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Lol God hath wreath'd the laurels round legitimation per subsequens matrimothy brow,

nium.' The first of these papers is the His arm is with thy sword--that thou only one that possesses any great in

should'st bring [Eternal King. terest on this side the Tweed, and we The wandering tribes of earth, to earth's

shall take advantage of the opportuBranch of a stately stem, now fair and nity it affords us of laying before our tender!

readers some brief remarks upon the Young scion of a race, far dearer care questions respecting the death of Of Heaven than all the imperial pomp Richard II, which have been recently and splendour,

[bear! agitated amongst antiquaries.. We That the broad bosom of the west doth

shall thus be enabled to do justice to See thine own warlike shield: for present the present author, by clearly exhibitthere,

Etory, Gleams the dread sign of ancient vic- ing the new information he has conSymbol that once Heaven's monarch

tributed. Before entering, however, deign'd to wear

upon the subject, we must express our The form of man, and died on earth displeasure at the scorpful and conthat we

[hell be free. temptuous style which he too freMight from the bondage dire of sin and quently adopts in his allusions to Mr. Lord of a thousand lands 1 whose empire

Tytler. Such a style ought to be wide

[beam, carefully abstained from in all merely First smiles beneath the morning's early literary controversies, and certainly, Shines out, when in mid-heaven the sun in the present case, is most unjust. doth ride,

Mr. Tytler may be right or wrong in And glows beneath his latest evening his opinions respecting Richard II., gleam;

[arm we deem

or any other disputed point of history, Oh, King! whose sword, whose potent but his great merits as an historian Full soon the power of Ishmael's sons

are unquestionable. His works enshall shake,

[dream Startle the eastern Turk from his dull labourers, and more especially of those

title him to the respect of all his fellow. Of ease and of security, and make The dark Gentoo that drinks the sacred whose attainments do not exceed the river, quake, &c.

comparatively humble standard of the

present author. This specimen we consider to be

On the 27th October, 1399, Richard quite good enough to induce the author II. was sentenced to perpetual imprito proceed in his undertaking. It will

sonment in some unfrequented place. be seen that a few of his expressions He was to be guarded by sure and are weak, and some not so skilfully sufficient persons; no one who had turned as they ought to be; but his formerly belonged to his household measure we decidedly prefer to Mic

was to be permitted about his perkle's; and thus differing from his pre

son, and these directions were to be decessor, both in the structure of his

carried into effect with the greatest verse and in the plan of execution, possible secresy. At the time of passwe shall willingly accept two versions

ing this judgment,' Richard was conof Camoens, executed on different fined in the Tower of London. He principles, as we possess two versions

was afterwards conveyed to Leeds of Homer.

Castle, in Kent, and thence to Ponte: fract.

Early in the succeeding year a forTracts, Legal and Historical, with other

midable conspiracy for his restoration Antiquarian Matter, chiefly relative

was treacherously disclosed, and easily to Scotland. By John Riddell, Esq. defeated. The conspirators comprised Advocate. Edinburgh. pp. 224, 8vo,

the Earls of Kent, Huntingdon, and 1835.

Salisbury, the Lords Lumley and DesTHIS volume contains three anti- pencer, and many of the most faithful quarian papers, the first being 'a re- of the relatives and adherents of ply to Mr. Tytler's remarks upon the Richard. The premature discovery of death of Richard II.;' the second, 'Ob- their plot rendered success impossible, servations upon the representation of and all the persons we have enumethe Rusky and Lennox families;' and rated were arrested and put to death the third, Remarks upon the law of in various parts of England. The

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conspiracy was revealed on the 5th coffin to. Westminster Abbey, to & January, 1400, and before the middle tomb prepared by Richard himself. of the same month all the principal con- It contended by one of the two spirators had probably ceased to exist, parties which hạve arisen in the anti, and with them had ended the hope of a quarian world upon this subject, that re-action in favour of Richard. One of this exhibition of a body was a mere the measures adopted by these conspi- farce intended to deceive the people; rators, was to spread abroad reports that that the body exhibited was not that Richard had escaped from custody, and of Richard, and that, in point of fact, was stationed at Pontefract, at the head Richard was not then dead, bụt had of a large army. The latter part of the escaped into Scotland. The other rumour was certainly untrue, and, in party insists, of course, upon the bona all probability, it was equally so that fides of the exhibition, and endeavours he had effected his escape. True or to establish the fact that Richard was false, however, the notion was exten- at that time really dead. sively circulated, and exercised an in- Upon referring to the early authofluence over the public mind, which rities, there may be found three difby no means ceased upon the total ferent accounts of the manner of his defeat of the conspiracy.

