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the political, governmental, economic and military events, which are given with greater detail in this year by year record than in later general accounts; volumes covering the Civil War and Reconstruction periods are especially useful to students of American history; (2) for many comparatively minor articles, particularly obituaries and biographies, which are either omitted from later encyclopedias or given briefer treatment than in the annual volume for the year when the person was of especial interest. For somewhat similar record after 1907, see New international year book.

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International year book; a compendium of the world's progress. 1898-1902. N. Y. Dodd, [1899-1903] 5 v. illus., pl., ports., maps, plans, facsim. 25cm. $4. per vol.

031 Editor: F. M. Colby; consulting editor, H. T. Peck.

Covers much the same ground as last five volumes of Appletons' annual cyclopædia, but includes some different material and presents it in a different arrangement, i. e. one straight alphabet. The last volume contains a general index to the set.

New international year book; a compendium of the world's progress, 19071915. N. Y. Dodd, 1908-16.* v. 1-9. pl. ports. maps. 26cm. $5. per vol.

Editor: F. M. Colby.

031

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Encyclopædia Britannica; a dictionary" of arts, sciences, literature, and general information. 11th ed. Camb. [Eng.] & N. Y. Univ. press, 1911. 29 v. illus. pl. (partly col.) maps. 30cm 032

Amer. ed. cloth $159.50; half mor. $203.25. V. 1-28, A-Z; v. 29, Index.

The most famous encyclopedia in English and for some purposes the best. The first edition was published in 1771 and the ninth edition (the last complete revision before the present eleventh edition) in 1875-88, the tenth edition, published 190203 was not a revision of the whole work but merely a 10 volume supplement to the 9th edition issued to bring that edition more nearly to date and linked to it by a general index, vol. 35. The

old Britannica type, which persisted through the 9th edition, called for a collection of important monographs on large subjects, by specialists, often very scholarly and important, with good bibliographies, good illustrations, but with no separate treatment of small subjects and no biographical sketches of living persons. Small subjects were treated only as parts of larger subjects and could be found only through the index. This plan was modified somewhat in the supplementary 10th edition and still more, to meet modern demands, in the present or 11th edition.

The 11th is based upon the 9th and 10th edi tions but revised throughout, rearranged and with much new material added. The features to be noted are: (1) long signed articles by specialists with (2) excellent bibliography appended to most articles; (3) many excellent illustrations, both in the text and in black and white plates and some colored plates; (4) inclusion of many smaller subjects not separately treated in earlier editions and (5) inclusion of biographical articles on persons still living; (6) very detailed index of small subjects; (7) almost equal up-to-dateness of all parts of the alphabet due to a nearly simultaneous completion and publication. Pronunciation is not marked. In general the articles are excellent but a few show insufficient revision of earlier material especially in the bibliographies. A point which makes for inaccuracy in quick reference work, unless the reference worker uses the index constantly, is the omission of all "see references" from the body of the book and their inclusion in the index only, although "see also" references are given at the ends of articles. There are some minor differences between the English and American edition, e. g. the English edition has clearer impression of most of the illustrations, especially the plates, and the American edition gives for American cities the population statistics of the 1910 census instead of the figures of the 1900 census given in the English edition. Issued in two forms, on ordinary paper and on India paper, the latter not recommended for libraries on account of its tendency to cling and fold. The ordinary paper edition was issued in three bindings, ordinary cloth and in three special library bindings: (1) buckram, A. L. A. speci fications (2) half morocco, Lib. assoc. [Eng.] specifications (3) half morocco special Chivers binding, this latter for English edition only, and now out of print.

CO.,

A "handy volume edition" was published in 1915-16 and is sold by Sears, Roebuck and Chicago. This edition is an exact photographic reproduction, reduced one-third in size, of the standard edition described above, and the text is not revised or altered in any way. The type is small but very clear, and is usable. The illustrations in the text are reduced in proportion and lose somewhat in the process but the maps and plates are not reduced at all, as it was found possible, by folding the maps and dividing the illustrations which were formerly grouped on one plate,

to keep these illustrations of the same size as in the original edition. This reduced edition is planned for the private purchaser and is not recommended for a library which can afford to purchase the work in its original form, but to the small library with a book fund which does not admit the purchase of the original edition this reproduction offers a fairly satisfactory substitute. It is published in several bindings and on both India paper and ordinary paper but for library purposes the ordinary paper edition at $48 is to be preferred.

