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[5 It may be added, that the experi carried with him a draught of the ence of other countries had not war conditions, which the States of Hol.. ranted a very sanguine expectation land laid down as the basis of a from the interference of rival and final accommodation. By this ar. powerful states. Happy is that na- rangement the stadtholder was to tion which is able to maintain the renounce the influence which he balance of its internal political fortes possessed in the several town senates: without recurring to foreign me- or regencies, by giving up his right , diation. But when two great fo- of rejection or nomination in filling reign powers acquire leading in- up the occasional vacancies. Upon terests, and intermingle themselves acceding to this proposition, he was intimately in the diffenfions of any to be restored to the nominal office ftate, it is hardly poflible that those of captain-general ; he being bound dissensions should have a favourable to receive it on the new and heavy iffue. A fincere disposition to re- condition of furrendering that right solve all partial and particular in- or prerogative, by which he was terests into the general mass of the enabled to march the troops into or national intereft, is to be expected out of any province ; whereas he only from a patriotism of no ordina- was now to be restrained from any ry,class, and yet is essential to the such measure, without a previous accommodation of national troubles. communication with, and leave obAll that is to be hoped from fo. tained for the purpose from, the re, reign fincerity is, to prevent things spective states of the provinces con. from running to extremes, and to cerned. By the final proposition, keep the scale even between the he was to be restored to the governparties for a time. The interest of ment and command of the garrison the state to be pacified is not the of the Hague ; but this was likeintereft of the mediators, who wise clogged with another condimostly endeavour to fight their own tion, which was that of compliance political battle on the ground which with a resolution paft some time beis neutral, but which each endea. fore by the senate of Amsterdam, vours to appropriate. Whatever were that the command should at all the intentions of the powers now in times be revocable at the pleasure question, their negociation ended in of the states of the province. a civil war.

By the first of these propositions, Under such doubtful, and indeed that of the stadtholder's giving up inauspicious aspects, was this ne the right of nomination, and consegociation commenced.

quently all influence in the town The prince of Orange kept his fenates, it was conceived the execourt at Nimeguen, whither the cutive power would have become Count de Goertz departed in the totally inefficient in the state ; as latter end of December; leaving nothing less than a strong presiding M. de Thulemeyer to tranfact the influence, which otherwise could business on the spot with the French only be obtained by an expence in minister, while he was himself the money, far beyond the revenues of medium through which the corre the stadtholderate, could poflibly spondence was conveyed. The Count produce unanimity or decision aq

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mong such a number of petty so. proved such a degradation of the vereignties and discordant interests ; Stadtholder in the eyes both of na. it being one of the most apparent tives and foreigners, as would renvices of that conftitution, that though der him totally incapable of difwell enough calculated for the in-charging the duties, and incomternal government of their towns petent to the filling, with propriety individually, their public union can or effect, the various great offices only be procured by the fordid which he ftill retained, whether per. means of corruption. An opinion feet or mutilated. They would be. confirmed by the most indubitable sides have established a precedent authorities, through various parts the moft ruinous to himself and his and different periods of the history successors that could be devised, of the republic; and a circumstance, For if it was once found that the which has heretofore, as well as eftablished constitution could thus now, afforded an opportunity to easily be broken through, and that France to domineer in their interior he submitted in sacrificing to the as well as public councils.

pretensions of a faction or a proThe second proposition, with re- vince, those rights and aụthorities spect to the disposal and move- which had been deemed inalienable, ments of the troops, would, if ac- and inherent to his office, he fure ceded to, have been infinitely rendered the only principle on more dangerous to the state, than which he could defend the remainin any other degree prejudicial to der ; and every other faction, and the ftadtholder, as it would have every other province, might in its disabled him, in case of sudden turn and proper season follow the emergency and unforeseen danger example. (things which they now had suf Such, however, were the preli. ficient causes to be apprehensive minaries laid down by the province of) from providing those immediate of Holland, as the ground-work of means for the public defence on an accommodation ! which the preferyation of the coun The event soon confişmed the try might depend. The last condi. opinion of those who had placed ng tion would have exposed him to con- confidence in the success of the pretinual degradation and insult in the sent negociation. The princess of place of his residence, and in the Orange, whole genius, spirit, and view of all the world, and have ren. abilities, were well understood on all dered him contemptible even to his fides, undertook to fupply the place own guards, whenever his masters of the prince in the conduct of thiş (which was now the favourite lan business ; and her management of gaage) should choose to remind it did not in any degree derogate the public 8f their supreme power, from those qualities. It would seem, and of his servile dependence on however, that he was by no means them.

