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of societies; a provisional list of the publications of American scientific, literary, and other societies from their organization. N. Y. Publishers' weekly, 1899. 181 p. 24cm. $3. 016.06

Based upon the material contained in the Appendixes to the American catalogue of books, 1884-95.

Now largely superseded by the Carnegie institution Handbook, but occasionally useful for societies not included in the Carnegie list.

Carnegie institution of Washington. Handbook of learned societies and institutions: American. Wash. Carnegie institution, 1908. 592 p. 22cm. $4. 016.06

"Includes North and South America and the adjacent islands. Similar material for the rest of the world has been collected but is not yet edited for publication. It is however kept on file available for consultation at the Library of Congress. Omits societies and institutions devoted to medicine and agriculture, patriotic societies, local bar associations and teachers' organizations, and leagues for civic improvement or charitable purposes. Astronomical and meteorological observatories have been included only when forming departments of universities, colleges, etc."

Gives name, address, history, object, meetings, membership, serial and special publications, distribution of publications, research funds and prizes. Arranged: (1) United States national societies; (2) local societies and institutions alphabetically by cities with the exception of state societies and institutions and historical societies of counties, smaller cities and towns which are entered under their respective states; (3) Canada, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America. Alphabetic index. Griffin, Appleton Prentiss Clark. Bibliography of American historical societies, the United States and Canada. 2d ed. rev. and enl. Wash. 1908. $1. (In American historical association. Annual report, 1905. v. 2.)

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A very important list useful both for information about the societies included and as an index to the contents of their publications. Arranged: (1) national organizations, (2) local societies. For each society gives brief information about its history and a full list of its publications, with detailed contents of each composite volume. Full author, subject and society indexes. The subject index makes the work

usable as an index to articles in the serial publications of the societies listed.

Growoll, Adolf. American book clubs; their beginnings and history, and a bibliography of their publications. N. Y. Dodd, 1897. 423 p. 20cm. $7.50. 010.6

BELGIAN

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Contents, 1915: (1) General societies, or; (2) Subject groups, e. g. Astronomy, Chemistry, Geography, Literature, etc. (3) Index of society names.

A very useful list, giving for each society authoritative information as to its corporate name, address, date of founding, patron, officers, meetings, membership, titles of publications with prices, and contents of publications for the year covered. The first volume 1884 was a basic volume, containing considerable historical information not reprinted in later issues. For full information, therefore, both the first and latest volume should be consulted.

Terry, Charles Sanford. Catalogue of the publications of Scottish historical and kindred clubs and societies, and of the volumes relative to Scottish history, issued by his Majesty's Stationery office, 17801908. Glasgow, MacLehose, 1909. 253 p. 26cm. 016.941

10s. 6d.

A useful though not complete work, on the same general plan as Griffin's Bibliography of American historical societies (see above, p. ...)

Contents: (1) Catalogue of the publications of over 50 Scottish historical and kindred clubs and societies, arranged alphabetically by name of society, giving for each society its corporate name, date of founding, purpose, list of its publications, and contents of each volume if several papers are included; (2) author and subject index to the publications and

contents notes. The index is quite full and is often useful for analytic references on small or out-ofthe-way points in Scotch history.

FRENCH

Deniker, Joseph. Bibliographie des travaux scientifiques (Sciences mathématiques, physiques et naturelles) pub. par les sociétés savantes de la France; dressée sous les auspices du Ministère de l'instruction publique. v. 1 pts. 1-2. Paris, Imprimerie nationale, 1895-97. iii, 400 p. 29cm. 10 fr. 016.506

No more published? Contents: t. 1, 1. livr. Ain-Gard (Nimes)—t. 1, 2. livr. Gard (Nimes) [cont'd]-Loire-Inférieure (Nantes).

A companion work to Lasteyrie's great bibliographie noted below, planned on the same scale and intended to do for the scientific societies what Lasteyrie was doing for the historical. Unfortunately not finished.

Lasteyrie du Saillant, Robert Charles, comte de. Bibliographie générale des travaux historiques et archéologiques publiés par les sociétés savantes de la France, dressée sous les auspices du Ministère de l'instruction publique. Paris, Impr. nationale, 1888-1914. V. 1-61-2. 29x22cm. 16 fr. per vol. 016.944

Publication of the Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques.