death. One is, that he was assassiIn the course of the succeeding nated by Sir Piers Exton; but that month of February, the metropolis ap- account, although rendered popular by pears to have been agitated by contra- having been adopted by Shakspeare, dictory rumours respecting Richard; cannot be traced to any satisfactory it being asserted on the one side that authority, and has therefore been gehe was dead, with probably many con- nerally abandoned. The second and tradictions as to the manner of his third accounts attribute his death to death, and, on the other, that he was starvation, but differ as to its occaliving either at Pontefract, or else- sion; the one declaring it to have been where. With a view to quiet the voluntary, springing out of grief for public mind, the council determined the loss of his relatives and friends to speak to the King upon the subject, who were put to death on account of and to recommend to him that, if their the defeated conspiracy, and the other late Sovereign were alive, he should enforced, by order of Henry IV. The be strictly guarded, and, if dead, that authority of all these accounts is his body should be openly shewn to shaken by their being based by the the people. It will be observed that Chronicles themselves.upon no better at that time the council were in utter · foundation than mere rumour. They ignorance of Richard's fate, and con- are all qualified by, 'as is reportsequently, if it were the result of fouled,'— as is commonly said,' or si. play, it is to Henry, and not to his milar doubtful phrases ; but it will advisers, that the crime must be at- be remarked that this doubtfulness tributed.

affects merely the manner of Ri. Shortly after this recommendation, chard's death, and, in answer to the it was rumoured that Richard had advocates for his escape, it is suffi. died upon St. Valentine's day, and a cient if good reason can be shewn for corpse which was stated to be his, a belief in the fact of his death, even was brought from Pontefract to Lon: although nothing had ever been ru. don, and was exhibited to the people moured as to the manner in which at the principal intervening places. In that event occurred. As to the fact London it was exposed to view at St. of his death, all the English authorities, Paul's on two successive days, and is and they are many and of various said to have been seen by twenty kinds, agree, with merely this diffe. thousand persons, the face being un- rence, that those who wrote with a covered from the lower part of the favourable feeling towards Henry, atforehead to the throat. Henry at- tributed the event to grief and voluntended the funeral ceremony at St. tary famine, those who were on Paul's, and the body was immediately other side accused the reigning soveafterwards conveyed to Langley, in reign of having had a share in Hertfordshire, where it was interred. His son and successor removed the • The deep damnation of his taking off.?

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The case set up in answer to this by seems to me so extravagant à supthe advocates for the Scottish Richard, position, that I do not envy the task of rests principally upon two Scottish áu. any one who undertakes to support it.' thorities. They represent that Richard (Hist. Scotland, vol. iii. p. 340). found means to escape from Pontefract, Unenviable as the task was consiand succeeded in reaching the Scottish dered, Mr. Amyot, who had already Isles. That he was accidentally recog- distinguished himself in this dispute, nized when sitting in the kitchen of by a dissertation upon the manner of Donald, Lord of the Isles, by a jester the death of Richard, took it upon who had been educated in Richard's himself, and is generally thought to court. That Donald sent him, under have demolished the pretensions of the charge of Lord Montgomery, to the mammet of Scotland.' His treåRobert III. King of Scotland, by whom tise, which is to be found in the 23d he was honourably treated. That volume of the Archeologia, is written after that king's death he was deli- very pleasantly. It possesses great vered to the Duke of Albany, the Re- interest and ingenuity, and might have gent of Scotland, and finally died in taught Mr. Riddell in what manner, the Castle of Stirling, A.D. 1419, and and with what temper, literary diswas buried in the church of the Preach- putation ought to be carried on. Mr. ing Friars in that town. There are Amyot relies principally upon the four discrepancies between the authorities following points. I. The public exas to the manner of his discovery, the posure of the corpse, which he shews inscription upon his tomb, and other could not have been that of Maudelein, minor matters, but they do not affect the only person suggested by the only the main fact of his existence. In- authority who has expressed a doubt deed, as to that there is no disputė. whether the body was really that of It is admitted on all hands that such Richard. 11. The subsequent removal a person did exist, but the question is, of the body to Westminster Abbey by was he the true prince,' or an im- Henry V. which if we are to believe postor. In support of the affirmative, the Scottish story, was an impolitic Mr. Tytler first brought into the field and gratuitous fraud. IIl. The concertain extracts from the accounts of duct of the Percies and of Archbishop the Great Chamberlain of Scotland Scrope, who in the manifestoes issued during the government of the Duke of during their rebellions against Henry Albany, from which it appears that IV. charged him with the murder of that nobleman claimed to be a creditor Richard. Had they,' concludes Mr. upon the public purse for £733.-68. 8d. Amyot, believed the true Richard to being the amount of expenses incurred be really alive in Scotland, they would by him in the custody of Richard not have failed to use the king's name King of England,' for a period of a tower of strength.' IV. The eleven years. Mr. Tytler considers it marriage of Isabella, Richard's queen. extremely improbable that such an This lady was sought in marriage by expense should have been incurred Henry IV. for his son, and was afterabout the maintenance of an impostor, wards united to Charles Duke of Or. and therefore regards these entries as leans. • This marriage," says

