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of unskilful moneyers in the Spanish nable vanity. On the denarii he is colonies. On those of better fabric always represented without beard, and the portrait is good, the hair rises on with a cast of countenance more rethe forehead as described by the his- sembling that of an ideal portrait than torian, who says it curled naturally, of a living personage. and there is in the countenance an ex- We find what may be considered pression which accords with our re- authentic portraits on the well-execeived notions of this great man. cuted coins of Tiberius. Suetonius

Of the portrait of Lepidus, which is says, that the hair of this tyrant grew found on his denarii, little can be said, down his neck- Capillo pone occiexcept that it is badly executed, but still pitium submissiore, and on his highly characteristic, being very inex- coins this is particularly observable; pressive and unintelligent. His treat- indeed, the historian speaks of it as a ment by Cæsar's successor, and his peculiarity in the Cæsar family. tamely submitting to such treatment, Many coins of Caligula bear very excites our surprise, after reading that noble portraits, utterly at variance he formed one of the Triumvirate with the account of Suetonius, who with Augustus and Antony; but, per- says that his countenance was unprehaps, the subtle policy of the former possessing, and that he endeavoured discovered the advantage of having to render it frightful. Here flattery in his interest one who was so readily was again upon the alert; but nume. moulded to his will.

rous coins of this Emperor in middle The account which Suetonius gives brass bear a portrait of a very different of Julius Cæsar is verified by his me- description: the nose is turned up, dals, which represent him without and there is an expression in the feabeard, bald, with an arched neck, and tures at once forbidding and malige with a wreath of laurel round his nant. head; a portrait which it would be There is little variation in the heads impossible to confound with


on the coins of Claudius. The con. other. The personal beauty of Cæsar templation of the portrait of this Em. has been extolled by the ancient his- peror by the physiognomist or phretorians. Among others, Vellius Pa- nologist, would throw either into rapterculus describes him as “ formâ om. tures. The expression of the face is nium civium excellentissimus ;” but vacant and unintellectual; and the there is nothing in the portraits of the head would be said by phrenologists Dictator which have come down to us, to want energy. Two busts of Claudius to warrant such extravagant praises. in the Musée Royal at Paris are re

The next portrait is that of Augus- markable for the same want of intellectus, the boyish countenance of Octa- tual expression. vius being destitute of expression, and Many of the coins of Nero, struck unworthy of notice as a likeness. The when he was Cæsar, have a youthful large brass coins of this Emperor, head, in which may be traced a strong with the head of Julius Cæsar on the likeness to his predecessor, It would reverse, bear a portrait answering in be difficult to ascertain if this was in every respect to the description of consequence of the prince's then perSuetonius, who tells us that Augustus sonal resemblance to Claudius, or was very careless with his hair, fre- whether the artists employed in the quently permitting several persons to

Roman mint were desirous of payiug cut it at the same time, while he read him'a compliment by giving him the or wrote; and sometimes clipped, at features of the Emperor. Small brass others, shaved his beard. The por

coins of Nero, struck in some of the trait on the coin in question has rag- Greek cities, bear very well executed ged hair, and an untrimmed beard. portraits of him when Cæsar; and in But the heads on his denarii differ these may be traced the same resem. materially from those just described. blance to Claudius. It is, however, We learn from the same author, that on the coins of Nero struck during his Augustus piqued himself upon his reign, that we find a portrait answerfancied likeness to Apollo; and it ing to the description of that given by would appear from these coins, that Suetonius. This author says that flattery took advantage of this abomi. Nero at one time followed the effemi,

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nate fashion of having his hair cut in comely, He says the same of Titus, rings"Comam semper in gradus for whom, however, he describes as some, matum.'

.This style of hair-dressing what short of stature and inclined to is, however, not observable on his corpulency, while Domitian, op the Latin coins; but on those of colonial contrary, was tall and stately. This fabric struck at Corinth before his discrepancy in the portraits of Domiaccession to the empire, we have a tian may be attributed to the desire portrait with the hair cut in that of the artists of the period to represent

him as like as possible to his brother, The countenance of Galba is mi- a prince whose virtues had endeared nutely described by the biographer of him to the people. This was a descripthe Cæsars, who observes that his tion of flattery very frequently pracforehead was bald and that his nose tised in the Roman mint ; but Domi. was hooked, traits most distinctly tian, we are told, was exceedingly marked in the portraits on his


vain of his personal appearance; and A bust of this Emperor, preserved in it is probable that this depraved Emthe Musée Royal, may be recognized by peror preferred stamping on his coins its resemblance to that impressed on a portrait of more graceful appearance his coins.