disposed to give up any of the stadtNow as public opinion, and the holderian rights ; nor perhaps sufreverence founded on it, are indif- ficiently practicable with reipect to penfably necessary to the support of smaller compliances.

The correall government, fo these conditions, spondence between Nimeguen and maken all together, would have the Hague was carried on for feve


ral weeks; but was at length ab. would be in the highest degree inruptly, broken off by M. de Rayne.' tolerable, that he Thould acknow, val, who suddenly set out upon his lege a guilt where none existed. return to Paris about the middle of That the French minister had reJanuary 1787.

quired as another preliminary, that, Nothing could exceed the bitter- in order to gratify the states of ness of recrimination which passed Holland, the stadtholder Ihould viobetween the contending parties late the conftitution and invade the upon the failure of this treaty or rights of other provinces, by bindnegociation. It was said on the ing him to bring the states of Guel. side of the stadtholder, that it pro. dres and Utrecht, without regard to ceeded entirely from the precipitate the means which he was to use for arrogance, the haughty affectation accomplishing so absurd and extraof fuperiority, and the imperious ordinary a measure, to rescind re. {pirit of the French minister. That solutions which they had passed, he would listen to no terms but those and forego measures which they had of his own prescribing, or such as already adopted for their own inwere dictated by the adverse fac. ternal regulation ; and, as if it were tion. Tha the appeared rather as to render him till more culpable, the appointed advocate of that par- by exceeding his own authority, ty, than in the character of a com- and a farther violation of the conmon friend, or a cool and impartial fitution, it was insisted that he mediator. That he rather seemed to hould withdraw the garrisons from consider the stadtholder as a guilty Elbourg and Hattem, without any perloq interceding for favour and regard to the fovereignty under forgiveness, than as a prince, who whose orders he had acted in placing was placed by the conftitution at those garrisons, and by whose comthe head of the republic, claiming mands they were ftill continued. his juft rights, and demanding re. And, finally, that the French endress of the injuries he had fultain. voy, instead of giving time for paled.

son to cool, or prejudices to sublide In descending to particulars, they on either fide, as soon as he found faid, that the French minifter had that his arbitrary ditum was not inJaid it down as an indispensable pre- ftantly obeyed, and all his propofiJiminary condition to his being re- tions immediately and implicitly ackored to his office of captain gene- ceded to, abruptly broke off the neral, that the prince Mhould inake gociation, when, by a better temper such a public fubmission to his fo- and disposition on his side, there vereigns the states of Holland, as were very guod reasons for believe would have been an acknowlege. ing, that things might in a little ment to all the world of his deferv. time have been put in a fair train of ing the fufpenfion laid on, and of accommodation. his being culpable in all the accu On the other side it was infifted sations which they had brought with great acrimony, that the against him. That as it would be failure of success proceeded entirely ridiculous for the stadtholder, who from che inflexible obftinacy of the had committed no fault, id make court of Nimeguen. That, far from apologies or to afa pardon, so it paying any deference to the states


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of Holland, who were his lawful fo- conciseness, was immediately turned vereigns, the stadtholder had in

to good account by the adverse sisted in the most peremptory man party, who, interpreting it intirely ner upon every part of his claims, in their own favour, triumphantly not relaxing any more in the most published this construction, as an inconsiderable than in the most ma- evidence, that the king was so much. terial articles. That he fewed no disgusted with the stadtholder's indisposition to accommodate himself curable obstinacy, in not agreeing to the unfortunate situation in which to those reasonable concessions which he was involved, nor to the temper the states of Holland required, and and circumstances of the times which he had himself recommended, That he had not shewn the smallest that he would now take no farther regret for any of the unjustifiable concern in his affairs, but abandon measures into which he had been him entirely to their mercy. And precipitated, but, on the contrary, this had such an effect, that a report seemed disposed pertinaciously to was spread, and credited in other support and defend them to the last countries as well as Holland, that a And, in a word, that a single con- ferious misunderstanding had taken cession had növer even been hinted place between the two courts. at from his court ; but that all the In the mean time, the Praslian advances which had been made, and minister extraordinary had returned all the initances of moderation at directly from Nimeguen to Berlin, any time given, had been displayed having enclosed the king's letter by the states of Holland.