Issued in parts, 1885-1914.

Vol. 1-4 cover the literature published to the year 1885; v. 5-6, 1886-1900.

A monumental undertaking, not yet completed but forming already the most important work on French societies undertaken so far. Arranged alphabetically first by départements, then by towns and under each town by the name of the society. For each society gives brief history, note of all changes of name, suspensions, mergers, etc., full titles, dates, etc., of all of its publications and full contents of each volume. Not limited to societies in France but includes also those in the French colonies and abroad. Most useful at present for the historical matter

about the societies and for the titles and collation of the sets of their publications, but can not be used rapidly for the analytical material. An alphabetical author and subject index has been projected and if this is ever published the work will become enor mously useful as an index to the periodicals and society literature of French history and related topics. Continued on the same plan and scale by

the following:

Bibliographie annuelle des travaux historiques et archéologiques publiés par les sociétés savantes de la France dressée sous les auspices du Ministère de l'instruction publique. t. 1-3, années 1901/041909/10. Paris, Impr. nationale, 1906-14.* v. 1-3 in 9 pts. 28x22cm. 6.50 fr. per vol.

Each volume consists of three annual issues. Contents: v. 1, 1901/02-1903/04; v. 2, 1904/051906/07; v. 3, 1907/08-1909/10.

An annual continuation of the above, on the same plan and scale, listing in the 9 annuals so far issued 42,612 analytics. The following indexes should be noted: v. 3, no. 3 1909-10 has general index of societies (but not of analytics) in vols. 1-3, pts. 1-9. v. 3, no. 1, 1901-02, has both an author and a subject index to the analytical material in that issue; this index not continued in other issues, however.

Lefèvre-Pontalis, Eugène. Bibliographie des sociétés savantes de la France. Paris, 1887. 142 p. 28cm. $1. 016.064

Largely superseded by Lasteyrie (see above) but still useful for some societies not included by Lasteyrie.

GERMAN

Müller, Johannes. Die wissenschaftlichen vereine und gesellschaften Deutschlands im neunzehnten jahrhundert; bibliographie ihrer veröffentlichungen seit ihrer begründung bis auf die gegenwart Berl. Asher, 1883-87. 878 p. 26cm. $16.50. 016.063 Arranged by cities with alphabetic index of societies.

ENCYCLOPEDIAS

A good encyclopedia or collection of encyclopedias forms the backbone of a great part of the reference work in any library. Such books should be selected with great care and used intelligently with full understanding on the part of the reference assistants of the relative merits and defects of the different works. The making of an authoritative up to date encyclopedia is a very expensive undertaking, calling for heavy outlay for experienced writers, good editorial oversight, and careful and accurate printing and proofreading. Such work can not be done cheaply and reputable publishers recognize this fact and spend what is necessary to produce an authoritative, well edited work. As the immediate profits from cheap work are much larger, however, and as the ordinary buyer often does not discriminate between good and poor encyclopedias, unscrupulous publishers will sometimes utilize cheap hack writers or reprint with only slight changes, old, out of date material and thus produce encyclopedias which are only made to sell, and which from the point of view of any real authority are nearly worthless though perhaps costing the library almost as much as the really good works. An encyclopedia should never be purchased without a full knowledge of its character and rigid examination of the book itself. If the librarian does not have the requisite knowledge, purchase should be deferred until the book has been examined and reviewed by an expert, otherwise library money may be wasted. If the library can possibly afford the initial outlay, a good expensive encyclopedia may be the cheapest in the long run, but if this cannot possibly be afforded, it is better to buy a second hand copy of the next to the last edition of a thoroughly good work than to buy a cheap new encyclopedia, of the hack-work or commercial type. An encyclopedia that was once good is never entirely superseded, and this fact should be taken into account if the publisher of a new work or new edition offers to allow a discount on the new edition for the return of the old. The small library may be justified in giving up its old edition, but the large library which does much reference work should keep one copy of such older works, which will often be useful. Older encyclopedias are helpful: (1) in supplying information as to the condition or view of a given subject, art, or science at the date when the book was compiled, and (2) in supplying minor biographical and other articles omitted from the later edition to make space for other material.