than that which his subjects had perSuetonius remarks, that the counte- haps learned to regard with veneranance and person of Otho did not in- tion, on account of its resemblance to dicate the resolution with which he one whose amiable qualities appeared performed in the last scene of his to advantage, in an age when the struggle for the empire. He was a rapine, sensuality, and cruelty of the man of effeminate habits and appear. Roman Emperors had, from their fre, ance, says the historian; beardless, quency, ceased to excite the disgust and bald ; the first he encouraged in and horror of their subjects. his youth, the latter he concealed by Should the foregoing brief remarks wearing a peruke. The portraits on on the imagines of " the Twelve Cæhis Latin coins agree with this de- sars," prove at all interesting to your scription, and are of a totally different numerous readers, I shall, at a future character to those of the other Cæ- opportunity, proceed to a review of

The peruke, with which he is the portraits on the coins of their always represented, appears to have been formed in circles, a mark of effe- Yours, &c. J. Y. AKERMAN. nancy and dandyism in those days.

Vitellius follows; and it would be difficult to find a bust so characteristic as that which his coins bear. The huge face, small head, short neck, and

MR. URBAN, bloated features, are expressive of the sensuality and cruelty which marked

THE designation of this once splenthe brief reign of the imperial glutton. did appendage of royalty, has recently

Few persons can be unacquainted undergone a change, on the ground of with the strongly marked counte,

there being something derogatory in nance of Vespasian, whose features

their former appellation. were well calculated for representation

I will, with your permission, give in profile. The coarse joke of a jester

a slight sketch of the formation * and on his peculiarity of visage is preserved original constitution of this corps, by

which by Suetonius, but will not bear repe

will appear that its, members

have been known as the “ Pentition here. His coins testify the general

« Gentlemen Pensioners,'

sioners," or of the historian. accuracy The portraits on the coins of Titus,

ever since the reign of King Henry and on those of Domitian, when he the Eighth, and that their title was succeeded to the empire, resemble that

never considered derogatory, although of their father, but it is somewhat remarkable, that later coins of Domi.

* "6 An Historical Account of the Hon. tian have a bust of much nobler cha

Band of Gentlemen Pensioners," forms racter, with a long and graceful neck. the Second Part of Curialia, by Samuel Suetonius says that his person was Pegge, Esq. 4to. 1784.







the band long consisted of members spere to haue three greate horses, to of the first families in England. bee attendaunt on his persone, of the

This band, known at first by the which bande the Erle of Essex was appellation of The King's Spears,Lieuetenant, and Sir John Pechie owes its origin to the magnificent Capitain; who endured but awhile, taste of King Henry the Eighth, who, the apparell and charges were in making this addition to the splen- greate; for there were none of theam dour of his Court, seems to have taken but thei and their horses were apthe idea from the institution of the parelled and trapped in clothe of Yeomen of the Guard, by his father, golde, silver, and goldesmithes worke, although the motives of the two mo- and their servaunts richely appareled narchs differed widely.*

also.” The characteristic magnificence of Thus it appears the enormous extheir founder was conspicuous in pense attending this office, (for which their organization. They consisted at I do not find that they received any first of fifty noblemen and gentlemen, remuneration,) caused the dissolution called the “ King's Spears;" each of of the band, as originally constituted. whom was attended by a demilauncer, They were soon remodelled, however, (who was a gentleman,) an archer, and though still consisting of nobles and a custrel, or horse-boy; they had, and knights of the leading families of besides, three led destriers, or war- the kingdom, they received a pension horses. The following account of towards defraying the necessary extheir institution and appointments is penses. I am unable to affix the extaken from Hall's Chronicle, vol. ii. act date to this change, but in a confol. 6.

temporary MS. account of the coroAlso this yere, (viz. 1509, 1

nation of Edw. VI. I find frequent Hen. VIII.] the kyng ordeined fiftie mention of the Pensioners" in the gentlemenne to bee speres, euery of processions and other ceremonies, them to haue an archer, a demi- without any remark or explanation, launce, and a custrell; and


which would argue that the name and

office were not very recent. * " These thynges thus passed," (viz.