to the states general, accompanied Upon the whole, without expect- with one of his own, in which hè ing accurate statements of fact in apologized for not having taken violent political altercations, we leave of them formally and in permust, however, observe, that an in- fon at the Hague. vincible obstinacy has long been Previous to these negociations, charged, as one of the peculiar and during the time of their continudistinguished characteristics of the ance, and for several months after, policy of that court.

continual changes were taking place The king of Prusia, upon the in the conduct, views, connection, breaking up of the negociation, and strength of the numberless parand the departure of Rayneval, im- ties and factions which were spread mediately recalled the Count de throughout the republic. These Goertz, sending a short letter to were so sudden and various as to the states general, in which he only present nothing but a general chaos expressed his concern for the failure of disorder and confusion to all dirof his good wishes and offices to- tant speculators. In general, howwards restoring the tranquillity of ever, the democratical intereft was the republic, without any observa- gaining ground ; and it was in that tion on the causes of that failure, respect, and in that only, that the or the smallest hint by which any present conteits held out a prospect conjecture could be formed of his of amendment and benefit (and a further intentions, any more than most essential one it would have of his present temper and disposi- been) to the constitution, by admitzion. This reserve, and laconic ting the body of the citizens to a


fare in their respective governments. general a disposition in the people

Though it muit be acknowledged, to follow. that if that great change had taken The government established in place, the whole conititution and Utrecht was considered as a model of form of government must have been perfection by the democratical parties new modelled ; or otherwise, the in other places. The idea of a college executive power would have been of tribunes, which would render the totally incapable of fulfilling its several town regencies entirely subpurposes, and the centre of union servient to the people, and lay the between the respective parts of the senators individually at the mercy of republic would be too feeble to every factious or curbulent demarefift danger, or to admit of public gogue who -became a member of exertion.

that office, was generally and pecuIn the city of Utrecht, the an. liarly captivating; several of the cient government was entirely over towns in Holland, as well as other thrown, and the democratical com- places, eagerly adopting it in their pletely established ; while, to insure projected schemes of reform. The its permanence, a college of tri- aristocratics were not, however, by bunes was instituted as an inhe- any means idle, and, where the inerent part of the new constitution, quality in power was too great to whose office it was not only vigi. admit of an open refiitance, all colantly to guard and defend the vert means were used to procraftirights of the burghers or people at nate the event, if it was found ima large, but who were likewise fur- pollible to defeat the attempt. Thus nished with such strong powers of the democratic parties experienced controul in respect to the election, not a few revolutions of fortune in and even to the after conduct of the places where they thought themsenators or regents, as threw the felves secure, and were not feldom government in a great measure en- surprised with an ingenious aftertirely into their hands. They were, game when it was least expected. however, verging faft to a civil war The states of Holland were in a with the states of the province; to critical situation. Nothing could which the numbers, wealth, and be more alarming or painful to power of that city had rendered them than the rapid progress which them more than competent; even

the democratical spirit was making if they had not been openly encou- in that province; and yet they taged, and strongly supported, by were involved in such untoward cirHolland. That aid was, however, cumstances, through the measures necessary to counterbalance the sup- which they had so long pursued port

which the ftates were likely against the stadtholder, that 'they to receive from the stadtholder, as dared not openly to oppose the powell as from their neighbours of pular disposition, left they might Guelderland, and perhaps other have thrown the great and numeprovinces; who seeing the danger of rous body of burghers into his arms, such innovations to themselves, were which would have decided the conlikely to oppose the establishment test at once against them. of a precedent, which they saw too

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