Sir almost conclusive evidence that the James Mackintosh, affords a toleraScottish government, who must have ble presumption that her family had known the fact, were well aware that sufficient assurance of Richard's death;' their prisoner was really the deposed and V. The slight feeling excited in sovereign of England. He further this country during the greater portion considers that this conclusion becomes of the supposed Richard's long resialmost irresistible, when coupled with dence in Scotland, a period of no less the fact that the Scottish Richard is than nineteen years. stated to have denied that he was the With respect to the Chamberlain's king. That an impostor' says Mr. accounts, Mr. Amyot remarks that the Tytler, should deny that he was the extracts furnished by Mr. Tytler supking, or that in the face of his denial, ply no additional evidence as to his a poor maniac should be supported at identity. The proofs that some person a great expense, and detained for more was detained in custody required no than eleven years at the Scottish court, such confirmation, and it is equally

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clear that considerable charges must In these conspiracies a person named have been incurred in maintaining him. Serle, who had been in the household No claim could decently have been of the late king, was especially conadvanced for the maintenance of an spicuous. In the year 1402, we find acknowledged impostor. It may ad- the earliest intimation of a connexion mit of a question, whether the fact between Serle and a Scottish Richard, that the Regent neither asked nor re- in the rumour that Richard was alive ceived from the public treasury, any and well in Scotland, and that. Serle reimbursement of these expenses, may who was with him had arranged every not afford an inference that he had re. thing for his array and entrance into tained his captive for objects of pri- England. Two years afterwards Serle vate and personal policy? Be that as made his appearance in England, hav. it may, the position that he was not ing, as he asserted, come out of Scot. an impostor appears to Mr. Amyot to land, where he had been with Richard, be no more established by the charges from whom he brought letters under for his maintenance, than the opposite what he stated to be his privy seal, fact of the interment of the real king addressed to his friends in England. at Langley would be allowed to be in this manner he won over many proved by a production of the exche- persons, but Henry's promptitude quer accounts of the funeral expenses. quashed the conspiracy, and Serle esThe Richard in England was buried, caped again cotland. About the the Richard in Scotland was clothed same time a general pardon was grantand fed, and no historical documents ed, out of the operation of which were can be required to prove that expenses excepted Serle, Amye Donet, and were incurred in both these services, • Thomas Warde de Trumpington, qui To these acute observations Mr. Amyot se pretende et feigne d'estre Roy adds various considerations, arising Richard.' Of Donet nothing appears out of the politics and situation of the to be known. Serle was shortly afterCourts of England and Scotland, from wards entrapped by Lord Clifford, and which he argues the improbability of after a confession, was drawn from Albany's detention of the real king. Pontefract to London, and there ex

Such were Mr. Amyot's arguments, ecuted. His confession, as given by as far as we have space to exhibit them, Walsingham, is very contradictory to and here the dispute has rested up to the account of the appearance of the present time. Mr. Riddell endea- Richard given by the Scottish authovours to add one more link to the rities, and, if allowed to have any chain. It will be observed that the weight, cannot go beyopd a corroboquestion 'who was the Scottish Ri- ration of the previous rumours of a chard ?' was not treated by Mr. Amyot connexion between Serle and a Scot-indeed, it scarcely lay in his way. tish pretender. Warde is several times All that he did upon that head was to named in public documents during prompt an inquiry as to whether the the reigas of Henry IV. and V., and, pretender could have been Thomas in one dated in 1409, to which Mr. Warde of Trumpington, whom he was Riddell is the first person who has atalleged to be by Henry IV., but whose tracted attention, it is stated, that as pretensions had been summarily no- the son and heir of Joan Warde, he ticed and rejected by Mr. Tytler, upon became entitled to a messuage and grounds which Mr. Amyot proved to eight acres of land and meadow in be insufficient. Mr. Riddell has re- Trumpington. This property was produced the facts relating to this per- taken into the king's hands, on acson, adding some little new matter, count of Thomas Warde's forfeiture, and endeavours to establish the iden- and was granted by the king to one tity of Thomas Warde and the Scottish John Edmond. He is moreover deRichard. We shall show how the scribed in a letter of Archbishop Arun. argument stands.