Under Queen Mary there are frethe appointment of a Privy Council, and other arrangements of affairs of state, by but I have not met with any parti

quent notices of this body collectively, Henry VII. in the 1st year of his reign.)

cular account of them. Albeyt, that apparauntly all thynges semed to be reduced to a good poynte,

Under Queen Elizabeth they were and set in a sure steye: Kynge Henry in high estimation, and consisted enbeyog made wyse and expert with trou- tirely of nobility and gentry of the bles and myschiefes before past, remem- best families. Indeed, serving the bred that yt was wisdome to feare & Queen as a Pensioner, was an object prouide for the crafty wyles and lurkyng of ambition to the young men of the trappes of his secret enemyes, remem- highest distinction. Sir John Holbryng all me for the moost parte em- les, of Houghton, co. Notts. Knt. brued & exercysed in plantyng of diui.

afterwards Earl of Clare, used to say, sion and sowynge dissencion, can not

that while he was a Pensioner of lightely leaue their pestiferous appetite & sedicious occupacion. Wherefore, for Queen Elizabeth," he did not know a the saaeguard and preseruation of his

worse man than himself in the whole owne bodyo, he co’stituted & ordeyned band,” and he was then in possession a certayn numbre as well of good archers of £4,000 per annum. as of diverse other persons beinge hardy, Under King James I. and his son stronge, and of agilitie, to geue dailye Charles I. the Gentlemen Pensioners attendaunce on his person, whom he do not seem to have numbered so named Yomen of his Garde, whiche pre

many men of high rank in their band, sident men thought that he learned of

as under the virgin Queen, who is the Frenche king when he was in Frau'ce: for men remembre not any Kyng of

well known to have taken the greatest England before that tyme whiche vsed pains to fill all, even the subordinate sych a furnyture of daily souldyours." places in her household, from the Hall's Chron. 1542. vol. 2. fo. ii. i flower of the gentry. Hen. VII.

They still, however, continued in GENT. MAG. Vol. III.


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high repute, and that they were jea. always heretofore taken and held the said lous of the honour of their station, as George Baker to be their kinsman, and belonging to pure gentry, will appear a younger branch of their house ; which from the subjoined award of the Earl family of the Bakers, and their coat of Marshall in 1632.

armes, by the testimony of the officers By this it appears that the band then present, are found entred in severall

books of visitations and funeralls, re. took exceptions to the appointment of Master George Baker, on the ground it appeareth that they are ancient Gen

maining in the Office of Armes, whereby that he was no gentleman. It need tlemen of Descent and Coat Armour. In hardly be explained that this charge consideration of which premisses, I have did not then imply the censure un- thought fit to certify that the said George derstood by such an expression at the Baker hath sufficiently proved himself to present day. It had no reference to be a gentleman; and that of right, he the personal qualifications of the in- ought of all men to be so reputed and dividual, but merely implied that he

esteemed. a gentleman of blood and (Signed) “ARUNDELL & SURREY.". coat armour ; or, as the French he

" Dated at Arundel House, ralds express it, un ancien gentel- the Eighth day of June, 1632. homme,” or gentleman of ancient descent. It is quite evident that Master Appended to this award, is the peGeorge Baker was in the phrase of digree by which George Baker proved the present day) “moving in good so

his descent from the common ciety,” for I find that he was at this

cestor. time married to Jane, daughter of Sir

Since the Revolution, this band has Robert Hutton, Knt. one of the Jus. been neglected, and has not been entices of the Common Pleas, which, in tirely composed of gentlemen (heralditimes when fashion had not sup- cally so called). planted rank, would have been con

The office of Gentleman Pensioner," sidered a rather high connection. It

Gentleman at Arms," is, I am inwill be seen that the result of this formed, worth £100 per annum, and solemn investigation was favourable to is usually purchased for £1,000. Mr. Baker, and that be established his Latterly, the designation of Pengentry.

sioners having proved displeasing to

the aristocratic ears of the honourable Lansdowne MSS. 873. fo. 69.

band, they (more fastidious than their “ Whereas exceptions hath lately been

noble predecessors) made interest to taken by some of his Majesty's Gentle

obtain a change of title, and now, by men Pensioners, that Mr. George Baker,

his Majesty's gracious permission, newly admitted of that Band, was no gen. they have become “ The Honourable tleman, and therefore unfit to serve his Band of his Majesty's Gentlemen at Majesty in that place of that nearness,

Arms." being of that eminence and that credit,

Yours, &c. H.N.C. upon his Majesty's speciall co'mand given in that behalf, I have, calling unto me, as assistants, the Right Honourable the

