the Cyclopedia of names; and (3) the 1911 edition, 12 v.

Contents: v. 1-10, Dictionary; v. 11, Cyclopedia of names; v. 12, Atlas.

Printed from the same plates as the earlier editions but with alterations in the plates to include a considerable amount of new material. In addition there is bound at the end of each volume the corresponding portion of the alphabet from the two supplementary volumes published in 1909, making two alphabets in each volume, linked together by crossreferences.

The most comprehensive and detailed American dictionary and the best example of the encyclopedic type. Its special features are its free inclusion and careful treatment of the technical terms of the various sciences, arts, trades and professions, its excellent illustrations and plates, and, particularly, the large amount of encyclopedic material included. This last feature makes the work almost as much an encyclopedia as a dictionary.

Standard dictionary. Funk and Wagnalls new standard dictionary of the English language, prepared by more than 380 specialists and other scholars under the supervision of I. K. Funk. Calvin Thomas, F. H. Vizetelly. N. Y. Funk,

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First edition 1893 had title Standard dictionary; a new edition, 1901, had 85 pages of addenda containing 13,000 new words but was otherwise printed from the same plates as the first edition; the New standard is a thorough revision of the 1893 edition, reset and printed from new plates throughout.

Contents: (1) Dictionary, including in one alphabet all ordinary dictionary words and also the various proper names, i. e. biographical, bibliographical, geographical, mythological, biblical, etc., which were given in separate lists in the first edition; (2) Appendix: Disputed pronunciations, Rules for simplified spelling, Foreign words and phrases, Statistics of population, History of the world day by day (this last in "subscription ed." only).

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A serviceable one volume work, the most cently revised of American dictionaries and therefore often the most useful for new words. Its special feature is emphasis upon current information, i. e. present day meaning, pronunciation, spelling and the subordination of the historical to the current information. Full vocabulary, about 450,000 words including 65,000 proper names, aims to include all live words of the language in standard speech and literature of the day and terms commonly used dialectically by large numbers of people in different parts of the English speaking world. Prefers simpler spelling and when several forms are used by authorities indicates those used by American philological association, American spelling reform association, and Simplified spelling board. Marks syllabication and hyphenated words plainly, using single hyphen for the first and double hyphen for the second; indicates pronunciation by two respellings, (1) by the scientific alphabet, N.E.A., and (2) by the ordinary respelling used in textbooks. Gives antonyms as well as synonyms. Contains considerable encyclopedic information. many illustrations and good colored plates.

and

Published in both a "regular" and a "subscription" edition. The regular edition does not contain the appendix "History of the world day by day."

Desk standard dictionary of the English language, designed to give the orthography, pronunciation, meaning, and etymology of about 80,000 words and phrases in the speech and literature of the Englishspeaking peoples; 1,200 pictorial illustrations; abridged from the Funk & Wag

nalls New Standard dictionary of the Eng-Worcester, Joseph Emerson.
lish language by James C. Fernald. N. Y.
ary of the English language.
Funk, 1915. 894 p. illus. 22cm. $1.50. 423
Published also under title: The high school
Standard dictionary of the English language.

Webster, Noah. Webster's new international dictionary of the English language, based on the International dictionary of 1890 and 1900. Now completely revised in all departments, including also a dictionary of geography and biography, being the latest authentic quarto edition of the Merriam series. W. T. Harris, Ph. D., LL. D., editor in chief, F. Sturges Allen, general editor. Sprgf. [Mass.] Merriam, 1909. 2620 p. illus. pl. (partly col.) 423 31cm. $12.

First edition of Webster's dictionary 1828; a revision popularly known as the Unabridged, 1864; Webster's International (the revised Webster), 1890; a new edition of this latter, 1900, had a 238 page supplement containing 25,000 new words but was otherwise reprinted from the plates of the 1890 edition; the New international, 1909, is entirely revised and reset throughout.