del to Henry IV. which Mr. Riddell During the early years of Henry IV. has brought forward, as if for the first many rumours were circulated respecto time, although it has been already ing the existence of Richard in Scot- printed by Mr. Amyot, as 'stultus, land, and several conspiracies on his and 'fatuus,' and, in a public docu. behalf were discovered and put down. ment in the 3d Henry V. as “ideota ;'

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descriptions which agree with that of until a few weeks ago. If he had the Scottish chronicler.

been resident in London, we are sure

he would not have remained so long • As he bare hym like wes he Oft half wod, or wyld to be!

ignorant of the works of his merito

rious countryman; and even in EdinIt is also alleged in several English burgh, we should imagine that not to records that Thomas Warde bore a know such things argues something resemblance to the late king." respecting Mr. Riddell, which we trust

Stringing all these facts together, will not long continue, for with all his Mr. Riddell concludes it to be unques- redundances he may become a useful tionable that the Scottish Richard and auxiliary in the field of historical inThomas Warde of Trumpington were quiry. the same person. Probably the proper inference is, not that Thomas Warde is proved to be the Scottish Richard, Landscape Illustrations of Moore's Irish

Melodies ; with Comments for the but that Henry IV. alleged that he Curious. Part I. 8vo. was so, a fact previously well known, and that Mr. Riddell has added a

So much has been done of late in proof that Thomas Warde was at any

the way of landscape illustrations of event not entirely a fictitious person,

our most popular writers, that we had as Mr. Tytler seems to have thought, begun to think the point of perfection but that such a person did really ex

had been attained. We are, therefore, ist, and that, for some cause or other, delighted in taking up the work before his property was forfeited to the crown. us, a new series of landscapes, and This latter circumstance certainly ren

those illustrative of that beautiful and ders it not improbable that he was the comparatively neglected country, IreScottish captive. Here then the in- land, as its more prominent beauties quiry rests for the present. Probably

are alluded to in the Melodies of some future publication of records will Moore. The plates of this work are throw further light upon it.

at least equal to anything that we If Mr. Riddell had confined himself have seen; the illustrative matter is to the point as to Warde, his paper has gone before it, and we need only

infinitely superior to everything which would have been shorter, but far more interesting. As it is, he takes up and say, to insure it favour in the eye of presses many arguments which Mr. our readers, that it is from the acAmyot had exhausted before him,

complished and amusing pen of Crofin fact, Mr. Amyot's reasonings con

ton Croker. The present number prestitute the substance of his paper. He

sents a most delightful mixture of is desirous, however, that his readers learning and wit, of antiquarianism should not think he derived his argu

and amusement, embracing four intements from any other source than his resting subjects, the rich and beauti. own mind, and therefore informs them

ful Vale of Avoca, the sacred isle of that Mr. Tytler's publication upon the Inniscattery, the bed of St. Kevin, subject is the only one published since and the Wicklow Gold Mines. 1829 that had met his eye, although

In illustration of the first of these he had been told that there had been subjects, we have a curious and intea subsequent discussion. If this as- resting disquisition on the true posisertion substantiates Mr. Riddell's ori- tion of the meeting of the waters in ginality, it also proves him to have that “valley so sweet,” and on the been wanting in the first duty, of an

spot which gave rise to the song by author, which is, to ascertain what has

Moore which celebrates it. The meetbeen previously written upon the sub- ing and mixing of waters, leads very ject of which he treats, in order that naturally to the consideration of other he may not burthen the public with an

mixtures, and we cannot forbear quotunnecessary book,no slight evil; or ing a song with which the chapter interfere with the merits of preceding concludes, in praise of that “

strong writers,—no trifling injustice.

Mr. water” so dear to the sister Isle, which Riddell adds, with some simplicity, is more commonly known by the name that he had not read Mr. Tytler's pa

of whisky. per, nor any other part of his history, During one of those periodical visits Genr. Mág. VOL. III.

4 I

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