MR. URBAN, Lord Chamberlaine of his Majesty's

In the course of a correspondence Household, and other Lords, (and cer- which took place in your Magazine tain Officers of Armes being likewise between certain anonymous and very present) convented the said George virulent opponents of mine, and myself, Baker before me, who for justification touching the state of Saxon philology in of his gentry, produced several certi- England, a good deal of stress was laid ficates, under the hands and seals of Thomas Baker, of Battle ; Thomas Ba

upon the question of accents. I now ker, of Mayfield, the county of Sus

redeem the pledge given by me, to sex; and John Baker, of Groom-bridge, explain the system upon which I act, in the county of Kent, whereby the said

in common with the profoundest phiparties do testify and acknowlege that lologists in Europe. I do this, not the said George Baker is lineally di- because I have any hope of convincing scended from Richard Baker, younger

the persons who have done me the hoson of Thomas, common auncestor of nour to select me as the mark for their their family; and that they do and have abuse, or because I think that it can

June 12.


ever signify whether they are points, at all), is the one to which I vinced or not, but for the purpose of shall confine myself. Generally speakgiving information to those who de. ing, the older a MS, is, the fewer of sire and deserve it. The facts of the these marks are to be found in it: case are few and simple. It is quite they are then principally used as a certain that in all Saxon, Norse, and distinction between words which, German MSS., some marks are placed were it not for the difference in the over the vowels for some purpose or length of their vowels, would be other. Some MSS. have more, some

spelled alike.

Take, for example, a fewer of these marks ; and the MSS. few such words; ac, sed, ác, quercus ; even of one period are not always ful, plenus, fûl, sordidus ; is, est, ís, consistent in their use of them. In glacies; man, homo, mán, nefas; god, what I am about to write I shall con- deus, gód, bonus ; ne, non, né, nec; fine myself to the Saxon MSS., and to hof, atrium, hóf, extuli ; heoru, ensis, a few remarks upon the Norse in con- heóru (nom. fem.) mitis ; wid, contra, nexion with the Saxon. My reason for wix, liga ; galan, canere, gálan (acc. omitting the German MSS. here, is

def.) lascivum, &c. &c. &c. that they have a double system, one In all these cases the marks in the part of which appears to have to do

MSS. correspond accurately to the with quantity, the other with tone.

relations borne by these vowels to one Taking all Saxon MSS. without dis

another in all the Teutonic langụages; tinction of time and period, the accen- and these relations I shall take leave tuation seems to denote one of three

to look at a little more closely by things :

and by, because one of your bun10. That the accented vowel is long,

gling men without à name has veni. e. e=e, but é=n, o=0, and ów.

tured to fall foul of James Grimm for 2°, and very rarely, that the vowel

establishing and denoting them. is emphatically marked out for the

There is some little use, Mr. Urban, purpose of particular distinction; and

in maintaining these distinctions; althis is equivalent to italics with us; though it is no doubt a bitter annoythus the Cott. MSS. of Ælfric's


ance to your idle and ignorant friends, mar speaks of a word which ends with

to be compelled either to give up the a short e, pæt ge-endiat on sceortne é.

point as hopeless for Saxon, or else to 3o. Some words are accented for

study the Teutonic tongues, en masse : the same purpose of peculiar dis- but we shall still feel obliged to require tinction, as under similar circum

this of them, if it be only for the sake of stances we use either a capital initial forcing them to spare us the twaddle or capitals : as in speaking of the which they sometimes favour us with, Almighty or the Saviour by the third from their ignorance of these distincpersonal pronoun, where we should tions :--for example, it has been gravely print He, or HE, the Saxon some- asserted, that the Saxons were times wrote Hé; but it is quite clear deeply impressed with the goodness of that in these cases it is the word and God, and the wickedness of man's not the vowel that is accented.

nature, (in spite of the Teutonic God, The first case, which indeed is the and probable Demiurgus, Mannus) as only case concerning which any dis- to have but one word for God and pute has arisen (for the anonymous good, and one for man and evil. This railers, who talk so much of the au

is pretty and plausible, and has indeed thority of MSS., were never aware of but one fault, viz., the not having a the practice of MSS. in the other two word of truth in it. Mark ! Gothic. Old High Dutch. O. Saxon.

Ang.-Sax. English. Latiu. Guth. Kot. God. God.


Deus. Gôds. Guot. God. Gódr. Gád. Good. Bonus. Máins. Mein. Mėn. Mein. Mán.

Noxia. Manna. Man. Man. Madr. Man. Man.

Homo. So much for the theosophic and trouble of studying till they can set psychological views of the Saxons, re- themselves right, may stick to the specting God and man, and good and apparent coincidence between the Sax. evil. Those who do not like the on forms, and reject not only the


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O. Norse.

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