Everyman encyclopædia, ed. by Andrew Boyle. Lond. Dent, N. Y. Dutton, [1913]. 12 v. illus. 17cm. 18s. $6. 032 A good small encyclopedia for the private library or small library which cannot afford a larger work. The articles are concise and generally accurate, although American subjects are treated somewhat less adequately than English. Bibliographies often omitted but when given are generally good. Few illustrations. An excellent work for the price but not a substitute for one of the larger standard encyclopedias.

Among the old English encyclopedias occasionally used may be mentioned:—

English cyclopedia, ed. by Charles Knight (1854–62, 22v. and Suppl. 1869–73, 4v.)

Penny cyclopedia (1833-43, 27v.) Encyclopædia Metropolitana (1817-45,

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The most important French encyclopedia and one of the best encyclopedias in any language. authoritative signed articles, excellent bibliographies, many entries under small subjects. Somewhat out of date now for sciences, etc., in which there have been recent developments, but an excellent authority for other subjects, especially for mediaeval and renaissance subjects, and for literature, history, biography, etc., of continental Europe. Very good for French and other continental biography. The bibliographies are especially important. Has fewer illustrations and plates than recent English от American encyclopedias, but what there are, are good.

Larousse, Pierre Athanase. Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle français. Paris, Larousse, 1866-90. 17v. 32cm. 750 fr. 034

v. 1-15, A-Z; v. 16, suppl. A-Z; v. 17, suppl. A-Z.

A famous encyclopedia, well edited and well written, once of first importance and still useful in many cases if allowance is made for the fact that it is not up to date and must be checked, on important points, by occasional reference to more recent authorities. Combines the features of dictionary and encyclopedia, and as an encyclopedia is an extreme example of entry under small subject, including many articles, some of considerable length, on individual works of literature, e. g. poems, plays, novels, romances, etc., and a very large amount of minor biography not included in other general encyclopedias. Good for questions of European literature, biography and history. Pink index pages referring to articles in the two supplements have been issued for insertion at the back of each of the original 15 volumes. As these were not issued until after the publication of the supplements they are not included in earlier sets, but may be purchased separately and inserted; price 3.50 fr.

- Nouveau Larousse, illustré, dictionnaire universel encyclopédique. Paris, Larousse, 1898-1906. 8v. illus. pl. (some col.) maps. 32cm. 250 fr.

v. 1-7, A-Z; v. 8, suppl.

034

Not an abridgment or revision of the above, but an entirely new work of a more popular character, with briefer articles, and profusely illustrated in both black and white and colors. Preserves much of the old Larousse feature of separate treatment of very small subjects. Especially useful for certain kinds of questions about works of art, as one of its special features is the inclusion of separate articles on individual works of art, e. g. paintings, statues, etc., entered under their titles or subjects, and accompanied by small but usable illustrations. Contains a large amount of biography but comparatively little bibliography. For popular, not scholarly use.

- Larousse mensuel illustré, revue encyclopédique universelle, pub. sous la direction de Claude Augé, 1907-16. Paris, Larousse, [1907-16]. v. 1-3. illus. 32cm. 9 fr. per year.

034

v. 1, 1907-10; v. 2, 1911-13; v. 3, 1914–16. An excellent monthly supplement to the Nouveau Larousse, with the same size and style of page, and same type of articles and illustrations. Each monthly number is alphabetical, there are annual indexes for each year, to be used until a volume is completed, and a final alphabetical index for each volume. Articles are well up to date and numbers are issued promptly. Good work for contemporary French biography, obituaries, portraits, etc. issues for 1914-16 contain many articles on current history of the European war, military art science, terms, maps of battles and campaigns, etc.

The

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Brockhaus' konversations-lexikon; allgemeine deutsche real-encyklopädie. 14. aufl. Lpz. Brockhaus, 1892-95. 17v. illus. plates (some col.), maps. 25cm. 170m. 033 v. 17 is a supplementary volume.

The 1908 edition is called the Jubiläums ausgabe but is not revised.

Begun in 1796 by Löbel, it was taken up by Brockhaus in 1808. The first edition bore the title Damenslexicon.

Herders konversations-lexikon. 3. aufl., reich illustriert durch textabbildungen, tafeln und karten. Freiburg im Breisgau, St. Louis, Mo. Herder, 1902-07. 8v. illus., pl. (partly col.) col. port., maps, plans, facsim., fold. tables. 25cm. 100m. 033 Ergänzungsband. Freiburg, St. Louis, Herder, 1910. 18.50m.