Contents: (1) Dictionary, including in the same list both the usual dictionary words and also foreign names of phrases, abbreviations, proverbs, noted fiction and all proper names except those in the biographical and geographical lists; (2) Appendix: (a) Pronouncing gazetteer, (b) Pronouncing biographical dictionary, (c) Arbitrary signs used in writing and printing, (d) Classified selection of pictorial illustrations. In addition to the foregoing the "Reference history edition" contains a separately paged supplement "Reference history of the world" by J. C. Ridpath and H. E. Scudder, revised by E. A. Grosvenor, 152 p.

The

The oldest and most famous American dictionary, a good all round dictionary with no marked specialization or bias, well edited, reliable, and noted particularly for the clearness of its definitions. most used, and for general purposes the most useful, of the one volume dictionaries, although as it has been less recently revised than the New Standard it is less useful than that work for very recent words or meanings. A special feature in the arrangement is the divided page, containing in the upper part the main words of the language and in the lower part, in finer print, minor words, foreign phrases, abbreviations, etc. Contains considerable encyclopedic matter, about 6,000 illustrations and a number of good colored plates.

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Diction

New ed.

enl. Phil. Lippincott, 1891. 2126 p. illus.
por. pl. 29cm. $10.

423

Worcester's first dictionary was published in 1830. There is an introduction on the history of English lexicography and a catalog of English dictionaries. A famous older work once much used and referred to especially as an authority on pronunciation but no longer up to date and not now frequently called for except by occasional readers who have become used to it.

ENGLISH

Murray, Sir James Augustus Henry. New English dictionary on historical principles. Ox. Clarendon press, 1888-1916. v. 1-10. 33cm v. 1-8, £23 2s. 6d. $114.50; v. 9-10, incomplete, 2s. 6d per section (64 p.)

423

v. 1-8, A-Sh, complete; v. 9-10, Si-Th, Ti-Z, both incomplete.

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Known variously as Murray's dictionary, the New
English dictionary, and the Oxford dictionary. For
history of the work see preface to volume one, and
also Murray's Evolution of English lexicography.
The great dictionary of the language, compiled on
a different plan from any of the other standard Eng.
lish dictionaries and serving a different purpose. It
is based upon the application of the historical
method to the life and use of words and its purpose
is to show the history of every word included from
the date of its introduction into the language, show-
ing differences in meaning, spelling, pronunciation
usage, etc., at different periods of the last 800 years,
and supporting such information by numerous quo-
tations from the works of more than 5,000 authors
of all periods, including all writers whatever before
the 16th century and as many as possible of the im-
portant writers since then. The vocabulary is very
full, and is intended to include all words now in
use or known to have been in use since 1150, exclud-
ing only words which had become obsolete by 1150.
Within these chronological limits, aims to include:
(1) all common words of speech and literature, and
all words that approach these in character, the
limits being extended further into science and
philosophy than into slang and cant; (2) in scientific
and technical terminology, all words English in
form except those of which an explanation would
be intelligible only to a specialist, and such words
not English in form as are in general use or belong
to the more familiar language of science; (3) dia-
lectal words before 1500, omitting dialectal words
after that date except when they continue the his-
tory of a word once in general use, illustrate the
history of a literary word or have a literary cur-
rency. Words included are classified as (1) main
words, (2) subordinate words, (3) combinations;
information for all main words is entered under its

current modern or most usual spelling, or if obsolete under most typical later spelling, with cross references from all other forms. Information given about each main word is very full and includes (1) Identification, including (a) usual or typical spelling, (b) pronunciation indicated by respelling in an amplified alphabet or in case of obsolete words by marking of stress only, (c) grammatical designation, (d) specification, e. g. musical term, etc., (e) status, if peculiar, e. g. obsolete, archaic, etc., (f) earlier spelling, (g) inflexions; (2) Morphology, including derivation, subsequent form history, etc., (3) Signification, arranged in groups and historically, with marking of obsolete senses, erroneous uses, etc.; (4) Quotations, arranged chronologically to illustrate each sense of a word, about one quotation for each century, given with exact reference.

The most important use of this dictionary is for istorical information about a word but it has many other secondary uses; e. g. while not intentionally encyclopedic it has a good deal of encyclopedic information including some not given in other dictionaries, and while not specializing in slang it does include many colloquial and slang words, Americanisms, etc., and where such words are included the information is often better than in the special slang dictionaries.