The three cardinal points which decide the standing of an encyclopedia are: (1) its authority (including the qualities of accuracy, up-to-dateness and completeness), (2) satisfactory mechanical arrangement, which should be such that information actually included in the work can be found easily, (3) the extent to which the encyclopedia sends the reader on to other sources of information, i. e., its bibliographies. In examining an encyclopedia to determine its standing on these three points, note the following: (1) publisher-is he well known, and reputable, or entirely unknown; (2) date, not of publication but of copyright; (3) editor-is he capable and has he really edited the book or only allowed the use of his name; (4) general appearance of the book, is it cheap and indicative of hasty and inaccurate work or are both paper and typography good; (5) preface-read publisher's or editor's own statement and try to check up his claims by his accomplishment; (7) authority-are the articles by specialists and signed; (8) are the articles full and adequate, or too brief; (9) bibliographies, are these always given, and in such form as to be usable; (10) arrangement of the work, is it clear, easily

ENCYCLOPEDIAS, AMERICAN

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used, are there enough cross references; if arranged by large subjects, or not alphabetically, is there an alphabetical index of small subjects; (11) quality of illustrations.

AMERICAN

Encyclopedia Americana; a general dictionary of the arts and sciences, literature, history, biography, geography, etc. Editor-in-chief, F. C. Beach. N. Y. The Americana co. [c 1903-04] 16 v. illus. pl. ports. maps. 26cm. $6 per vol. 031 Covers much the same ground as the first edition of the New international and occasionally supplements that work, especially in the fields of science and technology in which the Americana has been thought to be somewhat stronger. Has signed articles, bibliographies, good illustrations. Unpaged. Less important now than when first issued because

not

now up to date. There have been several partial revisions; the latest partial revision has title Americana, a universal reference library comprising the arts and sciences, literature, history, biography, geography, commerce, etc., of the world. (N. Y. Sci. Amer. comp. co. 1912. 22 v. $122) This revision is printed principally from the same plates as the edition of 1903-06, but with new articles and illustrations added, and some changes in the older articles to include events since 1903 and add a few recent bibliographical references. New articles added are largely in the field of science and technology.

Nelson's encyclopædia; everybody's book of reference. Editors-in-chief, Frank Moore Colby, George Sandeman. N. Y. Nelson [c 1906-07] 12 v. illus. pl. maps. 25cm. $42.

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Articles are much briefer than those in either the New international or the Americana and there is much less bibliography. The special feature upon which most stress is laid is the loose-leaf feature which enables the publisher to keep the work up to date by the issue of new pages, supplied regularly to subscribers, to be inserted in the place of, or in addition to, the original pages whenever changed information and new events make new articles necessary.

New international encyclopædia. 2d ed. N. Y. Dodd, 1914-16. 23 v. illus. pl. (part col.) ports., maps, plans. 25cm. lib. buckr. $6. per vol. 031

Editors: Frank Moore Colby and Talcott Wil

liams.

First edition 1902-04, in 17 vols. A later edition not entirely revised but with new material and Annew maps was published in 1907 in 20 vols. other partial revision in 1912 incorporated the population figures of the United States census of 1910. The 2d edition, 1914-16, is thoroughly revised and reset and contains about 80,000 articles as against the 65,000 of the 1st edition.

An encyclopedia of the best modern type, with adequate and authoritative articles, many good illustrations, and excellent and very useful bibli ographies. Important articles are by specialists, minor articles by a capable office staff. Articles are all unsigned, but there is at the beginning of each volume a list of the authors of the principal articles in that volume. Many very small subjects, including even titles of famous works of literature, names of fictitious characters, etc., are given separate treatment, pronunciation is marked, and the sys tem of cross references is good. There are many biographical articles, about 20,000 in all, includ ing articles on persons who have come into prominence during the European war and a considerable proportion of Latin-American biography. The numerous maps are of high grade, well to date and mounted on special "insets" in such a way that they can be removed and replaced by new revised maps to be supplied free to subscribers as need of change arises. The strongest feature of the encyclopedia, however, is its excellent and usable bibliographies. A special bibliographical feature which is often very useful is the reference, in articles on foreign authors, to translations of their works as well as to the best editions in the original. On the whole, especially for purposes of ready reference the New international is the most fre quently useful of all encyclopedias in English, although for some English and European subjects and especially for cases where very full and scholarly treatment of a subject is called for the longer articles in the Britannica are to be preferred. A supplementary volume, unnumbered, contains courses of reading and study.