From the Catholic point of view. For general purposes less useful than Meyer and Brockhaus but often useful in addition to those two works when the Catholic viewpoint, or information on Catholic subjects is wanted.

Meyers grosses konversations-lexikon. Ein nachschlagewerk des allgemeinen wissens. 6. gänzlich neubearb. und verm. aufl. Lpz. Bibliog. inst. 1902-12. 24v. illus., pl. (partly col.) ports. maps, plans, facsims., tables, diagrs. 25cm. 10m. per vol. 033

V.

1-20, A-Z; v. 21, Ergänzungsband u. nachträge; v. 22-24, Jahres-suppl. 1909/10-1911/12. Meyers handlexikon des allgemeinen wissens. 6. gänzlich veränd. u. neubearb. aufl. Lpz. Bibliog. inst. 1912. 2 v. illus. pl. (some col.) 22m. 033

An excellent small, compact work, containing some 100,000 concise articles. Useful in the small library which serves German readers but can not afford one of the larger German encyclopedias.

ITALIAN

ovvero,

Nuova enciclopedia italiana; and Dizionario generale di scienze, lettere,

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factory. Inferior to the Enciclopedia universal ilustrada noted below but still useful for the parts of the alphabet not yet covered by the new work. Enciclopedia universal ilustrada Europeo-Americana. Barcelona, Espasa y Hijos, 1905-15. v. 1-20, 29-31. illus. pl. (partly col.) maps. 26cm. 27 ptas. per vol. 036

v. 1-20, A-Espan, 29-31, L-Madz.

v. 21-28 not to be published until after the European war.

A useful encyclopedia for the very large reference or special library. It has long articles, bibliographies, many good illustrations and maps, and includes many short articles on very small subjects. Special features are the many maps, geographical, geological, historical and statistical, the numerous plans of even small cities, colored plates of uniforms, flags, coins, etc., of each country, and the many reproductions of paintings and other works of art given usually under title and sometimes under the artist's name.

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DICTIONARIES

For a general survey of the whole field of language dictionaries consult the article "Dictionary" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition. This is valuable for its historical information, but the appended bibliography has not been sufficiently revised to include the best recent dictionaries of the various languages.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

For an interesting and authoritative survey of the history and development of the English dictionary consult Sir James A. H. Murray's Evolution of English lexicography, Ox. Univ. press, 1901, 51p.

Dictionaries are the main sources for information about words, their spelling, pronunciation, meaning, derivation, etc. Theoretically the dictionary is concerned only with the word, not with the thing represented by the word, differing in this respect from the encyclopedia which gives information primarily about the thing. Practically, however, the large modern dictionary is very often encyclopedic and gives information about the thing as well as the word, thus combining the features of the two types of reference books. As the large English dictionary is the most familiar "family reference book," this encyclopedic feature has been continually strengthened by the addition of many special lists and excellent illustrations, until the best modern works of this sort can now be used for many more purposes than information about. words. The student of reference books should familiarize himself with the special features and supplementary lists of each of the great dictionaries if he is to make each of these books serve all the purposes that it can be made to serve.

The

Dictionaries should be purchased cautiously. Like encyclopedias they are expensive undertakings for the publisher, and an unscrupulous publisher may try to increase immediate profits by using cheap work, by reprinting without revising some older work the copyright of which has expired, or by other unjustifiable measures. prospective buyer should use the same care recommended in the case of encyclopedias. In studying an English dictionary the student should follow the general directions for examining reference books, and should also note carefully the following points: (1) period of the language covered; (2) vocabulary-extent and how counted, special elements included, e.g. slang, dialect, scientific terms, etc.; (3) treatment of each word with reference to (a) spelling, (b) syllabication and hyphenization, (c) pronunciation, (d) etymology, (e) history, (f) definition, (g) illustrative quotations-are they given freely and with exact reference, (h) standard and usage is a word indicated as obsolete, colloquial, etc., (i) encyclopedic information, (j) synonyms, antonyms; (4) illustrations; (5) special types of words included in addition to the ordinary vocabulary, e.g. Christian names, foreign phrases, geographical names-to what extent are these included and where, i.e. in separate lists or in the main vocabulary; (6) special features and treatment-does the dictionary stand especially for any one thing, historical information, simplified spelling, etc.

Dictionaries of the English language have been divided rather arbitrarily, according to their place of compilation and publication, into American dictionaries and English dictionaries. Of course both types cover the same field, the English language as a whole, and conform in the main to the same standards, but there are certain

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