Fowler, Henry Watson. Concise Oxford dictionary of current English adapted by H. W. Fowler and G. E. Fowler. Ox. Clarendon press, 1911. 1041 p. 19cm. 3s. 6d. $1. 423

Includes words in current use or preserved in much used quotations or proverbs, scientific and technical terms that are current in general speech but are not purely learned terms, and many colloquial, facetious, slang and vulgar expressions. An excellent small desk dictionary, based upon the work done for the New English dictionary.

ETYMOLOGY

For the etymology of the English language, the best authority, so far as it has been published, is Murray's New English dictionary. A smaller but very useful work and the standard special dictionary is:

Skeat, Walter William. Etymological dictionary of the English language. New ed., rev. and enl. [4th ed.] Ox. Clarendon press, 1910. 780 p. 26cm. £1 18c. 422

Contents: (1) Dictionary; (2) Appendix: List of prefixes, Suffixes, List of homonyms, List of doublets, List of Indogermanic roots, Distribution of words according to languages from which they are derived.

- Concise etymological dictionary of the English language. New and cor. imp.

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of synonyms and antonyms. N. Y. Revell, 1898. 512 p. 18cm. $1. 424

Contains, in an appendix: Briticisms and Americanisms, prepositions, discriminated foreign phrases, list of abbreviations, colloquial phrases, homonyms.

Fernald, James Champlin. English synonyms and antonyms, with notes on the correct use of prepositions. New and enl. ed. N. Y. Funk, 1914. 708 p. 20cm. (Standard educational series) $1.50. 424

Flemming, Louis Andrew. Synonyms, antonyms and associated words, a manual of reference designed to be of practical assistance in the expression of ideas through the use of an exact and varied vocabulary. N. Y. Putnam, 1913. 619 p. 17cm. $1.25. 424

An excellent list of words only, without any definitions of distinctions in meaning. Especially useful for the indication of the associated words. Includes slang and colloquial words.

March, Francis Andrew, and March, F. A., jr. Thesaurus dictionary of the English language, designed to suggest immediately any desired word needed to express exactly a given idea; a dictionary, synonyms, antonyms, idioms, foreign phrases, pronunciation, a copious correlation of words. Phil. Historical pub. co. 1902. 1189 p. plates (partly col.) por. 28cm. $15. 424

Roget, Peter Mark. Thesaurus of English words and phrases classified and arranged so as to facilitate the expression of ideas and assist in literary composition. Enl. and improved, the partly from author's notes, and with a full index, by John Lewis Roget. New ed., rev. by Samuel Romilly Roget (1911) Lond. and

N. Y. Longmans, 1913. 671 p. 21cm. $1.25. 424 Thesaurus of English words and phrases, fully revised by Andrew Boyle. Lond. Dent, N. Y. Dutton [1913] 2 v. 17cm. (Everyman's library) 1s. 40 cts.; library binding 1s. 6d. 50 cts.

424 A good inexpensive edition of this standard work. Differs from earlier editions by omitting some obsolete words, revising some errors, and adding foreign phrases and terms of modern science.

Smith, Charles John. Synonyms discriminated; a dictionary of synonymous words in the English language. 5th ed. enl. N. Y. Holt, 1896. 781 p. 18cm. $2. 424 Synonyms and antonyms; or, Kindred words and their opposites. Rev. ed. London, G. Bell and sons, 1908. 406 p. 18cm. (Half-title: Bohn's reference library) 5s. 424 O Soule, Richard. Dictionary of English synonymes and synonymous parallel expressions. New enl. ed. Phil. Lippincott, 1892 ['71-91] 488 p. 21cm. $2.

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424

Barrère, Albert, and Leland, C. G. Dictionary of slang, jargon and cant, embracing English, American and Anglo-Indian slang, pidgin English, tinkers' jargon and other irregular phraseology. Lond. Bell, 1897. 2 v. 21cm. 15s.