Issued in various bindings and on both ordinary paper and India paper. For library use the ordinary paper edition bound in library buckram according to A. L. A. specifications is to be preferred.

For annual supplement see New international year book, under Annual encyclopedias, p. 35.

Universal cyclopædia and atlas; Charles Kendall Adams, editor-in-chief. Rev. and enl. ed. Rossiter Johnson, editor of revision. N. Y. Appleton, 1905. 12 v. illus. pl. por. maps. $48. 031

Variously known also as Johnson's encyclopædia

and Johnson's universal cyclopædia. A concise, well-edited, practical work, with entry under small subject, signed articles, and bibliographies. Before the publication of the 1st edition of the New international, Johnson's cyclopædia was one of the most useful American encyclopedias, but it has not been recently revised, is now considerably out of date and is superseded for many purposes although still useful for occasional articles.

The encyclopedias noted above represent the most used American works of recent or comparatively recent date. An older work which was once an excellent authority, though now superseded for all except occasional uses, is the American cyclopedia, ed. by George Ripley and C. A. Dana (N. Y. Appleton, 1873-1883. 16 v.) An annual supplement to this, entitled Appletons' annual cyclopædia is still useful. For description see under Annual encyclopedias, p. 34.

The large standard encyclopedias are to be preferred for most purposes, but some of the many smaller works are occasionally needed, either as substitutes when the large works cannot be afforded, or in addition to the latter for briefer articles or for occasional facts not found in the larger encyclopedias.

Appleton's new practical cyclopedia; a new work of reference based upon the best authorities, and systematically arranged for use in home and school, ed. by Marcus Benjamin, assisted by Arthur E. Bostwick, Gerald Van Casteel, George J. Hagar, with an introduction by Elmer Ellsworth Brown. New and rev. ed. N. Y. Appleton, 1915. 6 v. illus. plates (part col.) maps. 25cm. $24. 031

First edition 1910.

Fact book, a universal book of reference on current world conditions; editor-inchief, Francis Rolt-Wheeler. N. Y. Current lit. pub. co. 1911. 1299 p. illus. pl. 25cm subs. 031

Harper's book of facts; a classified history of the world, embracing science, literature, and art; comp. by J. H. Willsey, ed. by C. T. Lewis. N. Y. Harper, 1895. 954 p. il. 27cm. $8. 031 A concise encyclopedic handbook, once very use. ful but now somewhat out of date. Based upon

Haydn's Dictionary of dates, but revised and enlarged to include more general and more American material than Haydn. Resembles Haydn in the chronological arrangement of information under subjects which permit of such treatment but less well up to date than the latest edition of Haydn. (See under History, p. 161.)

A later edition (N. Y. Harper, 1906) contains some changes when the plates could be altered without too great cost, but there are not sufficient additions to make this edition necessary in li braries possessing the earlier one.

New Century book of facts; a handbook of ready reference, editor-in-chief: Carroll D. Wright. Springfield, Mass., King-Richardson co. [1912] 1122 p. illus. col. plates. 25cm $7.50.

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Appletons' annual cyclopædia and register of important events. . . Embracing political, military, and ecclesiastical affairs; public documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, and mechanical industry. v. [1]15, 1861-75; v. 16-35 (new ser., v. 1-20) 1876-95; v. 36-42 (3d ser., v. 1-7) 1896– 1902. N. Y. Appleton, 1862-1903. illus. pl., ports.,.maps. 25cm.

42 v. 031

Vol. 1-14 have title: The American annual cyclopædia and register of important events.

No more published.

- A general index to Appletons' annual cyclopædia, embracing vols. I to XV inclusive, and the years 1861 to 1875. N. Y. Appleton, 1876. 442 p. 25cm

-An index to Appletons' annual cyclopædia, 1876 to 1887 inclusive. N. Y. Appleton, 1888. 144 p. 25cm.

Other indexes are included in the set as follows: Index to new series v. 1-20, 1876-95, in n. s. v. 20 p. 769-866; Index to 3d series v. 1-7, 18961902, in 3d ser. v. 7 p. 845-66.

Originally published as an annual supplement to the American cyclopædia. Of little use now as a supplement, but still very useful as an independent publication, especially for the following: (1) for record of the events of a given year, especially

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