427

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Folk-etymol

Palmer, Abram Smythe. ogy; a dictionary of verbal corruptions or words perverted in form or meaning by false derivation or mistaken analogy. Lond. Bell, 1882. 664 p. 22cm. 21s. 427

Ware, J. Redding. Passing English of the Victorian era, a dictionary of heterodox English, slang, and phrase. Lond. Routledge, N. Y. Dutton, 1909. viii, 271 p. 23cm. (Routledge's standard reference library) 7s. 6d. $2.50.

A popular compilation distinguishing different types of slang, as, Society, Low life, American, etc Not trustworthy for American slang, the treatment of which is often inaccurate and amusing.

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Includes forms of speech now obsolete or provin cial in England which survive in U. S., words and phrases of distinctly American origin, nouns which indicate quadrupeds, birds, trees, etc., that are distinctly American, names of persons, of classes of people and of places, words that have assumed a new meaning, words and phrases of which there are earlier examples in American than in English writers.

The list of words is largely historical and includes little modern American slang. For each word there is given a definition and explanation and illustrative quotations arranged chronologically with references to sources. The most important dictionary of American slang yet published.

Bartlett, John Russell. Dictionary of Americanisms. 4th ed. enl. Bost. Little, 1877 [c'59-771 813 p. 23cm. $4. 427.9

Clapin, Sylva. New dictionary of Americanisms, being a glossary of words supposed to be peculiar to the United States and the Dominion of Canada. N. Y. Weiss, 1902. 581 p. 23cm. $5. 427.9

Maitland, James. The American slang dictionary; embodying all American and English slang phrases in current use, with their derivation and philology. Chic. Kit.. tredge, 1891. 308 p. 25cm. o. p. 427.9

427

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phrases, and usages, with those aboriginal-Australian and Maori words which have become incorporated in the language, and the common scientific words that have Lond. had their origin in Australasia. Macmillan, 1898. 525 p. 22cm. o. p. 427.9 Pettman, Charles. Africanderisms; a glossary of South African colloquial words and phrases, and of places and other names. Lond. & N. Y. Longmans, 1913. 579 p. 23cm. $3.50. 427.9

Good definitions. Illustrative quotations are given with date and exact page reference.

dictionary, comprising the words in use from the latter part of the seventeenth century to the present day with an introcuction and a dialect map by William Grant. Lond. Chambers, Phil. Lippincott, 1911. 717 p. map. 21cm. 7s. 6d. $3.

427.9

Includes modern dialect words, words which have survived the transition period between middle and modern Scottish, and "literary words" which have a dialect meaning in Scotland.

OBSOLETE AND PROVINCIAL Halliwell-Phillipps, James Orchard. Dictionary of archaic and provincial words, obsolete phrases, proverbs, and ancient customs from the 14th century. 11th ed. Lond. Reeves, 1889. 2 v. historical, 427

Yule, Sir Henry, and Burnell, A. C. Hobson-Jobson; a glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, geographical and discursive. New ed. ed. by William Crooke. Lond. Murray, 1903. 1021 p. 22cm. 28s.

DIALECTS

427.9

Wright, Joseph. English dialect dictionary; being the complete vocabulary of all dialect words still in use, or known to have been in use during the last 200 years; founded on the publications of the English dialect society. Lond. Frowde, 189830cm. 427 1905. 6 v. £15. Jamieson, John. Etymological dictionary of the Scottish language, to which is prefixed a dissertation on the origin of the Scottish language. New ed., carefully rev. and collated, with the entire supplement incorporated, by John Longmuir and David Donaldson. Paisley, Gardner, 1879-82. 4 v. 28cm.

427.9

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Lond. Routledge, 7s. 6d.

23cm

Nares, Robert. Glossary of words, phrases, names, and allusions in the works of English authors, particularly Shakespeare and his contemporaries. New ed., with considerable additions both of words and examples, by James O. Halliwell and Thomas Wright. Lond. Routledge, 1905. 23cm. 7s. 6d. 427

Skeat, Walter William. Glossary of Tudor and Stuart words, especially from the dramatists, collected by W. W. Skeat. Ed., with additions, by A. L. Mayhew. Ox. Clarendon press, 1914. 461 p. 20cm. 5s.

427

Wright, Thomas. Dictionary of obsolete and provincial English. Lond. Bell, 1886. v. 18cm. 10s. 427

RHYMES

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